Transaminase


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transaminase

[¦tranz′am·ə‚nās]
(biochemistry)
One of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the amino group of an amino acid to a keto acid to form another amino acid. Also known as aminotransferase.

Transaminase

 

(also aminotransferase and aminopherase), an enzyme of the transferase group that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group (—NH2) from an α-amino acid to an α-keto acid. Transaminases are found in most animal and plant tissues and play an important part in nitrogen metabolism. The role of transaminase in the transamination process was discovered by the Soviet biochemists A. E. Braunshtein and M. G. Kritsman in 1937. The coenzyme in transaminase reactions is pyridoxal phosphate, the aldehyde group of which serves as intermediate acceptor of the amino group. The resulting pyridoxamine phosphate transfers the amino group to the ketone group of the acid undergoing amination. The reaction is reversible.

A. A. BOLDYREV

References in periodicals archive ?
The next phase of HBV latency (also called inactive HBV carrier state) is characterised by loss of HBeAg, normal transaminases and low or undetectable HBV DNA levels.
The clinical and laboratory reports issued together with biochemical analysis of the blood (oxalacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate) and trombocitary series, in Group I, only 1 female rat presented small change in the rate of transaminase glutamate-oxaloacetic (AST), but it could mean only a liver poisoning, according to data from crossing with the leukogram.
There is some evidence that treatment of fatty infiltration of the liver may lower transaminase levels and improve histological findings.
Assessment of the relationship between serial serum transaminase levels and liver disease in 82 renal allograft recipients with HCV showed that among patients with persistently normal transaminase values, liver biopsy revealed normal or minimal changes in 10, chronic persistent hepatitis C virus in 2, and chronic active hepatitis in 1.
Although renal function indicators were within normal limits 1 day after admission, his liver enzyme and PT levels began to increase; on the fourth day, transaminase levels peaked (AST level of 1900 U/L and ALT level of 2800 U/L), total bilirubin level was 1.
Stephen Zeisel at the University of North Carolina has recently shown that when normal volunteers were put on a choline-free diet, it interfered with their nerve-muscle transmission and increased liver transaminases, a sign of liver damage.
Initial aspartate transaminase values may not be elevated in susceptible patients although these levels eventually become abnormal.
In fact, amiodarone dose reduction resulted in gradual improvement of transaminases in this case.
Glucose, creatine kinase, and aspartate transaminase values were elevated when compared with published values for northern goshawks and other species of raptors.
Because a patient may develop severe hepatoxicity without symptoms, clinicians should periodically measure transaminase levels in patients taking diclofenac long-term.
There's albumin and globulin and aspartate transaminase, and 5' nucleotidase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine transaminases.