Turkish language


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Turkish language,

member of the Turkic subdivision of the AltaicAltaic
, subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languages). Some scholars still consider Altaic an independent linguistic family. Spoken by over 130 million people, who occupy parts of a territory that stretches from E Europe across the Central
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 subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languagesUralic and Altaic languages
, two groups of related languages thought by many scholars to form a single Ural-Altaic linguistic family. However, other authorities hold that the Uralic and Altaic groups constitute two unconnected and separate language families.
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). Turkish is the official language of Turkey and one of the official languages of Cyprus. It is spoken by about 55 million people in Turkey and another million in Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, and Macedonia. The speech of educated people in İstanbul is the standard form of the language. Like the other Uralic and Altaic languages, Turkish is characterized by vowel harmony and agglutination. Thus suffixes added to the stem of the verb may indicate passive, reflexive, causative, and other meanings. Postpositions are used instead of prepositions. Both the definite article and grammatical gender are lacking. Turkish was written in the Arabic script following the conversion of the Turks to Islam, but in 1928 the Turkish president, Kemal Atatürk, ordered a change to a modified version of the Roman alphabet. The reform was designed to introduce an alphabet better suited to Turkish than the Arabic script and also to lessen the hold of Islam on Turkey. In the 1930s the Turks attempted to purify their language by eliminating words of foreign, especially Persian and Arabic, origin and to simplify the literary style of the language, making it more similar to colloquial Turkish.

Bibliography

See U. Heyd, Language Reform in Modern Turkey (1954); G. L. Lewis, Turkish Grammar (1967); H. I. Sebüktekin, Turkish-English Contrastive Analysis (1971); E. E. Erguvanli, The Function of Word Order in Turkish Grammar (1984).

References in classic literature ?
It had been supposed some of the papers might be in the Arabian, Romaic, or Turkish language, and the interpreter of the House was in attendance.
The program allows students to learn Turkish language, and they will have the opportunity to use their acquired knowledge in practice and with native speakers while visiting historical and tourist sites in Turkey.
Students and faculty were enrolling in the Turkish Universities and Turkish Language courses were being promoted in the University of AJK.
ISLAMABAD -- The Turkish language department of National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Tuesday organized a lecture by Prof Dr Azmi Ozcan on the topic of 'Historical Relations Between the Ottoman Turkey and Subcontinent Muslims' in connection with the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Turkey and Pakistan at NUML.
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- The Turkish Army recently deployed 180 commandos to the town of al-Bab in Eastern Aleppo, a Turkish language media outlet reported on Friday.
They want to remain EU citizens, and as they are of a grateful disposition they recognise they owe Anastasiades a debt of gratitude on behalf of the Turkish language whatever doubts his recent volte face have caused them to feel about how genuine he really is.
The Saudi animated film was presented in 300 Turkish cinemas and was dubbed in the Turkish language with the help of local actors.
Contract awarded for Turkish language training in Singapore for one MFA officer.
On June 27 Kicevo Municipality standardized the Turkish language, among the Albanian and Macedonian language, as third official language, reports Agency Anadolu (AA).
In a 2013 advertisement for the eleventh annual Turkish Language Olympics, students, styled like life-size versions of the fetishistically multicultural automatons from Disneyland's "It's a Small World" ride, gather around a picnic table in a grassy field.
If it weren't for the leading role of the Christians in the Levant and particularly in Lebanon during the renaissance, the Arabic language would have perished," Jreige said, recalling how the Christians preserved the Arabic language in their monasteries and schools during the Ottoman rule, which strived to spread the Turkish language.
More than 250 of those proposals were written in Turkish, indicating a phenomenal interest in religion and film on the part of Turkish scholars and scholars from other Turkish language countries.

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