Stenosis

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Related to Tracheal stenosis: tracheostomy, tracheomalacia

stenosis

[stə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.

Stenosis

 

the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
We performed endotracheal tube dilatation for dilatation of benign tracheal stenosis in 12 patients under local anesthesia and bronchoscopic guidance from March 2010 to August 2011.
6) The fact that subfreezing temperatures decrease collagen deposition may have direct application to the treatment of tracheal stenosis.
The macaw was able to breathe easily after dilation of the tracheal stenosis and replacement of the air sac cannula.
Management of complex benign post-tracheostomy tracheal stenosis with bronchoscopic insertion of silicon tracheal stents, in patients with failed or contraindicated surgical reconstruction of trachea.
Her computed tomography scan had shown a large, lobulated, irregular cervical oesophageal mass extending craniocaudally from the sixth cervical to the second thoracic vertebral level, superiorly to the hypopharynx and anteriorly to the trachea, causing tracheal stenosis.
Tracheal stenosis occurs because of damage to endotracheal tissue that causes cicatricial stenosis.
Outcome of endoscopic treatment of adult postintubation tracheal stenosis.
10) In this case, tracheal stenosis was believed to be secondary to previously fractured cartilages that healed in malalignment causing static tracheal collapse.
High frequency positive pressure ventilation during transthoracic resection of tracheal stenosis and during perioperative bronchoscopic examination.
As a result, near-complete and complete tracheal rings are often the etiologies of tracheal stenosis.