Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: Ukraina

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: (Ukrains’ka Radians’ka Sotsialistychna Respublika), the Ukraine (Ukraina)


The Ukrainian SSR was established on Dec. 25,1917. With the formation of the USSR, it joined the USSR as a Union republic on Dec. 30,1922. Situated in the southwestern part of the European USSR, the Ukraine is bounded on the west and southwest by the socialist countries of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Rumania. In the north it borders on the Byelorussian SSR, in the east and southeast on the RSFSR, in the southwest on the Moldavian SSR, and in the south on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. With an area of 603,700 sq km and a population of 49.1 million (Jan. 1,1976), the Ukraine is the third largest Union republic, after the RSFSR and the Kazakh SSR, and the second most populous, after the RSFSR. Its capital is Kiev.

The Ukrainian SSR is divided (1976) into 25 oblasts and 477 raions and has 394 cities and 892 urban-type settlements (see Table 1 on page 560). It includes three major economic regions: the Donets-Dnieper, the Southwestern, and the Southern.

The Ukrainian SSR is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants, and intelligentsia, the working people of all nationalities of the republic; a Union soviet socialist republic. Its present constitution was adopted by the Extraordinary Seventh Session of the Ninth Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR on Apr. 20, 1978. The highest body of state power is the unicameral Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR, which comprises 650 deputies elected for five-year terms by equally populated precincts. Between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, the highest governing body is the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR. The Supreme Soviet forms the republic’s government—the Council of Ministers—and enacts legislation. The local governing bodies in oblasts, raions, cities, city districts, settlements, and villages are the respective soviets of people’s deputies, whose members are popularly elected for 2½ year terms. The Ukraine sends 32 deputies to the Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

The highest court of the Ukraine is the Supreme Court of the republic, elected by the republic’s Supreme Soviet for a five-year term. The Supreme Court consists of a civil division, a criminal division, and a presidium. The court also sits as a plenum. The procurator of the Ukrainian SSR is appointed by the procurator-general of the USSR for a term of five years.

Table 1. Area, population, and territorial-administrative divisions of Ukrainian oblasts (as of Jan. 1,1976)
 Area (sq km)PopulationRatonsCitiesUrban-type settlements
Cherkassy Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,9001,554,000201519
Chernigov Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,9001,554,000201519
Chernovtsy Oblast. . . . . . . . . .8,100880,00010109
Crimean Oblast. . . . . . . . . .27,0002,062,000141449
Dnepropetrovsk Oblast. . . . . . . . . .31,9003,570,000201956
Donetsk Oblast. . . . . . . . . .26,5005,141,0001848135
Ivano-Frankovsk Oblast. . . . . . . . . .13,9001,311,000141326
Kharkov Oblast. . . . . . . . . .31,4002,976,000251562
Kherson Oblast. . . . . . . . . .28,5001,113,00018829
Khmel'nitskii Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,6001,577,000201124
KievOblast. . . . . . . . . .28,9003,888,000252032
Kirovograd Oblast. . . . . . . . . .24,6001,261,000211224
L'vov Oblast. . . . . . . . . .21,8002,517,000203738
Nikolaev Oblast. . . . . . . . . .24,6001,215,00019619
Odessa Oblast. . . . . . . . . .33,3002,543,000261429
Poltava Oblast. . . . . . . . . .28,8001,733,000251322
Rovno Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,1001,095,00015916
Sumy Oblast. . . . . . . . . .23,8001,435,000181520
Ternopol'Oblast. . . . . . . . . .13,8001,173,000161415
Transcarpathian Oblast. . . . . . . . . .12,8001,134,00013924
Vinnitsa Oblast. . . . . . . . . .26,5002,073,000251029
Volyn' Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,2001,011,000151021
Voroshilovgrad Oblast. . . . . . . . . .26,7002,819,0001835106
Zaporozh'e Oblast. . . . . . . . . .27,2001,894,000181320
Zhitomir Oblast. . . . . . . . . .29,9001,585,00022938

The diversity of the republic’s natural features results from its location in the southwestern USSR, a region that encompasses a subzone of mixed forests, a forest-steppe zone, and a steppe zone, as well as the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. The Ukraine stretches for more than 1,300 km from the Carpathians in the west to the Central Russian Upland in the east and for almost 900 km from the Pripiat’ River in the north to the coasts of the Black and Azov seas in the south.

Coasts. The predominantly low-lying Black Sea coast is dissected by the Tendra, Dzharylgach, Karkinit, and Kalamit bays and by the Dnestr, Khadzhibei, Kuial’nik, Tiligul’, Bug, and Dnieper estuaries. The southern coast of the Crimean Peninsula is steep and mountainous. The flat northern coast of the Sea of Azov is fringed by spits (Obitochnaia, Berdiansk); along the west coast the Arabat Tongue separates the sea from the salt-water Si-vash Bay.

Terrain. Most of the Ukraine lies on the southwestern edge of the East European Plain. Its topography of plains and hills gives way to higher elevations only in the Crimean Mountains in the south and in the Ukrainian Carpathians in the west. The Ukrainian part of the East European Plain has high and low sections corresponding to uplifts and subsidences of the platform’s crystalline basement. The main uplifts are the Volyn’ and Podol’e uplands, which stretch from northwest to southeast, from the upper course of the Bug River and the upper left tributaries of the Dnestr to the valley of the Iuzhnyi Bug. The highest point in the uplands is Mount Kamula (471 m). Farther to the east, between the Iuzhnyi Bug and the Dnieper, lies the Dnieper Upland, rising to 323 m. The Azov Upland, with a maximum elevation of 324 m on Mount Bel’mak-Mogila, forms a narrow band in the southeast along the left bank of the Dnieper. The northeastern part of the Azov Upland abuts on the Donets Ridge, whose highest point is Mount Mogila-Mechetnaia (367 m). On the ridge are many rock waste piles, quarries, and other landscape forms created by man’s economic activity. The spurs of the Central Russian Upland extend into the Ukraine from the northeast. Each of the uplands is deeply and densely dissected by a valley and a network of ravines and gullies.

The northern Ukraine is occupied by the southern part of the Poles’e Lowland, lying at an elevation of 150–200 m. The flat surface of the lowland is composed of ancient fluvioglacial and alluvial deposits, complicated in places by moraine hills, aeolian landforms, or karst.

To the southeast the Poles’e gradually merges with the Dnieper Lowland, stretching along the left bank of the middle Dnieper. In the western part of the lowland there are terraces above the floodplain. The eastern part of the lowland is a plain dissected by ravines, gullies, and the asymmetric valleys of the Dnieper’s left tributaries.

The southern part of the Ukraine is occupied by the Black Sea Lowland, a plain sloping slightly to the south. The lowland has broad valleys and flat watersheds with many pods and shallow depressions formed by the sinking of loess deposits.

With the exception of the Kerch’ Peninsula, which has a hilly terrain and mud volcanoes, the northern Crimea is a continuation of the Black Sea Lowland. To the south the lowland gives way to the Crimean Mountains, whose highest ridge, the Glavnyi (or Iuzhnyi) Ridge, rises to 1,545 m at Mount Roman-Kosh. The Crimean Mountains have flat summits, called iaily, and extensively developed karst landforms.

The highest mountains in the republic, the Ukrainian Carpathians in the west, are a narrow and relatively low segment of the Eastern Carpathians. From 60 km to 100 km wide, the Ukrainian Carpathians consist of several parallel ranges stretching 270 km from the northwest to the southeast. The highest peak is Mount Goverla (2,061 m). The alluvial Transcarpathian Lowland, with elevations of 100–120 m, stretches along the southwestern foothills of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

Geological structure and mineral resources The Ukraine occupies the southwestern part of the Eastern European Platform, fringed by the folded structures of the Carpathians and the Crimea. The platform encompasses the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield, the Volyn’-Podol’e Plate, the L’vov Depression, the Donets Aulakogene, the Dnieper-Donets Depression, and the Black Sea Coastal Depression. The dominant structural element is the Ukrainian Crystalline Massif in the central part of the republic, composed of dislocated Archean and Proterozoic rocks 3.5–1.2 billion years old. These rocks dip gently toward the Carpathians and merge with the Volyn’-Podol’e Plate, composed of Riphean, Vendian, and Paleozoic rocks.

