plants obtained by crossbreeding various species and types of wheat (Triticum) with species and types of couch grass (Agropyron). The first generation (Fǀ) of such hybrids consists of large perennials that are biologically and morphologically closer to couch grass than to wheat. Beginning with the second generation (F2), an extensive process of morphogenesis takes place, as a result of which arise new forms, types, and species.
Annual forms of grain-fodder wheat have been obtained through Triticum and Agropyron hybridization. The hay yield of the best hybrids exceeds that of winter rye by 45–55 percent and that of a vetch-oats mixture by 25–35 percent. Perennial and grain-fodder hybrid wheats are immune to fungal diseases and have high frost resistance. These wheats constitute the new 56-chromosome species of wheat Triticum agropyrotriticum.
Among the spring Triticum-Agropyron hybrids, the variety Grekum 114 (regionalized) merits special attention for its high yield and its resistance to drought, smut, lodging, and grain shattering. Its yield is 3–8 quintals/hectare greater than that of regionalized varieties of wheat. For the conditions of Western Siberia, Transurals, and northern regions of Kazakhstan, the early-maturing variety Vostok has been created. It surpasses most other varieties in yield, drought resistance, and resistance to lodging. As a result of Triticum-Agropyron hybridization, multiflorous and multispermous 42-chromosome forms and varieties having branched spikes have been developed. These forms and varieties include new types of soft wheat. They are characterized by a high resistance to frost and cold, and they yield a grain with good indexes of milling and bread-making qualities.
N. V. TSITSIN