Regurgitation

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Related to Tricuspid regurgitation: mitral regurgitation, pulmonic regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension

regurgitation

[ri‚gər·jə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
(physiology)
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.

Regurgitation

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.

Sources:

Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society: http://www.survivalafterdeath.org
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
References in periodicals archive ?
An observational study consisted of 112 healthy subjects with trivial tricuspid regurgitation (56 male and 56 female, age range 20 to 61 years, mean age 44 [+ or -] 6 years), who were admitted to our outpatient clinic in Gulhane Military Medical Academy between February 2011 and November 2011.
Migration of intrahepatic portosystemic stent into right ventricle: an unusual cause of tricuspid regurgitation.
8%) of the 120 patients and included moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation in 44 and elevated right ventricular systolic pressure in 74.
But in a study of more than 5,000 subjects, moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation raised mortality risk considerably even when these two disorders were absent.
Echocardiography at that time revealed biatrial and biventricular dilation (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, 82 mm), reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction, 28%), concentric thickening of the left ventricular myocardium (18 mm), a moderate tricuspid regurgitation, a slightly elevated pulmonary artery pressure of 36 mm Hg, and, surprisingly, left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction.
45 cm2, maximal/ mean gradient: 18/ 8 mmHg), moderate level of mitral regurgitation and mild tricuspid regurgitation (pulmonary artery systolic pressure was estimated 40 mm Hg) (Video 1.
Echo: moderate RVH & LVH, RA severely enlarged, EF >70%, severe tricuspid regurgitation, paradoxical motion of the septum, and a pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 95 mm Hg.
com), moderate tricuspid regurgitation, systolic pulmonary artery pressure of 50 mmHg, restrictive type diastolic dysfunction (mitral E/A>2, E/E'=17.