The central part of the Donets Aulakogene (Donets Coal Basin) is composed of Carboniferous coal-bearing formations up to 15 km thick and Permian salt-bearing strata lying close to the surface. There are outcrops of Triassic and Jurassic deposits in the northwestern part of the basin and of Cretaceous and Paleo-gene-Neogene rocks along the edges of the basin. These rocks form folds that incline in the northwest toward the Dnieper-Donets Depression, which is filled with a stratum of dislocated Paleozoic salt-bearing and coal-bearing formations and a slightly deformed stratum of Mesozoic-Cenozoic rocks. In the south the Ukrainian Shield borders on the Black Sea Coastal Depression, which is filled by gently dipping Cretaceous and Paleogene-Neo-gene sediments.

The mountain structures of the southern Ukraine—the Crimean Mountains and part of the Eastern Carpathians—belong to the Alpide Géosynclinal Region. The Crimean Mountains are a huge folded anticlinal uplift composed of Triassic and Jurassic flysch rocks and Cretaceous and Tertiary sandy-clay and carbonaceous strata. The Ukrainian Carpathians include the Ciscarpa-thian Foredeep, the folded region of the Carpathians (a flysch and interior anticlinal zone), and the Transcarpathian Interior Trough. In the folded region there are outcrops of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks covered by Mesozoic sediments and Cretaceous and Paleogene flysch. The Ciscarpathian and Transcarpathian depressions have Neogene formations.

The Ukraine has large ore and coal basins and numerous lignite deposits. The ore and coal basins are the Krivoi Rog Iron Ore Basin, the Kerch’ Iron Ore Basin, the Nikopol’ Manganese Ore Basin, the Donets Coal Basin, and the L’vov-Volyn’ Coal Basin. The Ukraine’s gas and oil deposits are associated mainly with the Paleozoic sediments of the Dnieper-Donets Depression (Sumy, Poltava, Kharkov, and Chernigov oblasts) and with the Paleogene-Neogene sediments of the Ciscarpathian Depression (Borislav, Dashava). The largest such deposits are the Zapadnaia Krestishchenka and Shebelinka deposits in Kharkov Oblast.

The Nikitovka mercury deposit is in the Donets Basin. There are deposits of titaniun ore at Irshansk and Stremigorod, bauxite at Smela and Vysokopol’e, nepheline at Zhdanov, alunite at Ber-egovo and Began’skaia, and kaolin at Glukhov and Turbov. Salt deposits are found in the Permian sediments of the Donets Basin (Artemovsk) and in the Neogene sediments of the Transcarpathian Depression (Solotvina). Deposits of potassium salts occur at Kalush and Stebnik in Ciscarpathia. The Ukraine has many deposits of nonmetallic minerals, including granite, gabbro, labra-dorite (mainly in Zhitomir Oblast), flux limestone (Elenovka), Dinas quartzite, marble, graphite, chalk, and glass and molding sand.

The Ukraine is rich in therapeutic mineral springs, some of which are world famous, such as the hydrocarbonate, calcium, and magnesium springs at Truskavets. Also well known are the hydrogen sulfide springs of Velikii Luben’ and Nemirov in L’vov Oblast. There are many carbonic-acid springs in Transcarpathia (Poliana, Kvasova, Luzhana, and Ploskoe), and radioactive springs are found at Khmel’nik in Vinnitsa Oblast and near Miro-novka in Kiev Oblast. The lakes and limans along the Black and Azov seas are noted for their therapeutic mud.

Climate. The Ukraine has a moderate, predominantly continental climate that is considerably warmer and milder than that of the adjoining eastern oblasts of the RSFSR. The climate becomes more continental as one moves from west to east. From north to south, there is an increase in the difference between summer and winter temperatures and a decrease in the thickness and duration of the snow cover. The amount of precipitation and relative humidity also diminishes from north to south. The mean January temperature ranges from – 7° or – 8°C in the northeast to 2°-4°C on the southern Crimean coast. The mean July temperature is 18°-19°C in the northwest and 23°-24°C in the southeast. The frostless period, 150–160 days in the north, lasts up to 200–210 days in the south and 270 days on the southern Crimean coast.

The winds change with the seasons. In winter, moist westerly winds prevail in the northern half of the republic and dry and cold northeasterly and easterly winds in the southern half. Northwesterly winds prevail in the summer, although easterly and southeasterly winds, sometimes dry, are also frequent in the southern half of the republic. The annual precipitation is 600–700 mm in the northwest, 300 mm in the southeast, 1,000–1,200 mm in the Crimean Mountains, and 1,200–1,600 mm in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Over most of the republic the maximum precipitation occurs in spring and summer. The steppe zone in the south receives insufficient moisture, with periods of drought occurring in some years.

Rivers and lakes. The river network, totaling some 170,000 km, is densest in the Ukrainian Carpathians, on the Donets Ridge, and in the western Poles’e. Of the 22,523 rivers that exceed 4 km, 117 are 100 km or longer. Most of the rivers belong to the basin of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov; only about 4 percent of the republic’s area is drained into the Baltic Sea. The principal waterway is the Dnieper and its tributaries, among them the Pripiat’, Desna, Teterev, Ros’, Sula, Psel, and Vorskla. The Dnieper crosses the Ukraine from north to south, dividing it into the Right-bank and the Left-bank Ukraine. Its basin occupies the northern central Ukraine, or about 50 percent of the republic’s territory. The southwestern slopes of the Central Russian Upland and the northern slopes of the Donets Ridge are drained by the Severskii Donets, a right tributary of the Don. Small rivers flow down the southern slopes of the Donets Ridge into the Azov Sea. The rivers of the western and southwestern Ukraine belong to the basin of the Iuzhnyi Bug and the Dnestr. Transcarpathia is watered by the upper course of the Tisa River, a left tributary of the Danube. The Prut River rises in Chernovtsy Oblast. The lower course of the Danube flows in the extreme southwest, along the Rumanian border.

All but the largest rivers of the southern Ukrainian steppe dry up for part of the summer. There are no permanent rivers along the lower left bank of the Dnieper, west of the Molochnaia River. The rivers of the plains are fed mainly by snowmelt (50–80 percent) and those of the mountains by rainwater. The plains rivers are markedly high in spring and shallow in summer; there is some autumn flooding, followed by winter low water. The annual discharge from 1 sq km averages 1–4 liters per sec. Most of the rivers are icebound in winter for an average of two to 3V2 months, although the ice sometimes melts during long winter thaws. The water resources of the Ukrainian SSR, including water derived from the Byelorussian SSR and the RSFSR, amount to roughly 95 billion cu m, including 3.2 billion cu m of groundwater. The large rivers are used for shipping. Hydroelectric power plants have been built on many rivers, including the Dnieper, Dnestr, and Iuzhnyi Bug.

The Severskii Donets-Donbas Canal and the Dnieper-Krivoi Rog Canal supply water to industrial enterprises and cities. The Dnieper-Donbas Canal, under construction in 1976, will serve the same purpose. The first section of the North Crimean Irrigation Canal has been put into operation.

The Ukraine has more than 7,000 lakes (0.1 sq km or larger) covering more than 2,000 sq km. Many of the lakes are found on the floodplains of the Danube (Lakes Ialpug and Katlabukh), the Dnieper, the Desna, and the Pripiat’. Along the coast of the Black and Azov seas are Lakes Sasyk, Shagany, and Alibei and the Kuial’ and Khadzhibei liman lakes. In the Volyn’ Poles’e there are many karst lakes, of which the largest are Lakes Svitiaz-skoe and Pulemetskoe. The largest lake in the Ukrainian Carpathians is Lake Sinevir. Of the republic’s more than 23,000 artificial bodies of water, the largest are the Kremenchug Reservoir (covering 2,250 sq km), the Kakhovka Reservoir (2,155 sq km), the Kiev Reservoir (922 sq km), and the Dneprodzerzhinsk Reservoir (567 sq km).

Soils. The soil cover of the plains is divided into distinct zones. In the north are various types of soddy-podzolic soil, which cover about 70 percent of the Ukrainian Poles’e. Meadow-bog and peat-bog soils are also common on the northern plains. The forest steppe has various types of gray forest soils and podzolized and typical chernozems with a humus content of 4–6 percent. Chernozems extend over more than half of the forest steppe. Characteristic of the steppe zone are ordinary and southern chernozems, and the seacoast has dark chestnut soils with a humus content of 3.5–5 percent. The steppe soils require irrigation, especially in the south. In the Ukrainian Carpathians, the soddy-podzolic soils of Ciscarpathia give way to podzolized brown forest soils in the beech-forest belt, which in turn are succeeded by mountain-meadow and mountain-peat soils in the poloniny (alpine meadows). Brown forest soils and mountain-meadow soils occur widely in the Crimean Mountains, and red-brown and cin-namonic soils are commonly found on the southern Crimean coast.

