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(tōsĕf`tə), plural Toseftoth (–tōth) [Aramaic,=additional], collection of ancient Jewish teachings supplementing the MishnaMishna
, in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the Talmud.
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 or Oral Law and closely allied to it in organization. Like the Mishna, it was compiled by the TannaimTannaim
[plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from Hillel to the compilation of the Mishna. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies.
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. Many of its teachings, called Baraitot, do not appear in the Mishna; others are merely elucidations or alternative versions of Mishnaic material. It contains a larger percentage of aggadic material than does the Mishna. The Tosefta is an independent work and has been made the subject of commentaries.


See H. L. Strack, Introduction to Talmud and Midrash (1931, repr. 1969); S. Lieberman, Tosefta Kifshuta (1955).

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In dealing with the Sitz im Leben for these targums, Kasher differentiates between Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel, the "brief targum," in contrast to the tosefta targum, the "expansive targum.
3, with Tosefta, Sanhedrin 12:10, that one may not trill one's voice when reciting the Song of Songs because that would render it a secular piece of literature and with Talmud, Berakhot 57b, that anyone who sees Song of Songs in a dream can expect great acts of kindness.
The papers collected in this volume came out of a conference on Tosefta held at the University of Toronto in April 1993.
Unlike Archer, Ilan is cognizant of such text-critical issues as variant readings in different manuscripts and variant versions of particular traditions in Tosefta, the Talmudim, and various other rabbinic collections.
The clearest description is provided by Tosefta Sotah 4:2
Graetz cites not only the major texts of rabbinic literature, such as Mishnah, Tosefta, Talmud, Geonim, Maimonides, and Shulhan Arukh, but also figures such as Meir of Rothenburg, Simhah of Speyer, Jonah of Gerona, Solomon Adret, David ibn Avi Zimra, Solomon Hakohen, Hayim Palaggi, Abraham Paperna, Eliezer Papu, David Pipano, Eliezer Waldenberg, Moses Feinstein, and Ovadia Joseph, now daily proof that the realm of distinguished rabbinic scholarship is not cut off from partisan politics in the Jewish community.
The Tosefta ranks second in importance to the Mishna in the wide range of Talmudic literature.
It was the sages after the destruction of the Second Temple in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Babylonian Talmud, who illustrated the application of darkhei shalom to non-Jews:
The Literatures of the Sages; First Part: Oral Tora, Halakha, Mishna, Tosefta, Talmud, External Tractates
Here the author suggests that the differences between the yahad and the havurah may be as much about the literary forms and rhetorical functions of the sources in which the descriptions are embedded (the Community Rule for the former and the Mishnah and Tosefta for the latter) as they are related to any historical social formations to which they may point.
Thus Maimonides in the introduction to his Code counts forty generations backward from Rav Ashi, the traditional editor of the Babylonian Talmud, all the way to Moses, and concludes: "In the two Talmuds and the Tosefta, the Sifra and the Sifrei (names of Midrashic compilations), in all these are explained the permitted and the forbidden, the clean and the unclean, the liabilities and lack of liability, the unfit and the fit, as handed down from person to person from the mouth of Moses our teacher at Sinai.