Federal Bureau of Investigation

(redirected from US Federal Bureau of Investigation)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.
Related to US Federal Bureau of Investigation: US Secret Service

Federal Bureau of Investigation

(FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of JusticeJustice, United States Department of,
federal executive department established in 1870 and charged with providing the means for enforcing federal laws, furnishing legal counsel in federal cases, and construing the laws under which other federal executive departments act.
..... Click the link for more information.
 charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency. The FBI has jurisdiction over some 185 investigative matters, among them espionage, sabotage, and other subversive activities; kidnapping; extortion; bank robbery; interstate transportation of stolen property; civil-rights matters; interstate gambling violations; and fraud against the government. Created (1908) as the Bureau of Investigation, it originally conducted investigations only for the Justice Dept. After J. Edgar HooverHoover, J. Edgar
(John Edgar Hoover), 1895–1972, American administrator, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), b. Washington, D.C. Shortly after he was admitted to the bar, he entered (1917) the Dept.
..... Click the link for more information.
 became (1924) director of the Bureau of Investigation, Congress gradually added one duty after another to the jurisdiction of the bureau and reorganized (1933) it with wider powers as the Division of Investigation in the Dept. of Justice. In 1935 it was designated the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The FBI played an important role in raising the standards of local police units through its FBI Academy. Under Hoover's direction, it battled against such roving outlaws as John DillingerDillinger, John
, 1902–34, American bank robber, probably b. Indianapolis. Paroled after serving a prison term for attempted robbery, Dillinger organized a gang and terrorized the Midwest in 1933.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and "Pretty Boy" Floyd as well as against the organized crime of the prohibitionprohibition,
legal prevention of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages, the extreme of the regulatory liquor laws. The modern movement for prohibition had its main growth in the United States and developed largely as a result of the agitation of
..... Click the link for more information.
 era. From World War I on, the agency also was active in intelligence work, investigating anarchists such as Emma GoldmanGoldman, Emma,
1869–1940, American anarchist, b. Lithuania. She emigrated to Rochester, N.Y., in 1886 and worked there in clothing factories. After 1889 she was active in the anarchist movement, and her speeches attracted attention throughout the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and other political radicals, socialists, and Communists, Nazi saboteurs, and terrorists such as Osama bin Ladenbin Laden, Osama or Usama
, 1957?–2011, Saudi-born leader of Al Qaeda, a terrorist organization devoted to uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

During Hoover's final years as director (he served until his death in 1972), the bureau became highly controversial and was the frequent target of attack from a wide variety of liberal groups. During the Watergate affairWatergate affair,
in U.S. history, series of scandals involving the administration of President Richard M. Nixon; more specifically, the burglarizing of the Democratic party national headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
 it was revealed that the FBI had yielded to pressure from top White House officials, acting on behalf of President Richard M. Nixon, to halt their investigation of the Watergate break-in. The FBI subsequently cooperated with the White House "inquiry" into the break-in, which was actually attempting a cover-up, and FBI Acting Director L. Patrick Gray destroyed files belonging to one of the convicted Watergate conspirators, E. Howard Hunt. Gray resigned (Apr., 1973) after his role became public. In June, 1973, Clarence M. Kelley was named director. He was followed by William H. Webster (1978–87), William S. Sessions (1987–93), Louis J. Freeh (1993–2001), and Robert S. Mueller 3d (2001–).

Bibliography

See H. A. Overstreet, The FBI in Our Open Society (1969); W. W. Turner, Hoover's FBI (1970); R. O. Wright, ed., Whose FBI? (1974); J. T. Elliff, The Reform of the FBI Intelligence Activities (1979); F. M. Sorrentino, Ideological Warfare: The F.B.I.'s Path toward Power (1985); B. Burrough, Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI: 1933–34 (2004); T. Weiner, Enemies: A History of the F.B.I. (2012).

References in periodicals archive ?
CapRock Government Solutions, a division of satellite communication services provider CapRock Communications, today announced that it has been awarded a contract with the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to provide emergency communication services.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI) said it received 336,655 such complaints last year -- up 22.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) said in a statement released on Wednesday that it was in contact with the families of the five men, as well as law-enforcement authorities in Pakistan.
Al Bahri had spent nearly two years in prison and was interrogated by US Federal Bureau of Investigation officers.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation says a history of cruelty to animals is one of the traits which regularly appear in the records of rapists and murderers.
Haitian civic and human rights groups say abductions have become a multi-million-dollar industry and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has had an agent in Port-au-Prince working on cases.
This work describes her captivity and her return trip to Yemen in which she investigated the group that held her, in the process meeting with the Yemeni Prime Minister, the British embassy, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, and prisoners accused of terrorism.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reportedly detained two Pakistani nationals as they attempted to board an American Airlines flight in Texas on Sunday evening (23 September).
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation last week identified 19 men as hijackers, including seven trained pilots, who it said commandeered the four passenger jets used in the attacks that left nearly 6,000 dead or missing.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has admitted that "a total of 184 [of its] computers are missing, including 13 that are believed to have been stolen", reports BBC Online (18 July 2001).
The group was founded by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1993, and the next year it agreed on a policy paper that detailed a set of monitoring requirements called the International User Requirements, which were legally adopted in a slightly modified form in the US in October 1994.
AIB has reported the matter to the US Federal Bureau of Investigation and has sought their assistance.