the name of a family of merchants in Russia. The Tret’iakov family was first mentioned in the 18th century. In 1774, Elisei Martynovich Tret’iakov, a merchant of the Third Guild, moved from Malyi Iaroslavets to Moscow. His descendants were merchants and manufacturers. Mikhail Zakharovich Tret’iakov (1801–50) and his sons Pavel and Sergei owned a linen-weaving and flax-spinning factory in Kostroma.
Pavel Mikhailovich Tretiakov. Born Dec. 15 (27), 1832, in Moscow; died there Dec. 4 (16), 1898. Russian art figure; founder of the Tret’iakov Gallery. Honorary free member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Art (1868); academy member (1893).
Tret’iakov shared the views of Russian enlighteners of his time. In 1856 he began collecting works of Russian art, mainly of democratic artists. He rendered considerable help to the pered-vizhniki (“the wanderers, ” a progressive art movement). Tret’iakov considered his work to be of national significance. In 1892 he presented his collection to the city of Moscow.
Sergei Mikhailovich Tret’iakov. Born Feb. 19 (Mar. 3), 1834, in Moscow; died July 25 (Aug. 6), 1892, in Petergof (present-day Petrodvorets). Collector of paintings. Figure in city administration; mayor of Moscow from 1877 to 1881.
Tret’iakov was active in the Moscow Art Society, the Moscow School of Painting, and the Russian Society of Music. In 1892 he bequeathed his collection of Western European paintings through his brother to Moscow. His collection, housed at first in the Tret’iakov Gallery, was transferred to the former Museum of Modern Western Art in 1925. It has since been divided between the Hermitage in Leningrad and the A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow.
REFERENCESKramskoi, I. N., and P. M. Tret’iakov. Perepiska, 1869–1887. Moscow, 1953.
Botkina, A. P. P. M. Tret’iakov v zhizni i iskusstve, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1960.
Mudrogel’, N. A. Piat’desiat vosem’ let v Tret’iakovskoi galeree:Vospominaniia, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1966.