bark

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bark

or

barque

(both: bärk), sailing vessel with three masts, of which the mainmast and the foremast are square-rigged while the mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged. Although the word was once used to mean any small boat, later barks were sometimes quite large (up to 6,000 tons). In addition to the standard three-masted bark there are also four-masted barks (fore-and-aft-rigged on the aftermast) and barkentines, or three-masted vessels with the foremast square-rigged and the other masts fore-and-aft-rigged. Large numbers of barks were employed in carrying wheat from Australia to England before World War I; and in 1926 the bark Beatrice sailed from Fremantle, Western Australia, to London in 86 days.

bark,

outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast). As the woody stem increases in size (see cambiumcambium
, thin layer of generative tissue lying between the bark and the wood of a stem, most active in woody plants. The cambium produces new layers of phloem on the outside and of xylem (wood) on the inside, thus increasing the diameter of the stem.
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), the outer bark of inelastic dead cork cells gives way in patterns characteristic of the species: it may split to form grooves; shred, as in the cedar; or peel off, as in the sycamore or the shagbark hickory. A layer of reproductive cells called the cork cambium produces new cork cells to replace or reinforce the old. The cork of commerce is the carefully harvested outer bark of the cork oak (Quercus suber), a native of S Europe. The phloem (see stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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) conducts sap downward from the leaves to be used for storage and to nourish other plant parts. "Girdling" a tree, i.e., cutting through the phloem tubes, results in starvation of the roots and, ultimately, death of the tree; trees are sometimes girdled by animals that eat bark. The fiber cells that strengthen and protect the phloem ducts are a source of such textile fibers as hemp, flax, and jute; various barks supply tannin, cork (see cork oakcork oak,
name for an evergreen species of the oak genus (Quercus) of the family Fagaceae (beech family). The cork oak (Q. suber) is native to the Mediterranean region, where most of the world's commercial supply of cork is obtained.
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), dyes, flavorings (e.g., cinnamon), and drugs (e.g., quinine). The outer bark of the paper birch was used by Native Americans to make baskets and canoes.

bark

[bärk]
(botany)
The tissues external to the cambium in a stem or root.
(metallurgy)
The decarburized layer formed beneath the scale on the surface of steel heated in air.
(naval architecture)
A three-masted sailing ship whose foremast and mainmast are square-rigged and whose mizzenmast is fore-and-aft-rigged.

bark

The protective outer layer of a tree, composed of inner, conductive cells and outer corklike tissue.

bark

1. a protective layer of dead corky cells on the outside of the stems of woody plants
2. an informal name for cinchona
References in periodicals archive ?
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of some compost growing media or organic wastes (composted tree bark, composted tea wastes and rice husks) on some plant characteristics including plant height, stem diameter, the number of lateral shoots, fresh and dry weight of shoots and fresh and dry weight of roots of F.
At the end, we reviewed all the target concepts of the lesson: collage, tree bark and texture.
Burt's Bees officials say going with an ingredient sourced from willow tree bark is a natural fit for a skin care product because bark serves the same function for the tree as skin does for humans.
Tree bark is a key component for maintaining biodiversity in managed and unmanaged forests (Hanula et al.
CHARLOTTESTOWN, PEI -- Negotiations are underway to create a power plant that would convert dead branches and tree bark into energy.
TOMMY (Hugh Jackman) thinks he has found a cure for cancer that will save his wife Izzi (Rachel Weisz) but the secret lies in tree bark from South America.
A new study suggests that the natural pine tree bark extract known as Pycnogenol[R] (pic-noj-en-all) may help heal hard-to-treat skin ulcers caused by poor leg circulation.
PROPOLIS IS MADE BY THE BEES FROM LEAF BUDS AND TREE BARK, AND USED TO SEAL THE HIVE.
Stained wood box with glass front; paper, light bulb, colored-paper image on wood form, plastic spicier, tree bark, and dried leaves, 14 1/4" x 10 1/2 x 5 1/4" (36 x 26 x 13 cm).
sees it, is that delicious snacks tend to have unhealthy ingredients, while the better-for-you items "taste like day-old tree bark," in the words of company cofounder Michael Sands.
Readily achieve the look of authentic stone, brick, natural rock, tree bark, slate, bamboo, and others--for a fraction of the cost--with Outwater's TexturePlus[TM] panels for interior or exterior use.