Flora. Some 16,000 plant species have been identified in the Ukraine. On the plains the vegetative cover shows zonation. The northern part of the republic lies within the mixed-forest zone, and forests occupy about one-third of this area. Woods of oak-pine, hornbeam-oak-pine, and oak-hornbeam are widespread, as are pine tracts. The underbrush includes nut trees, bilberries, and cowberries. Most of the Poles’e is covered with meadows and low grassy moors; high sphagnum bogs are found in the northwest.

In the forest-steppe zone, forests cover about 11 percent of the area, chiefly the more rugged watersheds. There are deciduous forests of oak, beech, hornbeam, linden, ash, and maple; pine forests grow on the sandy terraces of river valleys. The republic’s forest areas total 9,990,000 hectares (ha), of which 8,457,000 ha are densely forested. In 1973 the timber reserves amounted to 968,400,000 cu m. Steppe vegetation occurs only in places in the flat parts of the watersheds. Most of the steppe has been plowed up and planted to crops. Forb-feather grass and wormwood-sheep’s fescue steppes are found only in preserves.

The slopes of the Crimean Mountains are covered with oak, beech, and pine forests, and the iaily (flat summits) are clothed with mountain-steppe vegetation. The southern Crimean coast has oak and juniper forests with an admixture of Mediterranean deciduous and evergreen vegetation, including strawberry trees, wild pistachios, and butcher’s-brooms. To elevations of 500–600 m the slopes of the Ukrainian Carpathians are covered with deciduous forests of oak, hornbeam, maple, and linden; above these grow beech forests with an admixture of spruce and fir. The higher, flat parts of the Carpathians are clothed with shrub thickets and spruce and pine forests that yield to alpine meadows.

Fauna. The Poles’e forests are inhabited by bears, elk, roe deer, wild boars, wolves, foxes, lynx, badgers, squirrels, and dormice (three species). Common birds include black grouse, hazel hens, capercaillies, titmice, woodpeckers, and orioles. In the forest-steppe zone are found deer, wild boars, wolves, marten, polecats, susliks, hamsters, hedgehogs, and such birds as the Hungarian partridge, magpie, and oriole. Typical steppe animals include susliks (spotted, small, and European), jerboas, hamsters, mice, several kinds of larks, and quail. Brown hares are common everywhere. Bears, wild boars, lynx, and European wildcats are encountered in the Carpathians, and the forests of the Crimean Mountains and the Carpathians contain European and roe deer. White storks are found near rural settlements. The republic’s rivers and lakes abound in catfish, perch, pike, ide, crucian carp, and carp. Mackerel and mullet are caught in the Black Sea, and herring, anchovy, and flounder in the Sea of Azov.

Preserves. A large number of state preserves have been established for the conservation, rational use, restoration, and increase of the republic’s natural resources, flora, and fauna. In 1975 there were nine preserves, occupying 126,700 hectares. In the steppe zone are the Askaniia-Nova Preserve in Kherson Oblast, the Black Sea Preserve in Kherson, Nikolaev, and Odessa oblasts, the Ukrainian Steppe Preserve in Donetsk, Za-porózh’e, and Sumy oblasts, and the Lugansk Preserve in Voroshilovgrad Oblast. In addition to the steppe preserves, there are the Kanev Preserve (Cherkassy Oblast) in the forest-steppe zone, the Poles’e Preserve (Zhitomir Oblast) in the mixed-forest zone, the Carpathian Preserve in the Ukrainian Carpathians, and the Yalta Mountain Forest Preserve and the Cape Mart’ian Preserve in the Crimea. Also important are the Azov-Sivash (Kherson Oblast) and Crimean forest and game reserves and the Dnieper-Teterev and Zalesskoe forest and game reserves.

Natural regions. In the mixed-forest subzone, which accounts for 20 percent of the Ukraine’s area, lies the Ukrainian Poles’e. The southern boundary of the Poles’e runs along a line of towns that includes Rava-Russkaia, L’vov, Kremenets, Shepetovka, Zhitomir, Kiev, Nezhin, Baturin, Krolovets, and Glukhov. The area has chiefly poles’e landscapes, marked by a moderately warm and humid climate and sandy plains covered with oak and pine forests (about one-third of the area) intermingled with meadows and bogs. The Ukrainian Poles’e is divided into the Western Poles’e, comprising the Volyn’, Zhitomir, and Kiev poles’ia, and the Eastern Poles’e, composed of the Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversk poles’ia.

The central Ukraine lies within the forest-steppe zone, which occupies about 35 percent of the Ukraine’s territory. The area is a dissected plain in which chernozems and gray forest soils predominate. Deciduous forests alternate with large stretches of plowland. In terms of natural conditions, the forest-steppe zone is divided into the Volyn’-Podol’e, Dnieper, and Left-bank forest-steppe subzones.

The steppe zone, covering 40 percent of the Ukraine, stretches southward along a line marked by the towns of Anan’ev, Dobro-velichkovka, Znamenka, Kremenchug, Krasnograd, Zmiev, and Volchansk as far as the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, and the foothills of the Crimea. The zone has a flat surface dissected by valleys, gullies, and ravines. The soils are predominantly chernozems. Some three-fourths of the area is under cultivation, and large areas are irrigated. The zone is divided into a northern steppe, encompassing the spurs of the Podol’e, Dnieper, and Azov uplands and of the Donets Ridge and the southern part of the Dnieper Lowland, and a southern steppe, called the Black Sea Steppe.

The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by altitude zona-tion of landscape. The piedmont zone of mixed forests and meadows gives way at higher elevations to a mountain-forest zone with beech, oak, hornbeam, spruce, and fir forests, which in turn are replaced by a subalpine zone of shrubs and mountain meadows.

The slopes of the Crimean Mountains have forest landscapes dominated by oak, beech, and Crimean pine, as well as mountain meadows. Along the southern coast of the Crimea are found Mediterranean subtropical landscapes.


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Metallogeniia Ukrainy i Moldavii. Kiev, 1974.
Klimat Ukrainy. Leningrad, 1967.
Resursy poverkhnostnykh vod SSSR, vol. 6, fasc. 2. Leningrad, 1971.
Hensiruk, S. A., and V. S. Bondar. Lisovi resursy Ukrainy, ikh okhorona i vykorystannia. Kiev, 1973.
Pryroda Ukrainy ta ii okhorona. Kiev, 1975.
Lan’ko, A. I., O. M. Marynych, and M. I. Shcherban’. Fizychna heohrafiia Ukrains’koi RSR. Kiev, 1969.
Fiziko-geograficheskoe raionirovanie Ukrainskoi SSR. Kiev, 1968.
Ukraina i Moldaviia. Moscow, 1972. (Prirodnye usloviia i estestvennye resursy SSSR).
Atlas Ukrainskoi SSR i Modavskoi SSR. Moscow, 1962.

A. M. MARINICH and G. I. KALIAEV (geological structure and mineral resources)

Ukrainians make up the bulk of the republic’s population. At the time of the 1970 census the population of the Ukraine included 35,283,900 Ukrainians, 9,126,300 Russians, 777,100 Jews, 385,800 Byelorussians, 295,100 Poles, 265,900 Moldavians, 234,400 Bulgarians, 157,700 Hungarians, 112,100 Rumanians, 106,900 Greeks, 76,200 Tatars, 33,400 Armenians, 30,100 Gypsies, and 26,500 Gagauz.

The population of the Ukraine grew by 39.4 percent from 1913 to 1975. Between 1940 and 1975 it increased by 18.7 percent, despite the enormous losses in the Great Patriotic War (see Table 2).

Between 1950 and 1975 the population increased by almost 13.9 million, chiefly through natural increase and migration. In terms of natural increase, the Ukraine lags behind many Union republics; in 1975 its birthrate was 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, as compared to the USSR’s average of 8.8. Nevertheless, the Ukraine is one of the most densely populated Union republics. With an average population density of 81.3 persons per sq km on Jan. 1,1976, it holds third place in the country, after the Moldavian and Armenian SSR’s. The most densely settled areas are the highly developed industrial oblasts: 194.0 persons per sq km in Donetsk Oblast, 111.9 in Dnepropetrovsk Oblast, 105.6 in Voroshilovgrad Oblast, 134.5 in Kiev Oblast, and 115.5 in L’vov Oblast. The population density is also high in the forest-steppe regions of Ivano-Frankovsk, Ternopol’, and Chernovtsy oblasts, where rural areas are densely settled. The more sparsely settled areas are the Poles’e (38–50 persons per sq km), the Ukrainian Carpathians, and Kherson, Nikolaev, Chernigov, and Volyn’ oblasts.

