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(o͞ofä`), city (1989 pop. 1,082,000), capital of Bashkortostan, E European Russia, at the confluence of the Belaya and Ufa rivers. An industrial center in the Urals, Ufa produces electrical and mining equipment and has oil refineries and a major petrochemical industry. It is the junction of many gas, petroleum, and rail lines. Russians established Ufa in 1574 and built a fortress and settlement.



the capital of Bashkir ASSR. Located on the Belaia River, a tributary of the Kama, at the confluence of the Ufa and Dema rivers. Ufa is an important railroad junction, with lines to Moscow, Cheliabinsk, and Tiul’gan. It is also a major junction for river, pipeline, motor-vehicle, and air transportation. Population, 942,000 (1977; 49,000 in 1897, 99,000 in 1926, 258,000 in 1939, 547,000 in 1959, 771,000 in 1970). The city consists of seven raions.

Ufa was founded as a Russian fortress in 1574 on the site of the Bashkir fort of Turatau. It was designated a city in 1586. In the 17th century, Ufa was a major trade center on the route from Central Russia to Siberia. It was made part of Kazan Province in 1708 and of Orenburg Province in 1744. It was besieged in 1773 and 1774 by the troops of E. I. Pugachev under the command of I. Chika-Zarubin. In 1788 the Religious Board of Muslims of All Russia (with the exception of Tavrida Province) was established in Ufa under the leadership of a mufti. From 1781 to 1796 the city was the capital of Ufa Vicegerency; it became the capital of Orenburg Province in 1802 and of Ufa Province in 1865.

The Samara-Zlatoust Railroad was constructed through the city in 1890. Industry began developing in Ufa in the second half of the 19th century, and by the end of the century there were approximately 30 factories and plants specializing in metalworking and food processing. A Social Democratic group was organized in 1895, and in 1900 V. I. Lenin visited the city twice to meet with local Social Democrats. N. K. Krupskaia lived in exile there during the years 1900–01. The Ufa committee of the RSDLP was organized in 1903, and the Ufa committee of the Soviet of Workers’ Deputies was formed in December 1905.

Soviet power was established in Ufa on Oct. 26 (Nov. 8), 1917; however, the city was seized by White Guards in 1918. The city was the site of the Ufa State Meeting, at which the counter-revolutionary Ufa Directory was established. During the counter-offensive on the Eastern Front in 1919, Ufa was finally liberated by the Red Army. It has been the capital of Bashkir ASSR since 1922. On Nov. 27, 1974, it was awarded the Order of the October Revolution. The writer S. T. Aksakov and the artist M. V. Nesterov were born in Ufa.

Ufa, a large industrial center, produces more than 40 percent of the republic’s gross industrial output. Of special importance are the oil-refining, chemical, and machine-building industries. The Ufa, Novoufimskii, and Imeni 22-go S”ezda KPSS refineries process petroleum piped from Tuimazy, Ishimbai, and West Siberia. Most of the products from these plants are transported to the western and eastern regions of the country. The city has major plants for the production of ethyl and butyl alcohol, phenol, acetone, and polyethylene, as well as industrial rubber products and chemicals, including herbicides. Other plants manufacture equipment for the mining and petroleum industries, motor-vehicle engines, geophysical instruments, telephone equipment, electric lamps, cable, electrical equipment, and typewriters.

Ufa also produces construction equipment, fiber glass, tanning chemicals, protein and vitamin concentrates, vitamins, and canned meat. Other enterprises include combines for the production of veneer (for use in the construction of apartment houses and furniture), a tea factory, cotton combines, and the Mir clothing firm. Four large thermoelectric power plants are in operation.

Construction in Ufa was carried out in accordance with a regular plan beginning in the early 19th century. The Assembly of the Nobility, a seminary, and various residential houses in the classical style have been preserved. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the city center developed, predominantly in the eclectic style. In Soviet times, Ufa has developed in accordance with master plans, including that of 1971 by the architect L. M. Berlinerblau. Large new residential areas have been created, and numerous administrative, educational, and public buildings have been erected.

The city has two notable monuments to V. I. Lenin—one in marble (1924; sculptor S. D. Merkurov, architect D. M. Larionov) and another in bronze and granite (1967; sculptor M. F. Baburin, architect Iu. I. Gavrilov). Another sculpture of note is the Monument of Friendship in Honor of the 400th Anniversary of the Voluntary Unification of Bashkiria With Russia (bronze and granite, 1965; sculptors M. F. Baburin and G. P. Levitskaia, architects E. I. Kutyrev, Iu. I. Gavrilov, and others). Ufa also has monuments to A. Matrosov (bronze and granite, 1951; sculptor L. Iu. Eidlin), S. T. Aksakov (bronze, 1959; sculptor T. P. Nechaeva), Salavat Iulaev (cast iron and granite, 1967; sculptor S. D. Tavasiev, architect I. G. Gainutdinov), and the heroes of the October Revolution and the Civil War (bronze and granite, 1975; sculptor L. V. Kuznetsov, architect A. V. Semenov).

Research institutions in Ufa include the research institutes of the Bashkir branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: the Institute of Geology, the Institute of Biology, the Institute of Chemistry, and the Institute of History, Language, and Literature, as well as the department of economic research, physics and mathematics, and biochemistry and cytochemistry. The city also has research institutes for the oil-refining and petrochemical industries. The home of Bashkir University, Ufa also has six higher educational institutions for specialized studies in aviation, medicine, the petroleum industry, agriculture, pedagogy, and the arts. It has 22 specialized secondary educational institutions.

Museums in Ufa include the Bashkir Republic Museum of Local Lore and the M. V. Nesterov State Art Museum; the collection of the latter was based on Nesterov’s private holdings, which he donated to Ufa and which were delivered to the city in 1920. House-museums of V. I. Lenin and M. Gafuri are also located in the city. As of 1976, the following cultural institutions were found in Ufa: the M. Gafuri Bashkir Drama Theater, the Bashkir Theater of Opera and Ballet, a Russian drama theater, a puppet theater, a philharmonic society, and a circus.


Takhaev, Kh. Ia., L. N. Fenin, and M. N. Kupriianova. Ufa: Spravochnik-putevoditel’. Ufa, 1966.



a river in the Ural and Cisural regions, in Cheliabinsk and Sverdlovsk oblasts and the Bashkir ASSR, a right tributary of the Belaia River in the Volga Basin. The Ufa is 918 km long and drains an area of 53,100 sq km. It originates at Lake Ufa in the Uraltau Range. In its upper course, the Ufa is a mountain river; it flows through a narrow valley and has rapids. In its middle and lower courses, the river meanders. Karst is found in the river’s basin. Fed primarily by snow, the Ufa has a mean flow rate of 388 cu m per sec, with a maximum of 3,740 cu m per sec and a minimum of 55 cu m per sec. The river freezes between late October and early December, and the ice breaks up in April or early May. The river is used to float timber. The Pavlovka Hydroelectric Power Plant is located on the Ufa. The river is an important water-supply source. It is navigable for 135 km above the hydroelectric power plant and 170 km below it. The city of Krasnoufimsk is situated on the river and Ufa, the capital of the Bashkir ASSR, is situated at the river’s mouth.


a city in W central Russia, capital of the Bashkir Republic: university (1957). Pop.: 1 035 000 (2005 est.)
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