faster filling of the near-surface tracheids
by penetrating liquids) was virtually eliminated.
4a), wood of Tropaeolum appears to have fibers as a background cell type, but these cells, when seen in longitudinal section and in macerations, prove to be both narrow vessel elements and vasicentric tracheids
1991 "Variation in wood and tracheid
properties of Pinus maximinoi, P.
Bailey & Tupper (1918) offered a muchreproduced drawing schematizing the tracheid
as a primitive type of tracheary element in angiosperms; from this, vessels (first with scalariform, ultimately simple perforation plates) were progressively derived on the one hand, whereas on the other hand, imperforate tracheary elements progressively lost pit borders and changed (by implication, gradually) from conductive to mechanical cells.
Lignin appeared to be completely removed from the cell corner middle lamella regions, but tracheids
were still joined in other parts of the middle lamella.
We assume that the cumulated AE energy is a more reliable measure for PLC than the AE number per se, because the hydraulic conductivity is proportional to the 4th power of the radius of a capillary (Hagen-Poiseuille equation) and tracheid
diameters are variable within a wood specimen.
In plants, xylem vessels or tracheids
exhibit capillary action.
The best preserved examples are assigned to Dadoxylon recentium, a wood characterized by biseriate, alternate, bordered tracheid
Mauseth JD, Uozumi Y, Plemons B J, Landrum JV (1995) Structural and systematic study of an unusual tracheid
type in cacti.
AE signals are supposed to be induced by elastic oscillations of conduit cell walls following the cavitation event, because the pressure rises rapidly in the tracheid
lumen as liquid water at negative pressure is replaced by water vapor very near vacuum pressure.
A zone of tracheid
cells with opaque cell walls in this region may suggest that part of the surface of the growth interruption was partially charred.
Fingerprint traceability of logs using outer shape and the tracheid