Tsarism


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Tsarism

 

(in Russian, samoderzhavie), the monarchical form of government in Russia under which the ruler—the tsar or emperor—had supreme power in legislation (ratification of bills) and high-level administration, including the appointment and dismissal of high-ranking officials, the control of central and local institutions and bodies of government, supreme command of the army and navy, and the control of finances. The ruler also had supreme power over the highest courts, including the power to approve sentences or pardon offenders.

Two stages can be distinguished in the history of tsarism. In the 16th and 17th centuries the monarch ruled together with the Boyar Duma and the boyar aristocracy; from the 18th century to the beginning of the 20th he ruled as an absolute monarch. Although the system of government was evolving toward a bourgeois monarchy, it remained autocratic until the February Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution of 1917. The last emperor, Nicholas II, officially abdicated on Mar. 2(15), 1917.

References in periodicals archive ?
Above all, the military might of tsarism, that strongest foundation of reaction, had to be brought down.
Because the October commemorations were a celebration of the USSR, every major achievement was remembered: the defeat of tsarism, the victory of Stalingrad, the struggle for world peace.
Of course, the Bolsheviks were from the very beginning of the revolution openly hostile toward the Orthodox Church because of its conservative ideology and subservient relationship with Tsarism, and they were committed, as vigorous proponents of scientific rationalism, to the long-term eradication of religious faith of any kind.
played a vital role in overthrowing tsarism, primarily due to the
Tsarism was scarcely any more humane towards its native Russian subjects.
Tsarism could not stand idle; the growing link between the Duma and the people had to be broken.
Generations of Russians know the names of those remarkable individuals who managed to speak freely to audiences despite all the restrictions, who appealed to compassion and justice, and who condemned tsarism and totalitarianism.
In Socialist and Imperialist Diplomacy, Chicherin's report to the Fifth Congress in July 1918, he remarks that the goal of Soviet foreign policy was staying on the "revolutionary offensive" while coping with the "unbelievable deterioration" from the effects of the Great War and Tsarism.
We could say he tried to modernize or liberalize Tsarism.
Rather than work for the attainment of civil rights through piecemeal reforms, Jews in the Pale of Settlement and Congress Poland embraced revolutionary strategies that found expression not only in Zionism and Bundism but also in Russian Social Democracy that sought the overthrow of tsarism and capitalism.
25) Robert Service, The Penguin History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century, 3rd ed.
Lest one think such radical rapid change is limited to the micro level, note the extraordinary political change in Germany between 1928 and 1933; and in Russia, which transformed from Tsarism to Stalinism between 1917 and 1929.