In 1975 the republic’s work force totaled 18.4 million persons, of whom 6,602,000 were employed in industry, 1,854,000 in construction, 1,401,000 in agriculture and forestry, and 1,976,000 in transportation and communications. Women account for 52 percent of the work force, including 47 percent of the industrial workers, 83 percent of those employed in public health, 73 percent of the education personnel, and 77 percent of those working in trade, material and technical supply, procurement, and the food service industry.

Table 2. Population of the Ukrainian SSR
 TotalUrbanRuralPercentage of total
1 End of year estimate
2January 1 estimate
3January 15 census
19131. . . . . . . . . .35,209,8006,790,10028,419,7001981
19402. . . . . . . . . .41,340,20014,023,30027,316,9003466
19593. . . . . . . . . .41,869,00019,147,00022,722,0004654
19702. . . . . . . . . .47,126,50025,688,60021,437,9005545
19742. . . . . . . . . .48,520,60028,194,70020,325,9005842
19752. . . . . . . . . .48,817,40028,751,40020,066,0005941
19762. . . . . . . . . .49,075,20029,341,00019,734,2006040

The far-reaching social and economic transformations that have taken place in the republic have been accompanied by a change in the ratio of urban to rural inhabitants. The urban population increased from 12.8 million in 1950 to 29.4 million in 1976. The proportion of urban dwellers is high in the industrial oblasts: 89 percent in Donetsk Oblast, 84.7 percent in Voroshilovgrad Oblast, and 80.1 percent in Dnepropetrovsk Oblast. The largest cities are Kiev (2,013,000 inhabitants in 1976), Kharkov (1,385,000), Odessa (1,023,000), Dnepropetrovsk (976,000), Donetsk (967,000), Zaporozh’e (760,000), Krivoi Rog (634,000), and L’vov (629,000). Thirty-six cities have populations of 100,000 to 500,000, including Zhdanov (467,000), Voroshilovgrad (439,000), Makeevka (437,000), Nikolaev (436,000), Gorlovka (342,000), Kherson (315,000), Sevastopol’ (290,000), Vinnitsa (288,000), and Simferopol’ (286,000). Among the cities that were founded during the period of socialist construction are Severodonetsk, Novaia Kakhovka, Novovolynsk, Vatutino, and Novyi Rozdol.


Primitive communal system (to the eighth century A.D.). The earliest traces of human habitation, dating from the Lower Paleolithic, have been discovered at Kiik-Koba in the southern Crimea, at the Amvrosievka site in the Azov region, at Luka-Vrublevetskaia along the middle Dnestr, at the Zhitomir site in Volyn’, and at the Kruglik site along the Dnieper above the rapids. During the Middle Paleolithic, which lasted roughly from 100,000 to 35,000 years ago, much of the Ukraine was settled by people of the Mousterian culture. Sites from this period include Chokurcha and Starosel’e in the Crimea, Kodak in the Dnieper Valley above the rapids, and Molodova I along the middle Dnestr. By the Late Paleolithic (circa 35,000 to 10,000 years ago) the entire Ukraine was inhabited, as evidenced by the Molodova V site on the Dnestr, sites in the basins of the Teterev and Goryn’ rivers, the Kirillovsk site in the Kiev area, the Mezin site and Pushkari on the Desna, and the Gontsy site in Poltava Oblast. The Paleolithic inhabitants of the Ukraine were hunters and gatherers. A matriarchal clan system evolved in this period.

During the Mesolithic, which lasted roughly from the tenth to the seventh millennium B.C., fishing developed and the bow came into use. Mesolithic sites include Tash-Air I, Murzak-Koba, Zamil’-Koba I and II, and Fat’ma-Koba, all in the Crimea, and Grebeniki on the lower Dnestr. The first tribal organizations emerged at this time, to be further developed in the Neolithic between the sixth and fourth millennia B.C. Many Neolithic remains have been discovered throughout the Ukraine, among them the Mariupol’ burial ground and the Kamennaia Mogila.

Farming and livestock raising flourished during the Aeneolithic, especially among the tribes of the Tripol’e culture, and during the Bronze Age, which lasted from the fourth to the early first millennium B.C.

During the third and second millennia B.C. the steppes and part of the forest-steppe region along the left bank of the Dnieper were settled by farming and livestock-raising tribes of the Pit-grave (Iamnaia) culture (Mikhailovka Settlement), who were succeeded by tribes of the Catacomb culture, the Timber-frame (Srubnaia) culture, and other Bronze Age cultures. These tribes bartered with neighboring tribes and with tribes of the Caucasus and the Mediterranean. The clan and tribal elite possessed considerable wealth. Sedentary farming and livestock-raising tribes of the Corded-ware culture lived along the right bank of the Dnieper in the Poles’e and parts of the forest-steppe region. Several tribal confederations were founded along the right bank of the Dnieper in the mid-second millennium B.C., one of them by tribes of the Komarovo culture. Cimmerian tribes inhabited the steppes along the Bug and Dnieper in the late second and early first millennia B.C.

In the first centuries of the first millennium B.C. the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age. The earliest iron objects were made by tribes of the Chernoles culture, who lived in the forest steppe between the Dnieper and the Dnestr. Nomadic Scythian tribes migrated to the Black Sea steppes from Asia in the seventh century B.C. By the mid-first millennium B.C. primitive communal relations were on the decline among the Scythians, and the first states were being founded. A federation of Scythian tribes arose under the leadership of King Atei in the fourth century B.C. From the seventh to the third century B.C. the forest-steppe regions of the Ukraine were inhabited by indigenous farming and livestock-raising tribes descended from the tribes of the Chernoles culture. Some scholars maintain that the tribes living along the right bank of the middle Dnieper were the direct ancestors of the East Slavs. Remains of these tribes include the Nemirov and Bel’sk gorodishcha (sites of fortified settlements).

Between the seventh and fifth centuries B.C. the Northern Black Sea Coast was settled by Greeks, who founded slaveholding city-states, of which the largest were Olbia, Tyras, Chersonesus Taurica, and Panticapaeum, all major centers of farming, fishing, crafts, and trade. The Bosporan state, with Panticapaeum as its capital, arose on the Kerch’ Peninsula in the fifth century B.C. In the second century B.C. the steppe regions of the Ukraine were settled by Sarmatian tribes from the Ural and Volga steppes.

During the period around the turn of the Common Era, the forest steppes and some of the forests were inhabited by tribes of the Zarubintsy culture, and from the second to the fifth century A.D. these regions, as well as part of the steppe area, were populated by tribes of the Cherniakhov culture, some of them Slavic tribes. These tribes engaged in farming, livestock raising, and crafts and traded with neighboring tribes, the Greek cities of the Northern Black Sea Coast, and the Roman provinces on the Danube.

In the third to sixth centuries A.D., the Northern Black Sea Coast was invaded by numerous tribes and peoples, among them Goths, Huns, and Avars, caught up in the Great Migration of Peoples. Between the fourth and seventh centuries the middle Dnieper region was occupied by an alliance of Slavic tribes initially called Antes and later Rus or Ros. Subsequently, the term “Rus’” was applied to all East Slavs.

Formation and development of feudal relations; the Old Russian state (eighth to 11th centuries). The growth of farming, livestock raising, and crafts among the East Slavs led to the breakup of the primitive communal system and to the emergence of feudal relations. The first states to arise were principalities. By the eighth and ninth centuries Slavic tribes inhabited a large part of Eastern Europe. In the Ukraine lived the tribal groups known as Poliane (middle Dnieper region), Severiane (basins of the Desna, Seim, and Sula rivers), Drevliane (Dnieper Poles’e), White Croats (Carpathians and the Dnestr basin), Dulebs, also known as Vo-lynians or Bugians (along the Zapadnyi Bug and Pripiat’ rivers), Ulichi (between the Iuzhnyi Bug and Dnestr rivers), and the Tivertsy (between the Dnestr, Prut, and Danube rivers).

In the eighth and ninth centuries slash-and-burn farming was gradually replaced by plow farming. Individual households became common, serving as the basis for village communes, and handicrafts flourished. Chronicle entries from the ninth century mention more than 20 East Slavic cities, among them Kiev, Chernigov, Pereiaslavl’, Belgorod, Vyshgorod, and Cherven’, all of them intertribal centers of trade and handicrafts. The waterway “from the Varangians to the Greeks, ” linking the Baltic and Black seas, became important from the ninth century. The feudal mode of production became firmly established among the Slavs in the ninth century. Although the bulk of the population was made up of dependent and exploited peasants (smerdy), indentured laborers (zakupy), slaves {kholopy), and the urban poor, a free peasant class was also emerging. The ruling class was composed of princes, boyars, and the higher clergy.

