in archaeology, a method of systematic and chronological classifying of archaeological remains. The method, devised by G. O. Montelius, was first applied in European archaeology in the second half of the 19th century.
The typological method entails the classification of ancient objects—such as weapons, work implements, ornaments, or vessels—according to the materials and methods used in making them and according to their shape and ornamentation. Objects that have identical functions and are similar in appearance but differ in detail are grouped in typological evolutionary series; by comparing these series, one can identify groups of objects that are characteristic of a particular epoch. Typological series are also used in the classification of graves and other archaeological structures. The typological method is a valuable archaeological procedure.