Trigeminal Nerve

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Related to Trigeminal Nerve: Cranial nerves, trigeminal neuralgia

trigeminal nerve

[trī′jem·ə·nəl ′nərv]
The fifth cranial nerve in vertebrates; either of a pair of composite nerves rising from the side of the medulla, and with three great branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves.

Trigeminal Nerve


the fifth pair of cranial nerves. It contains sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers.

The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve are located in the brain stem. The fibers of the trigeminal nerve that constitute the larger, or posterior, root pass from the brain stem to the apex of the temporal bone, where the trigeminal ganglion is located. Three branches depart from the trigeminal ganglion, as follows. The ophthalmic (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the upper eyelids, the conjunctiva, the skin of the forehead, and the anterior part of the scalp. The superior maxillary (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, enters the pterygopalatine fossa, and innervates the skin of the lower lid, the cheek and nose, the mucosa of the nasal cavity, and the upper jaw. The inferior maxillary nerve (which is joined to the smaller, or anterior, root of the trigeminal nerve, containing the motor fibers) leaves the skull through the foramen ovale and innervates the skin of the lower part of the face, the mucosa of the cheeks and tongue, the lower jaw, and the muscles of mastication.

The trigeminal nerve takes part in many reflexes, including the corneal and mandibular (jaw) reflex. The most common disease of the trigeminal nerve is neuralgia, manifested by attacks of acute pain in the zone of innervation. Other diseases of the trigeminal nerve, including neuritis and infection with the virus of herpes zoster, are accompanied by sensory and motor disturbances in the zone of innervation.


References in periodicals archive ?
Perineural spreading along the trigeminal nerve in a patient with primary intracranial malignant lymphoma: A case report].
The trigeminal nerve projects directly or indirectly to specific areas of the brain which are involved in ADHD, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, epilepsy and other disorders.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential role of electromyographic (EMG) blink reflex in establishing diagnosis of headache and evaluation of trigeminal nerve dysfunction as the possible underlying pathomorphological headache mechanism (12-14).
Much rarer primary tumors are schwannomas of other cranial nerves: of the trigeminal nerve, of the facial nerve, or of the caudal cranial nerves; paragangliomas, chordomas, chordosarcomas, arachnoid or neurenteric cysts, dermoid tumors, and metastases5.
The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the herpes virus family and it can remain latent in the trigeminal nerve ganglion and expand from the ganglion to the sensorial nerve when reactivated (2).
In 1954, Tolosa [2] reported the first patient with this syndrome, who presented with left orbital pain, ipsilateral progressive visual loss, total left ophthalmoplegia, and reduced sensation over the first division of the trigeminal nerve.
In trigeminal neuralgia, hyper excitability of primary afferent neurons has been reported in several different trigeminal nerve injury and inflammation animal models, including chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI), axotomy, and inflammatory models14.
Secondary SUNCT syndrome is less common [7], but it can arise as a result of abnormalities of vessels at the cerebellopontine angle, cerebellopontine angle venous angioma, brainstem angiocavernoma, eye trauma, a complication of AIDS infection in the posterior cranial fossa, direct compression of the trigeminal nerve by cerebral vessels, lesions of the trigeminal nerve, compression of the brainstem (e.
There was significant right ptosis, right-sided facial droop, and decreased sensation to pain, touch, and temperature in the distribution of the ophthalmic division of the right trigeminal nerve.
They reported that synthetic oxytocin, which adheres to nasal mucus, can potentially be transported by five different routes from the nasal cavity to the brain (see image above): 1) blood vessels into the circulatory system 2) swallowed mucus in to the gastroenterological system 3) olfactory (smell) pathways to cerebrospinal fluid of the brain 4) via the trigeminal nerve to the brain stem or 5) mucus that enters paravascular spaces to interstitial spaces in the brain.
ACC in the parotid gland results in perineural spread in 50% of cases and involves the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve and the facial nerve.
9) It most commonly presents in the lower 2 branches of the trigeminal nerve and usually is caused by compression of the trigeminal nerve root by vascular or nonvascular causes.

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