An inevitable result of the formation of classes was the rise of Kievan Rus’, a feudal state uniting several East Slavic tribal unions. The first historically known Old Russian princes were Askol’d and Dir. Another early prince, Oleg (reigned 879 to 912), was initially the ruler of Novgorod. Kievan Rus’ reached its zenith in the late tenth century and the first half of the 11th century. The Old Russian state was greatly strengthened by the introduction in 988–89 of Christianity in the form of Byzantine Orthodoxy, which replaced paganism. Kiev became the seat of the metropolitans, and the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura (monastery) was founded in 1051. After the death of Iaroslav the Wise (reigned 1019–54) began the gradual fragmentation of Old Rus’. More than 60 new cities were founded in Rus’ in the 11th century and some 200 in the 12th century, among them Galich and Novgo-rod-Severskii. The growth of cities was linked to the development of handicrafts. The expansion of productive forces intensified the class differentiation and exacerbated the class struggle, as manifested in the Kiev uprisings of 1068–69 and 1113.

Kievan Rus’ had a highly developed and distinctive culture. The city of Kiev was adorned with such architectural masterpieces as the Desiatinnaia Church (Church of Tithes, 989–996), the Cathedral of St. Sophia (1037), the Golden Gate (1037), and the Uspenskii Cathedral (Cathedral of the Dormition) of the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura (1073–78). Another impressive edifice was the Cathedral of Our Savior in Chernigov, begun around 1036. Among the oldest surviving written works from the Kievan period are the Ostromir Gospel, the Primary Chronicle, Sviato-slav’s Miscellany, Metropolitan Ilarion’s Discourse on Law and Grace, and the Russkaia Pravda law code. The literature of Kievan Rus’ and the rich oral epic tradition paved the way for the Tale of Igor’s Campaign, composed in the late 12th century.

The establishment of the Old Russian state was an important event in European history inasmuch as the unification of the East Slavic lands promoted their economic and political development. The Old Russian nation, which evolved in the tenth century, became the nucleus for the development of the three fraternal East Slavic peoples—the Russians, Ukrainians, and Byelorussians.

The feudal fragmentation of Rus’ (12th to 14th centuries). The fragmentation of Rus’, which began in the 11th century, had deep-seated economic causes. The economic and political ties between the various parts of Kievan Rus’ had been weak even at the height of its power, and the prevailing subsistence economy had hindered the rapid development of trade. The local princes and other feudal lords grew increasingly powerful in the 11th and 12th centuries, gaining control of numerous villages with dependent peasants and maintaining their own armies. The dissolution of Rus’ into a number of independent principalities in the 12th century was to some extent also a consequence of local economic growth. Southwestern Rus’, coinciding with most of the present-day Ukraine, broke up into the Kiev, Chernigov, Galician, and Vladimir-Volynian principalities.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, as crafts continued to develop, old cities expanded and new ones were founded. Kiev remained the principal city. The armies of the south Russian principalities often waged joint campaigns against the Polovtsy, notably in 1103 and 1111. The Kievan prince Vladimir Vsevolodovich Mo-nomakh (reigned 1113–25) was able to arrest temporarily the fragmentation of the Old Russian state by strengthening the economic and political ties between the southwestern Russian lands. The second half of the 12th and the early 13th centuries were marked by ceaseless feudal strife and armed clashes between the Russian princes, which made it easier for the neighboring Polovtsy, Hungarians, and Poles to raid Rus’. This state of affairs, however, did not prevent the Kievan princes from conducting joint campaigns against the Polovtsy in 1166, 1169, and the 1180’s.

In 1223 the armies of several south Russian principalities attacked the Mongol-Tatars, who had invaded lands bordering on Rus’, but they were defeated in the battle on the Kalka River because the princes did not coordinate their operations. Along with the rest of Rus’, the southern lands were invaded in 1239 by Mongol-Tatars led by Khan Batu, who destroyed the cities of Pereia-slav and Chernigov. Kiev fell in late 1240. Despite the heroic resistance of the people, the Mongol-Tatar forces continued their offensive and occupied the Galician-Volynian Principality. The conquered Russian principalities became possessions of the Golden Horde, the state founded by the Mongol-Tatars.

The plight of the popular masses became even more wretched as requisitions and services for the benefit of the Mongol-Tatar khans were added to the oppression by the local feudal lords. Increasing feudal fragmentation gave rise to small appanage principalities, such as Novgorod-Severskii, Putivl’, and Glukhov. Having declined economically and politically, Kiev ceased to be the ecclesiastical center of Rus’, although it remained important in religious life. In 1299 the metropolitan moved his seat to Vladimir, on the Kliaz’ma River.

Lithuania, Poland, and Hungary, by this time strong border states, sought to extend their rule over the Ukraine. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania seized the Chernigov-Severskii lands in the 1350’s and Podolia and the Kiev region in the 1360’s; it also annexed much of Volyn’. Poland invaded Galicia in 1349, consolidating its hold in 1387, and occupied western Volyn’ circa 1377. The northern Bucovina passed to Moldavia in the 14th century, falling under Turkish rule in the 16th century. The Crimean Khanate arose in the southern Ukraine and the Crimea in the 15th century. Transcarpathia, which had been lost to Hungary as early as the 11th century, also remained under foreign rule.

Under the harsh conditions of foreign rule, the annexed Ukrainian lands maintained contact with the Russian heartland. The idea of a united Rus’ was expressed in the chronicles, notably in the Kievan and Galician-Volynian chronicles, which were incorporated into the Hypatian Chronicle. The Ukrainian population absorbed by border states shared for a long time the historical fate of the Ukraine’s neighboring peoples. Ukrainians in the Polish-Lithuanian Army fought heroically against the German knights in the Battle of Tannenberg (1410), and those in the Hungarian Army struggle against Turkish aggression. Side by side with Russians and Moldavians, Ukrainians repulsed the Tatar raids.

Development of serfdom and the struggle of the popular masses against it; reunification with Russia (15th to the mid-17th century). The name “Ukraine, ” meaning “borderlands” (from the Russian krai, “border”), was initially applied only to certain southwestern Russian lands. Subsequently, it was extended to all the present Ukrainian lands and became an ethnic name. From the 16th century the name was used in official documents to designate the entire Ukraine. In the 14th and 15th centuries the Ukrainians emerged as a distinct ethnic community with their own language, culture, and customs. The consolidation of the Ukrainian nation occurred over the next two centuries.

Despite the difficult foreign and domestic political situation, the Ukraine continued to develop economically. The three-field system of land cultivation was widely adopted. In the cities the number of artisans, including guild members, increased, and trade expanded. Many Ukrainian cities received the right of self-government (Magdeburg law), although the right was severely curtailed by the central government and magnates. The 15th and 16th centuries saw the proliferation of large feudal estates (fol’varki), which used serf labor and produced agricultural commodities chiefly for the foreign market. The estates were created through the seizure of peasant lands, resulting in diminishing peasant landholdings and an increase in the number of peasants who were landless or whose plots were too small to support them. In response, the peasants intensified their antifeudal struggle by migrating to other areas, fleeing to the southern steppes, or refusing to perform their feudal obligations. They sometimes resorted to killing their landlords and to open uprisings, such as the peasant uprising led by Mukha, which engulfed Galicia and the northern Bucovina in 1490–92, and the Dózsa Rebellion, which broke out in Transcarpathia in 1514.

In the mid-15th century Turks and Tatars from the Crimean Khanate began raiding Galicia and Podolia. Kiev was destroyed by Mengli Girei’s army in 1482, and both the Kiev area and Podolia suffered incursions in subsequent years. The Ukrainian cossacks played a prominent role in the liberation struggle of the Ukrainian people and in the defense of the Ukraine against enemy hordes. The Zaporozh’e Sech’, the main cossack stronghold, was established in the 16th century. From the late 15th century the centralized Russian state also played a large role in the Ukrainian people’s struggle against foreign invaders, eventually becoming their main support in their fight for freedom and independence. Russia’s struggle against the Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords and the Crimean Tatars undeniably hastened the liberation of the Ukraine. After the war of 1500–03, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ceded almost all of the Chernigov Land to the Russian state.

