Popular Socialists

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Popular Socialists

 

(Narodnye Sotsialisty), a petit bourgeois party in Russia (also known as the Trudovik Popular Socialist Party).

In 1906 the Popular Socialist Party was formed from the right wing of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. The leaders of the Popular Socialists included N. F. Annenskii, V. A. Miakotin, A. V. Peshekhonov, V. G. Bogoraz, S. Ia. Elpat’evskii, and V. I. Semevskii. The official party organ was the journal Narodno-sotsialisticheskoe obozrenie (Popular Socialist Review; 1906–07).

The program of the Popular Socialists changed the “Socialist Revolutionary program from a revolutionary into an opportunist, petit bourgeois, and legal” program (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 14, p. 44). It declared that “the entirety of state power must belong to the people”; it understood “the people” to mean all working people, from proletarians to bourgeois intelligentsia. Although the program demanded the transfer of land from landlords to peasants, it provided for redemption payments. It demanded that all land be nationalized but did not touch upon the system of allotment land ownership (see) and privately owned land that was being worked.

In the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905–07, the Popular Socialists shared the political views of the Constitutional Democrats (Cadets). The first conference of the Popular Socialists was held from Apr 16 to Apr. 20, 1907. After the coup d’etat of June 3, 1907 (which involved the arrest of the Social Democratic faction of the Duma, the dissolution of the Duma itself, and the alteration of the electoral law), the party did not have a broad popular base and for all intents and purposes ceased to exist.

The events of the February Revolution of 1917 revived the party’s various organizations. At the first congress of the party, which lasted from June 17 to June 23 (June 30 to July 6), 1917, the Popular Socialists united with the Trudoviki (members of the Toilers group of deputies in the Duma) and elected a central committee. The committee included Peshekhonov, Miakotin, A. D. Dem’ianov, S. P. Mel’gunov, and M. E. Berezin. The official party organ was the newspaper Narodnoe slovo (The People’s Word). The party program adopted by the congress attested to the transformation of the Popular Socialists into ardent defenders of the kulaks, demonstrated the party leaders’ complete support of the bourgeois Provisional Government, and revealed that many party members had become open enemies of socialist revolution. After the October Revolution of 1917, the Popular Socialists participated in counterrevolutionary organizations and plots. In 1918 the party ceased to exist.

D. A. KOLESNICHENKO

References in periodicals archive ?
The Trudoviks wanted to insert the belief that the will of the Duma would prevail if the narod offered its organised backing.
The Trudoviks and RSDLP responded by holding party meetings ahead of Vyborg, but followed a Kadet lead.
The Trudoviks and the RSDLP called for a joint meeting of all forces.
The Trudoviks wanted a radical appeal to the narod, including a transfer of power to the Duma as a holding institution until the convocation of a Constituent Assembly and a call to the army to support the people.
They issued an invitation to the remaining Trudoviks and RSDLP deputies for another joint session to convene on 14 July.
113) Although the material surveyed here bears the heavy mark of party polemics in which Kadets and Trudoviks disputed their visions of the First Duma, it managed to move beyond this to form a Russian political science in embryo.
There is a tension in Lokot's analysis between blame on the Kadets for being too cautious and divorced from the people, and the emphasis on the people's influence over the Duma that led not only to a leftward shift in the Kadets and the growth of the Trudoviks, but also determined the destructive urge of the Duma: "The people's wave was destructive and revolutionary and therefore the Duma could be nothing other than destructive-revolutionary .
96) The Trudoviks was also no stranger to tactical differences.
Petersburg province, produced a more partisan work that praised his party for its stabilizing influence between the extremes of government and the Trudovik Group (hereafter Trudoviks).
Key examples were the writings of two Trudoviks elected from Samarskaia province: Professor T.
It is largely a forum in which the Kadets and the Trudoviks contested ownership of the Duma's history, both between and within themselves.
13) The construction of a discourse in which the Duma was presented as the bearer of the people's will, of its hopes and of its grief, and of its "moral authority," started with the claim that the Duma deputies had a close if not unbreakable link with the narod first established in the electoral process, even if Kadets and Trudoviks disputed who had emerged the winner.