Tyrol


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Tyrol

(tĭr`ŏl, tīrōl`), Ger. Tirol, region and province (1991 pop. 631,410), 4,882 sq mi (12,644 sq km), W Austria. InnsbruckInnsbruck
, city (1991 pop. 118,112), capital of Tyrol prov., SW Austria, on the Inn River. A famous summer and winter tourist center, it is also an industrial, commercial, and transport center.
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 is the capital. The southern section of the historic region are now in Italy. Bordering on Germany in the north and on Italy and Switzerland in the south, it is an almost wholly Alpine region, traversed by the Inn River. The main part of the province is separated from the fertile East Tyrol (Ger. Osttirol) by a corridor belonging partly to Italy and partly to Salzburg prov., Austria. The Tyrolean Alps, which culminate in the Ötztal AlpsÖtztal Alps
, mountain group, in the Tyrol, W Austria, S of the Inn River and extending into northern Italy. It rises to 12,380 ft (3,773 m) in the Wildspitze, the highest peak in the Tyrol. The village of Obergurgl is a skiing resort and a starting point for mountain climbing.
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, are famed for their idyllic beauty and attract many tourists, thus supplementing income from the exploitation of the province's limited natural resources. Tourist centers include Kitzbühel, Kufstein, Sankt Anton, and Zell am See. Pasture farming, cattle raising, forestry, and dairy farming are the main occupations in the rural areas. Some industry is located at Innsbruck, Landeck, and Kufstein, including chemical, electrochemical, and pharmaceutical manufactures. The saltworks near Solbad Hall are an important source of revenue. The now little-worked silver and copper mines of Tyrol, known since antiquity, and its strategic position commanding the Brenner Pass across the Alps gave the region a fairly important role in European history.

The Tyrol was inhabited by Rhaetic tribes when it was conquered (15 B.C.) by the Romans. It was invaded (6th cent. A.D.) by Teutonic tribes, the Baiovarii and the Lombards, and later by the Franks, who held all Tyrol by the 8th cent. Large parts of S Tyrol (now in Italy) were ruled from the 11th cent. to 1802–3 by the bishops of TrentTrent,
Ital. Trento, Latin Tridentum, city (1991 pop. 101,545), capital of Trentino–Alto Adige and of Trent prov., N Italy, on the Adige River and on the road to the Brenner Pass. It is an industrial and tourist center.
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 and by the bishops of Brixen (see BressanoneBressanone
, Ger. Brixen, town (1991 pop. 16,992), Trentino–Alto Adige, N Italy, on the Brenner Road, and at the confluence of the Isarco and Rienza rivers. Bressanone and its surrounding territory were ruled by prince-bishops from the 11th cent.
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). The two bishoprics were secularized and fell to Austria in consequence of the Peace of Lunéville (1801) between France and Austria. The northern section (constituting the present Tyrol), first divided into petty counties, was united under the counts of Tyrol and passed, with the abdication (1363) of Margaret MaultaschMargaret Maultasch
[Ger.,=pocket mouth], 1318–69, countess of Tyrol, called the Ugly Duchess, probably because of her unattractive appearance, especially her mouth.
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, to Austria and the Hapsburgs.

In 1805 the Treaty of Pressburg awarded all Tyrol to Napoleon's ally, Bavaria, but when war broke out (1809) between France and Austria the Tyrolean peasants, led heroically by Andreas HoferHofer, Andreas
, 1767–1810, Austrian patriot; son of a Tyrolean innkeeper. After its defeat by Napoleon I in 1805 Austria was forced to cede the Tyrol to France's ally Bavaria.
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, rose in revolt and stubbornly defied the French and Bavarian troops. In 1810, Napoleon, at variance with Maximilian I of Bavaria, attached most of S Tyrol to Italy. Both parts were restored (1815) to Austria by the Congress of Vienna. The Treaty of Saint-Germain (1919) awarded S Tyrol (the predominantly German-speaking province of Bolzano and the predominantly Italian-speaking province of Trento) to Italy. The ruthless Italianization policy of the Fascist government created much unrest and friction in the period between the two World Wars, and the situation remained unsettled until the 1970s (see Trentino–Alto AdigeTrentino–Alto Adige
, region (1991 est. pop. 890,360), 5,256 sq mi (13,613 sq km), N Italy, bordering on Switzerland in the northwest and on Austria in the north. From 1919 to 1947 it was called Venezia Tridentina. Trent (Ital. Trento) is the capital of the region.
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). The Italian constitution of 1947 gave South Tyrol the status of an autonomous region, with full protection of minority rights, but real autonomy was not achieved until 1972.

Tyrol

, Tirol
a mountainous state of W Austria: passed to the Hapsburgs in 1363; S part transferred to Italy in 1919. Capital: Innsbruck. Pop.: 683 317 (2003 est.). Area: 12 648 sq. km (4883 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Editors Medda-Windischer and CarlC present a collection of academic articles and scholarly papers devoted to migration and its management by sub-national entities as exemplified by case studies in South Tyrol and Catalonia.
The contract is for the delivery of sleeves, sealing ends, cable connectors and accessories for the specified voltage range for various construction sites and warehousing in Tyrol.
South Tyrol is a small region (2857 square miles; population 511,750) in Northern Italy, where the German-speaking majority makes up 69.
I will present here relevant Tyrolean sources related to Verdi and Wagner reception in Tyrol that have been cataloged for RISM in the past few years: music manuscripts, printed music, and, lastly, some concert programs as well.
THE DEAL: The 10-day Grand European Tour - Bohemia, Cesky Krumlov and the Austrian Tyrol, departing August 9, costs from PS975pp including half-board hotel accommodation.
One of the great things about the Austrian Tyrol is you can go from the top of a mountain into the heart of one in the same day - by taking a guided tour of the old silver mines in Schwaz.
It sounded a little, well, barking, but after the group split up and we all found our own walking pace, I " It sounded a little, well, barking, but after the group split up and we all found our own walking pace, | The clifftop St Georgenberg church, above left, and Father Arno standing by the statue of St Benedict at the monastery, above right | The clifftop St Georgenberg church, above left, and Father Arno standing by the statue of St Benedict at the monastery, above right IF walking is one of the best forms of meditation then I can safely say my four-day trip to the Austrian Tyrol left me much more enlightened - and nursing very achy legs.
According to scientists from the Institute of Legal Medicine at Innsbruck Medical University analyzed DNA samples from 3,700 blood donors in the Tyrol region of Austria.
Bien evidemment, l'ambassadrice a tenu a etre presente a la representation de la troupe de son pays: [beaucoup moins que]J'avais reve de voir mon Tyrol natal venir faire etalage de sa culture et de ses coutumesdont les ressemblances avec le Djurdjura sont frappantes[beaucoup plus grand que].
Country: AustriaSector: ChemicalsTarget: Lenzing Plastics GmbH Buyer: Christian Reisinger, Invest AG, Tyrol Equity AG, Johann Huber, OO Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH & Co OGVendor: Lenzing AGType: Divestment, LBOStatus: ClosedComment: Valuation of the unit is some USD117.
Over 120 residents in the western province of Salzburg and another 80 in neighboring Tyrol were evacuated from their homes as local rivers threatened to burst their banks, local authorities said.