In the mid-16th century the situation in the Ukraine deteriorated rapidly. By the Union of Lublin (1569), Lithuania and Poland merged into a single state, called the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which included the Ukrainian lands of Volyn’, eastern Podolia, the Kiev area, and part of the left bank of the Dnieper. The Polish magnates seized land in the Ukraine. The estates of some magnate families came to include hundreds of towns and villages. The movement of peasants from one estate to another was gradually restricted, until it was completely forbidden in 1588 by the Third Lithuanian Statute. The peasants became disfranchised serfs, and the urban population was impoverished. This state of affairs was aggravated by national and religious oppression. Whereas the Polish Catholic population enjoyed various privileges in crafts, trade, and other spheres, the rights of the Ukrainians were restricted.

The peasant and cossack uprisings of the late 16th century, in which the Zaporozh’e cossacks joined the peasants and urban poor, hold an important place in the Ukraine’s struggle for independence. Discontent with the tyranny of the Polish magnates was also widespread among the registered cossack host, which the Polish government had created in the second half of the 16th century to suppress popular movements and to protect the Ukraine against Tatar-Turkish raids. The peasant and cossack uprising of 1591–93, headed by Hetmán K. Kosinskii, engulfed the Kiev area, Podolia, and Volyn’. Another uprising, headed by S. Nalivaiko, broke out in 1594 and spread to part of Galacia and Byelorussia. The rebellion was brutally suppressed by the Polish authorities in 1596.

By the Brest Union of 1596, the Orthodox Church in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth merged with the Catholic Church and became known as the Uniate Church. The merger was proclaimed over the objections of the majority of the Ukrainian clergy and of all the Ukrainian people. An antiunion movement spread through the Ukraine. In the cities, cultural and religious organizations called brotherhoods established schools and printing presses and issued literature directed against the union and Catholicism.

Serfdom became much more oppressive in the Ukraine after the defeat of the peasant and cossack uprisings of the late 16th century. In 1606 a peasant war broke out in the Chernigov-Sever-skii region under the leadership of I. I. Bolotnikov. Ukrainian cossacks, peasants, and urban poor fought together against the oppressors. In the first half of the 17th century the Ukrainian people continued their struggle against Turkish and Tatar invaders. Cossacks launched campaigns against Varna, Belgorod, Kili-ia, Izmail, Trebizond, Sinope, and Istanbul. In 1616 cossacks captured Kaffa, and in 1621 they played an important role in the victory of Polish and Lithuanian troops over the Turks at Khotin. The Zaporozh’e cossacks assisted the Don cossacks in the defense of Azov from 1637 to 1642.

From the 1630’s large numbers of Ukrainian peasants and cossacks resettled in the steppes bordering on the Russian state, the region that came to be known as the Slobodskaia Ukraine. The Ukrainian liberation movement, whose objective was liberation from the rule of the Polish szlachta (nobility) and reunification with Russia, gained momentum after 1625. A peasant uprising in which cossacks also participated broke out in May 1630. Led by Taras Fedorovich (Triasilo), the rebellion engulfed the Kiev and Poltava lands. In 1635 the rebels, led by I. Sulima, destroyed the Kodak Fortress, which the Polish authorities had built to bar the peasants’ path to the Zaporozh’e Sech’. Another uprising, led by P. M. But (Pavliuk), broke out in 1637. The next year almost the entire Left-bank Ukraine was caught up in an antifeudal struggle led by Ia. Ostrianin and K. Skidan. The suppression of the movement forced Ostrianin and some of the cossacks to retreat to Russian-held territory and to settle in the Slobodskaia Ukraine. Rebels led by D. Gunia continued to fight heroically and then also withdrew to Russian areas.

The plight of the Ukrainian people became desperate by the middle of the 17th century. The magnates and the szlachta continued to seize peasant and cossack lands, enserf the peasants, and rob the townspeople. They also oppressed the lower ranks of the registered cossacks, the Ukrainian petty nobility, and the lower Orthodox clergy. The general discontent and opposition culminated in the Ukrainian Liberation War (1648–54), which led to the Ukraine’s reunification with Russia in 1654. Bogdan Khmel’nitskii led the people’s struggle against the oppression of gentry Poland.

In view of the numerous requests of representatives of the Ukrainian people and the threat to the Ukrainian people’s existence posed by the Polish and Turkish-Tatar aggressors, the Russian government convened a zemskii sobor (assembly) in Moscow on Oct. 1,1653, which resolved to reunite the Ukraine with Russia and to declare war on Poland. The Pereiaslav rada, which met on Jan. 8, 1654, also adopted a resolution calling for the reunification of the Ukraine with Russia. The March Articles (1654) established the autonomous status of the Ukraine within Russia and defined the rights and privileges of the cossack starshina (higher officers), the Ukrainian nobility, and the higher clergy. The reunification of the Ukraine with Russia, a fulfillment of the Ukrainian people’s age-old aspirations and hopes, was a turning point in their history and played a progressive role in their subsequent economic, political, and cultural development.

Social and economic development in the second half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. By late 1654, Russian and Ukrainian troops had liberated the Smolensk area and part of Byelorussia; they subsequently liberated part of Podolia and most of eastern Galicia. The Russian and Ukrainian troops were forced to retreat to the Dnieper after an invasion by Crimean Tatars, who were allies of the Poles. After the outbreak of the Russo-Swedish War (1656) for control over the Baltic area, the burden of fighting simultaneously in the northwest and the west compelled the Russian government to conclude an armistice at Wilno (Vilnius) on Oct. 23 (Nov. 2), 1656.

The liberation war of 1648–54 had important consequences for the Left-bank Ukraine, which became part of Russia. By ending the rule of the Polish szlachta, the war substantially undermined and weakened serfdom. Moreover, many peasants had become cossacks during the war. Soon after the war, however, Ukrainian feudal lords began enlarging their domains. The popular masses resisted the growing feudal exploitation. Peasant and cossack uprisings led by M. Pushkar’ and Ia. F. Barabash took place in 1657–58, and the next year I. Bogun led a rebellion against Hetmán I. E. Vygovskii, who tried to separate the Ukraine from Russia and to restore the rule of the Polish szlachta. In the 1660’s the Ukrainian people fought against the traitorous hetmans Iu. B. Khmel’nitskii, P. I. Teteria, P. D. Doroshenko, and I. M. Briukhovetskii, who tried to restore Polish and Turkish hegemony. The war between Russia and Poland over the Ukraine ended with the Armistice of Andrusovo (1667), which confirmed Russia’s sovereignty over the Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev.

Ruled by the Polish szlachta, the Right-bank Ukraine suffered under an onerous corvée system and numerous taxes and labor obligations. After seizing Podolia in 1672, Turkey appointed its henchman Iu. B. Khmel’nitskii hetmán of the Ukraine in 1677 and attempted to conquer the remaining Ukrainian lands but was repulsed by large Russian and Ukrainian forces in the Chigirin campaigns of 1677–78. The reverses obliged the Turkish government to conclude the Peace Treaty of Bakhchisarai (1681) with Russia. Nevertheless, the continuing threat of Turkish aggression impelled Russia to conclude the Eternal Peace (1686) with Poland, confirming Russian sovereignty over the Left-bank Ukraine, Kiev, and Zaporozh’e. Poland retained its control over the Right-bank Ukraine and Galicia. Podolia remained under Turkish rule until 1699 and the northern Bucovina until 1774. Transcarpathia continued to be held by Hungarian feudal lords.

The formation of the Ukrainian bourgeois nation began in the 17th century. In the late 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries the feudal starshina of the Left-bank and Slobodskaia Ukraine created large landed estates by purchasing or forcibly seizing peasant and cossack lands (seeSTARSHINA, COSSACK). The Manifesto of 1701, issued by Hetmán I. S. Mazepa, legalized the corvée system. Furthermore, restrictions were placed on the peasants’ mobility—for example, peasants were prohibited from moving to slobody (tax-exempt settlements) or enlisting in cossack regiments. The starshina owned industrial enterprises manufacturing saltpeter, glass, and iron and controlled much of the trade. Gradually, the starshina gained class privileges, and starshina dynasties emerged to dominate Ukrainian regiments and sotni (units of 100 men). Among prominent starshina families were the Apostols, Zabels, and Lizogubs.

