tourniquet

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tourniquet

(to͝or`nĭkĕt, –kā, tûr`–), compression device used to cut off the flow of blood to a part of the body, most often an arm or leg. It may be a special surgical instrument, a rubber tube, a strip of cloth, or any flexible material that can be tightened to exert pressure. Compression should not be maintained for more than 20 min at a time because of the danger of congestion and gangrene. In cases of a bleeding emergency, a tourniquet is used to stop the flow of blood if other means, e.g., the application of a pressure bandage to the wound, are not effective. In arterial hemorrhage (bright red blood spurting out in jets) the tourniquet is applied above the wound, i.e., between the wound and the heart. In hemorrhage from a vein (an even flow of dark red blood) the tourniquet is applied below the wound, i.e., away from the heart.

Tourniquet

 

an elastic rubber tube (tape, bandage, cuff, and the like) for temporarily stopping hemorrhage when there is a wound or during an operation.

The various types of tourniquets used are based on constricting the extremities. A properly applied tourniquet must constrict the arterial trunks, otherwise hemorrhage is intensified owing to cessation of outflow of venous blood. A tourniquet is applied either on clothing or on a layer of cloth (a towel). The more elastic the tourniquet, the less it traumatizes the body tissues. A tourniquet is applied for no longer than two hours; during that time it should be loosened two or three times (more often in winter) to restore the circulation. (The artery should be pressed with a finger when the tourniquet is loosened.)

tourniquet

[′tu̇r·nə·kət]
(medicine)
An apparatus for controlling hemorrhage from, or circulation in, a limb or part of the body, where pressure can be brought upon the blood vessels by means of straps, cords, rubber tubes, or pads.

tourniquet

Med any instrument or device for temporarily constricting an artery of the arm or leg to control bleeding
References in periodicals archive ?
The tourniquet test (TT) which reflects capillary fragility and thrombocytopenia was recommended by WHO in 1997 for diagnosis of DHF and DSS, but not for DF.
The rationale of the present study was to determine the accuracy of the tourniquet test for the diagnosis of dengue fever.
11] Gilliat and Wilson described tourniquet test in 1953.
As noted above though specificity of Tinel's sign is high, the sensitivity is not; hence, the author has attempted to increase the sensitivity also by adding tourniquet test and Tinel's with tourniquet test to the former to make a series of three tests in continuum.
In one study, a positive tourniquet test was noted at presentation in 36 percent of 28 children with DF; spontaneous bleeding may occur as well.
Diagnosis: Clinical diagnosis: The clinical manifestations of dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever with or without shock can be helpful in making a provisional diagnosis: One study of children with febrile illnesses in Thailand reported that some clinical features, such as a positive tourniquet test, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased serum AST levels, were more frequent in patients with dengue fever than in those with other febrile illnesses.
07) of the total 50 patients who had rashes over body Most of the patients had rashes distributed centrally (31%) over chest and abdomen typical of viral fever rashes on examination about 26 patients found to have bleeding spots, most commonly distributed over palate (10%) and skin (7%), these are the patients who were classified as DHF Tourniquet test was positive in 35 (35%) of the patients out of which 26 patients had spontaneous bleeding manifestations.
A positive tourniquet test in early phase of febrile illness increases the probability of Dengue diagnosis (8).
Enrolled in this study were children admitted with any of the following clinical signs: HF (fever, headache, or rash, and on physical examination, a positive tourniquet test, ascites, pleural effusion bleeding, or shock); encephalitis (headache, fever, or neck stiffness, and alteration of consciousness or focal neurologic signs); and hepatitis (lethargy, anorexia, nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, scleral icterus, or jaundice).