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psychotropic drugs that have a calming effect. They reduce emotional tension, irritability, and anxiety, decrease the tonus of the skeletal musculature, influence a number of functions of the autonomic nervous system, and intensify the effect of some somnifacients.

In contrast to neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), tranquilizers do not cause retardation, excessive sleepiness, or neurological disturbances. Tranquilizers decrease the excitability of the limbic system, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. Large doses suppress the activity of the reticular formation. The side effects of tranquilizers are insignificant, consisting mainly of muscular weakness. Tranquilizers do not have an antipsychotic effect, and are therefore used in psychiatry mainly to treat neuroses, psychopathies, and other borderline psychological states. They are also used to treat nervous diseases marked by increased muscle tonus, as well as some internal diseases.

Tranquilizers belong to various classes of chemical compounds. Most widely used are derivatives of benzodiazepine —chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Elenium), diazepam (Seduxen), oxazepam (Tazepam), and nitrazepam (Eunoctin, Radedorm). Derivatives of other chemical compounds used are meprobamate and trioxazine. The tendency toward excessive use of tranquilizers in many countries poses the problem of enacting measures to limit their use and to increase physicians’ control over their use. The enactment of such measures would serve to prevent widespread psychological dependence on tranquilizers.


Psikhotropnye sredstva v meditsinskoi praktike. Edited by G. la. Avrutskii. Moscow, 1971.
Raiskii, V. A. Psikhofarmakologicheskie sredstva v meditsinskoi praktike. Moscow, 1972.
Aleksandrovskii, Iu. A. Klinicheskaia farmakologiia trankvilizatorov. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
He said the SDFA has started the first phase of building a data base for beneficiaries to estimate their needs of tranquilizers and control its import licenses.
She refers to people who used tranquilizers as "patients," and does not analyze the changing meaning of that term over time.
Moreover, she presents data that our enthusiasm for tranquilizers such as Xanax has not waned, even in the midst of the significant backlash against these medications.
Little research had been done in the area of habituation and, in any case, Berger argued, compared to barbiturates, tranquilizers were "relatively safe.
Psychiatrists say a person who takes such a massive dose of tranquilizers will become sleepy and incapable of doing anything, ruling out the possibility that the person could get agitated.
Ironically, heavy caffeine users who also use minor tranquilizers may ingest additional caffeine in an attempt to counteract the toxic effects of their regular high caffeine consumption (Greden, Procter, & Victor, 1981).
The report reveals that users of the minor tranquilizers which stayed in the body for 24 hours or longer had a 70 percent greater risk of hip fracture than persons not using any psychotropic drug.
Some doctors prescribe a combination of antispasmodic drugs and tranquilizers and these may relieve symptoms.
It doesn't call for testing for alcohol or for tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, or any other prescription sedatives that can affect a pilot's reflexes and judgment just as severely as illegal drugs.
Interventions to reduce risk could include prompt, bedside evaluation of swallowing; use of an appropriate diet; and avoidance of major tranquilizers and nasogastric tubes.
Takuma, 37, faced criminal charges in March 1999 for allegedly injuring teachers at an elementary school in Hyogo Prefecture by spiking their tea with tranquilizers.
This summer, researchers from Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, all in Boston, warned that the tranquilizers some elderly people take to control dementia, anxiety, and other problems can produce misleading side effects.