The growing enserfment and exploitation sparked rebellions among the popular masses, the largest of which were the uprising of 1687, the peasant and cossack uprisings of the 1690’s, and K. Bulavin’s movement of 1707–08. The plight of the peasants in the Right-bank and western Ukrainian lands remained miserable. In addition to performing labor services four or five days a week, the peasants were burdened with various other obligations exacted by the szlachta, royal officials, and the Uniate Church. The authorities tried to suppress Ukrainian culture, and the Orthodox Church was persecuted. Under these circumstances the liberation movement gained ground, manifesting itself in the popular uprising of 1702–04 led by S. F. Palii, the operations of rebel Haidamak detachments in the 1730’s and 1740’s, the Oprishki movement led by O. V. Dovbush in Galicia in the 1730’s and 1740’s, and the popular uprising in Transcarpathia that lasted from 1703 to 1711.

The Ukrainian cossack host fought alongside the Russian Army in the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 and in the Azov campaigns of 1695–96. After Russia concluded a peace treaty with Turkey in 1700, the predatory Turkish and Tatar raids on the Ukraine ceased for a time. The Ukrainian cossack host also participated in the first phase of the Northern War (1700–21). At this time an anti-Russian conspiracy headed by Hetmán Mazepa arose among the starshina elite. Mazepa sought to return the Left-bank Ukraine to Polish rule and concluded secret anti-Russian treaties with Poland and Sweden. General Judge V. L. Kochubei and Colonel I. I. Iskra were unsuccessful in their efforts to expose the hetman’s treachery, and when Swedish troops invaded the Ukraine in October 1708, Mazepa defected with part of the starshina and some 2,000 to 3,000 cossacks.

The Ukrainian people remained loyal to the union with Russia and initiated a people’s war against the Swedish invaders. The Swedish Army’s attacks on Poltava were heroically repulsed by the city’s inhabitants and by the small garrison that manned the city’s fortifications under the command of A. S. Kelin (April-June 1709). Ukrainian cossack regiments fought in the battle of Poltava (1709) and pursued the Swedes as far as the Dnieper. The victorious conclusion of the Northern War saved the Ukraine from foreign occupation. However, the failure of the Prut Campaign (1711) forced Russia to give up temporarily its attempts to liberate the Right-bank Ukraine.

The Ukraine benefited from the reforms introduced by Peter the Great’s government because they stimulated the exploration of mineral resources and the founding of manufacturing enterprises in Akhtyrka, Putivl’, Pochep, Riaski, and other cities in the 1720’s and 1730’s. At the same time, the tsarist government tightened its control over the Ukraine. In retaliation for Maze-pa’s betrayal, the Russian Army destroyed the Zaporozh’e Sech’ in 1709. The Zaporozh’e cossacks who fled to the Crimean Khanate formed the Aleshki Sech’. After the Russian government granted their request to return to the Ukraine, the cossacks founded the Novaia Sech’ in 1734.

In 1709 a tsarist official was appointed to advise the hetmán, and in 1722 the Little Russian Collegium was established to supervise the activity of the hetmán and the starshina. After the death of Hetmán 1.1. Skoropadskii in 1722, the election of a new hetmán was prohibited, and Hetmán P. L. Polubotok was appointed to govern the Ukraine for a specified term. Deteriorating relations with Turkey obliged the tsarist government to consent to the election of D. P. Apóstol as hetmán in 1727. After Apo-stol’s death in 1734, elections were again prohibited. The Hetman’s Office (Uriad), composed of tsarist officials and members of the starshina, was created to administer the Left-bank Ukraine, which came to be known as the Hetmanate. In 1750, K. G. Razumovskii was appointed hetmán of the Ukraine. The tsarist government finally abolished the Hetmanate in 1764, and the Left-bank Ukraine was once more placed under the administration of the Little Russian Collegium, headed by Field Marshal P. A. Rumiantsev-Zadunaiskii.

In 1775 the tsarist government abolished the New Sech’ and distributed most of its land among Russian and Ukrainian noble landowners (pomeshchiki). The Black Sea Cossack Host was formed in 1787 and resettled in the Kuban’ Region in 1792–93. Enraged over the abolition of the Sech’, a group of starshina and cossacks left the Russian Empire and settled on Turkish territory, forming the Zadunaiskaia Sech’ along the Lower Danube. In 1781 the tsarist government abolished the polk (regimental) administrative system in the Left-bank Ukraine. Over the next decade the Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod-Severskii, Kharkov, and Ekaterinoslav vicegerencies were set up in the Left-bank, Slobodskaia, and southern Ukraine.

The second quarter of the 18th century saw the further enserfment of the Ukrainian peasantry, whose mobility was increasingly restricted.

Serfdom in the second half of the 18th century; the emergence of capitalist relations. By the second half of the 18th century a feudal serf economy prevailed in the Ukraine. Capitalist relations were emerging, however, to hasten the disintegration of the feudal mode of production. Commodity-money relations developed rapidly, spreading to all branches of the economy. In adapting their estates to the demands of commodity production, the noble landlords intensified their exploitation of the feudally dependent peasants. The peasants had to perform labor services three days a week; on some estates a corvée of four or five days a week was imposed. The tsarist decree of May 3, 1783, juridically sanctioned the complete enserfment of the peasants of the Left-bank and Slobodskaia Ukraine. In 1785 the cossack starshina was placed on an equal footing with the Russian nobility. The tsarist government deprived the rank-and-file cossacks of many of their privileges and classified them as a separate estate comparable to the state peasants. In 1796 the tsarist government extended the Russian legislation on the enserfment of the peasants to the southern Ukraine.

The peasants of the Right-bank Ukraine and eastern Galicia, areas that were included in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, lived under the heavy yoke of feudal serfdom. An oppressive corvée system, various taxes, and the landlords’ monopoly on grain milling, distilling, and the sale of tar and saltpeter resulted in the impoverishment of the peasantry and the decline of cities. The Polish government pursued a policy of forcible po-lonization in the Right-bank Ukraine. After the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, when Austria acquired eastern Galicia and the northern Bucovina, the popular masses had to endure not only the brutal exploitation by Ukrainian and Polish landlords but also the tyranny of the Austrian ruling classes, who aimed at forcible germanization of the Ukrainian population. In the Transcarpathian Ukraine, which had been annexed by Austria along with Hungary in the early 18th century, the condition of the peasantry steadily deteriorated.

In the second half of the 18th century social differentiation among the peasantry became more marked in the Left-bank and Slobodskaia Ukraine, especially among state peasants. Commodity production using hired labor expanded rapidly in the southern Ukraine, where serfdom had not become entrenched. The more highly developed Russian industry had a progressive influence on industrial production in the Left-bank and Slobodskaia Ukraine. In the late 18th century there were more than 200 large industrial enterprises (manufactures) in the Ukraine, including landlords’ manufactures operating with serf labor, state manufactures manned by state and assigned peasants (seePRIPISNYE KRESTIANE), and capitalist manufactures relying on wage labor. Along with serf labor, wage labor became increasingly important in the landlords’ and state manufactures. Various artisan crafts flourished in the cities, among them the making of clothing and ifootwear, smithery, coopery, leatherworking, and weaving.

The expansion of commodity production stimulated the growth of trade in the Ukraine. Fairs strengthened the economic ties between the various Ukrainian lands and promoted the growth of trade between the Ukraine and central Russia. The fairs in Kro-levets, Nezhin, Romny, Sumy, Starodub, and Kharkov were all-Russian fairs. After the abolition of customs barriers in 1754, the Left-bank Ukraine was rapidly incorporated into the all-Russian market.

The shipment of freight, controlled by wealthy carters who exploited wage laborers, became an important economic activity in the areas that were reunited with Russia. After the Russo-Turkish wars of 1768–74, under the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, Russia acquired the lands between the mouths of the Don and Iuzhnyi Bug rivers, ensuring access to the Black Sea. The Crimean Khanate was included in the Russian Empire in 1783. In the second half of the 18th century the Northern Black Sea Coast was named Novorossiia (New Russia).

The 18th century was marked by intensified class antagonisms and resistance to serfdom. In the Right-bank Ukraine the Haida-mak movement culminated in several uprisings, the largest of which, the Koliivshchina (1768), included fugitive Russian and Moldavian peasants. Detachments headed by S. Garkusha operated in the Left-bank and Slobodskaia Ukraine. The peasants’ struggle against serfdom in this part of the Ukraine gained momentum during the Peasant War led by E. I. Pugachev (1773–75), when many Ukrainian peasants went to the Volga Region to join Pugachev’s army. There were uprisings of peasants and workers employed in manufactures in several parts of the Ukraine. All these rebellions against serfdom were brutally suppressed.

