Toktamish

Toktamish

 

(also Toktamysh). Date of birth unknown; died 1406. Khan of the Golden Horde; descendant of Jochi Khan.

In the 1370’s, with the help of Tamerlane (Timur), Toktamish conquered parts of southern Kazakhstan and the Syr Darya River basin. In 1380, taking advantage of Mamai’s defeat at Kulikovo, Toktamish seized control of the Golden Horde. Suppressing internal discord, he succeeded in restoring the unity of the horde within the first seven years of his reign. In a campaign that laid waste the lands of the Moscow Principality, Toktamish in 1382 captured Moscow by trickery, looting and burning the city. From 1389 to 1395 he fought against Tamerlane for control over the lands of Transcaucasia and Middle Asia; the struggle ended with the defeat of Toktamish and his loss of all territories east of the Volga. New defeats were inflicted on him in 1398–99 by Timur-Kutlugh, khan of the Trans-Volga Horde. Toktamish met his death at the hands of the Siberian khan Shadibeg.

REFERENCES

Nasonov, A. N. Mongoly i Rus’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
Grekov, B. D., and A. Iu. Iakubovskii. Zolotaia Orda i ee padenie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
References in periodicals archive ?
1364-1370); war with Khwarizm (Khiva) (1370-1380); conquest of Persia (1381-1387); wars with Toktamish (1385-1386 and 1388-1395); invasion of Russia (1390-1391); conquest of Mesopotamia and Georgia (1393-1395); invasion of India (1398-1399); invasions of Syria (1400) and Anatolia (1402).
1370-1380), subduing them and occupying Kashgar (1380); invaded Persia and captured Herat (1381); overran Khurasan (Khorosan) and all of eastern Persia (1382-1385); conquered Fars, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iraq (1386-1387), while repelling an invasion from Russia under his ex-protege Toktamish (1385-1386); when Toktamish invaded again (1388), Tamerlane returned to Samarkand by forced marches and routed him; defeated yet another invasion by Toktamish at the battle of Syr Dar'ya (November/December 1389); invaded Russia (1390); defeated Toktamish again at the bloody three-day battle of Kandurcha (somewhere north of the Caspian on the steppes of Kazakh S.