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As a result, they can present speculative arguments as quasi-historical events: 'Once the colonies were established, the Mycenaeans expanded their trade and explored new trading partners closer at hand, such as the emerging Tumulus Culture of southwestern Europe' (p.
Disruption in the Carpathian tell cultures and the expansion of the Mycenaean power into the western Mediterranean led to the formation of new lines of exchange between the Tumulus Culture in southern Germany and southern Scandinavia between 1500 and 1300 BC.
For the 16th-14th centuries, this pattern, centred on the Tumulus culture network with its lively trade in tin, seems to me to be infinitely more likely.
This convincingly supports their attribution to the contemporary late Tumulus Culture of central Europe (Reinecke Br C), and they are almost identical with a famous amber necklace from Barrow 2 Grave 13 at Schwarza, Thuringia (conveniently reproduced in Gimbutas 1965: plate 54).
The Urnfield period is characterized (if the last Tumulus culture finds of BrC2/D 1 are discounted) by the two horizons mentioned above.
Even the Tumulus culture cemeteries in inundated strips along the Danube, such as Pitten in Lower Austria (Benkovsky 1985) or Deggendorf-Fischerdorf in Bavaria (Schmotz 1985), may testify to a lower ground-water level during the Late Tumulus culture period.