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(transactions), a Russian term applied to collections of scientific or scholarly papers published by research institutes, higher educational institutions, academies, other scientific institutions, and scientific or scholarly societies. Trudy contain reports on the latest work in a particular field. The authors of the papers are instructors, graduate students, or adjuncts in sub-departments (kafedry) of educational institutions; staff members of scientific institutions; or members of scientific or scholarly societies. The contents of each issue or fascicle are approved by the responsible subdepartment or academic board. Trudy are published periodically or as material accumulates.