After the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–91, Russia acquired the area between the Iuzhnyi Bug and the Dnestr under the Peace of Jassy. The Ukrainian people, including the Black Sea Cossack Host, had fought in the war with Turkey. The liberation of the Black Sea Coast was of great importance for the further economic development of the southern Ukraine, whose population grew rapidly. The tsarist government granted land to foreign colonists, both German settlers and Bulgarians, Greeks, Serbs, and Moldavians who had fled from Turkish oppression. Among the cities that were founded in the southern Ukraine after 1750 were Kherson, Aleksandrovsk (now Zaporozh’e), Mariupol’ (now Zhdanov), Ekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk), Nikolaev, Odessa, and Elizavetgrad (now Kirovograd).

By the second and third partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the entire Right-bank Ukraine and Volyn’ were reunited with Russia. The reunification promoted the growth of the Ukraine’s productive forces, strengthened the economic and cultural ties between the various Ukrainian lands, and created favorable conditions for the further development of the Ukrainian nation.

The second half of the 18th century saw the spread of social thought critical of tsarism and serfdom, condemned in such works as G. S. Skovoroda’s philosophical writings and poetry, Ia. P. Kozel’skii’s works, and V. V. Kapnist’s Ode to Slavery. Secular literature containing elements of realism became more important. The creative forces of the Ukrainian people developed, and their ties with the fraternal Russian people expanded.

Disintegration and crisis of serfdom; growth of capitalism (late 18th century to 1861). In 1796 the Left-bank Ukraine was designated the Little Russian Province, and the Slobodskaia Ukraine became the Slobodsko-Ukraine Province, renamed Kharkov Province in 1835. The Right-bank Ukraine was administratively divided into Kiev, Volyn’, and Podolia provinces, which from 1832 made up the Kiev Governor-Generalship. In the early 19th century the Little Russian Province became a governor-generalship incorporating Chernigov and Poltava provinces. In the southern Ukraine, Ekaterinoslav, Kherson, and Tavrida provinces were established in 1802–03; after 1812 these provinces were joined with the Bessarabian Oblast to form the Novorossi-isk-Bessarabian Governor-Generalship.

An industrial bourgeoisie and a proletariat emerged in the Ukraine in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The urban population increased from 512,900 in 1811 to 1,456,800 in 1858. In the early 19th century the bulk of the Ukraine’s population of 7.5 million consisted of noblemen’s and state peasants. In the late 1850’s there were 5.4 million serfs in the Ukraine, of whom more than 3 million lived in the Right-bank Region, 1.7 million in the Left-bank Region, and 700,000 in the south. State peasants numbered 3.2 million.

Agriculture continued to develop despite the dominance of serfdom. Commercial cultivation of tobacco and hemp expanded in the Left-bank Ukraine, and large quantities of wheat and sugar beets were raised in the Right-bank Ukraine. In the south the herds of fine-fleeced sheep were increasing, and wheat production was expanding. There was an increase in the sale of such commodities as grain, alcohol, cloth, sugar, paper, glass, saltpeter, and potash. Most of the commercial grain was produced on noblemen’s estates, which increasingly came to rely on wage labor and agricultural machinery. Social differentation among the peasantry became more marked.

The decline of serfdom was accompanied by a development of industry and peasant crafts and by an increase in the number of industrial workers. In 1825 there were 674 industrial enterprises, excluding distilleries, employing 15,200 workers. By 1860 there were 2,147 enterprises employing 85,000 workers, 54 percent of whom were hired laborers. The industrial revolution, which spread to the Ukraine in the 1830’s and reached its peak in the 1890’s, transformed the sugar and cloth industries. In 1860 there were some 20 machine-building plants and many machine shops in the Ukraine. Capitalist enterprises gradually supplanted the noblemen’s enterprises that had used serf labor. By 1861 more than 200,000 workers were employed in factories and artisan shops.

The late 18th century and the first half of the 19th witnessed a steady growth of trade in the Ukraine, now integrated into the all-Russian market. Of the roughly 5,000 fairs held in Russia in 1858, 2,000 took place in the Ukraine. The Ukraine also played a major role in Russia’s foreign trade, exporting grain, livestock and hunting products, fish, and such manufactured goods as candles, rope, and linen. From 1812 to 1859 grain exports through the ports of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov accounted for 41 percent of the grain exported from European Russia.

Economically, the western Ukrainian lands annexed by Austria (with 1,730,000 inhabitants in the late 18th century) lagged behind the Ukrainian lands in the Russian Empire. Their natural resources were scarcely exploited. In 1841, Galicia and the Bucovina accounted for 20 percent of the population of the Austrian Empire and only 7.5 percent of the value of its industrial output.

Ukrainians fought alongside Russians in the Patriotic War of 1812. The Ukraine supplied 15 cossack regiments and about 20 regiments of cavalry and infantry militiamen. Russia’s victory had a great impact on all aspects of public life in both Russia and the Ukraine. There were spontaneous uprisings against serfdom. The harsh regimen in the military settlements that were established in the Ukraine in 1816 sparked a rebellion among the Bug cossacks in 1817 and among the Chuguev military colonists in 1819. The southern Ukraine was the scene of a peasant movement in 1818–20. The all-Russian Decembrist movement spread to the Ukraine, where the Southern Society was founded in 1821 and the Society of the United Slavs in 1823. The uprising that broke out in St. Petersburg on Dec. 14,1825, was followed by an uprising in the vicinity of Kiev that lasted from Dec. 29,1825, to Jan. 3, 1826 (Jan. 10–15, 1826). The Decembrist uprising in the Ukraine was also crushed.

A mass peasant uprising headed by the soldier A. Semenov broke out in Uman’ District, Kiev Province, in the spring of 1826. A rebellion against serfdom, led by U. Ia. Karmaliuk, swept across Podolia in the first half of the 19th century, engulfing adjoining districts of Kiev Province and Bessarabia. During the Polish Uprising of 1830–31 the majority of the Ukrainian peasants did not support the rebels and opposed the szlachta’s attempts to bring the Right-bank Ukraine under Polish rule. In an effort to draw the Ukrainian peasants into the struggle against the Polish national liberation movement, in which the Polish landlords of the Right-bank Ukraine were active, the tsarist government introduced the Inventory Regulations (1847–48), giving the peasants control over their nadel land allotments (seeNADEL) and fixing the amount of corvée and other feudal obligations.

In the 1840’s the Ukrainian liberation movement, hitherto dominated by revolutionary noblemen, entered a bourgeois democratic, raznochintsy phase (seeRAZNOCHINTSY). A secret political organization called the Society of Cyril and Methodius was founded in Kiev in December 1845 and January 1846. Its program called for an end to serfdom, national inequality, and noblemen’s privileges and for the unification of all the Slavic peoples in a federal republic. The society’s revolutionary democratic wing was headed by T. G. Shevchenko. In 1847 the tsarist government disbanded the society and hounded its members.

In the first half of the 19th century the struggle of the popular masses against serfdom intensified in the western Ukrainian lands, where Oprishki detachments operated under the command of D. Marusiak, I. Voloshchuk, A. Revizorchuk, and M. Shtoliuk. In the Bucovina the peasant movement reached its height in the 1840’s under the leadership of Luk’ian Kobylitsa.

The revolution that broke out in Austria in March 1848 soon spread to the western Ukrainian lands. The revolutionary events impelled Emperor Ferdinand I to issue a decree abolishing the corvée in Galicia and paving the way for an agrarian reform favorable to the landlords. In return for their “liberation, ” the peasants, who lost their forests and pastures and a large part of their plowland, were to make heavy redemption payments for 40 years. The bourgeois intelligentsia and the higher Uniate clergy sought to lead the national liberation movement in eastern Galicia through the Golovna Rus’ka Rada, founded in L’vov in May 1848. The organization restricted itself to cultural demands and soon sided with the Austrian government, which crushed the revolution with the aid of the tsarist government.

The main burden of the Crimean War (1853–56) fell on the peasants. The peasant movement gained strength throughout Russia, including the Ukraine, where it reached its height in 1855 in the Kiev Kazatchina. The next year large peasant uprisings took place in Kherson and Ekaterinoslav provinces. During the revolutionary situation of 1859–61, A. I. Herzen’s Kolokol and other publications of the Free Russian Press circulated widely in the Ukraine. The largest of the secret revolutionary organizations was the Secret Society of Kharkov and Kiev, a revolutionary democratic student organization that existed from 1856 to 1863.

Growth of industrial capitalism and the beginning of the proletariat’s revolutionary struggle (second half of the 19th century). The Peasant Reform of 1861, a bourgeois reform that abolished serfdom, nevertheless preserved many of its vestiges. In six Ukrainian provinces alone more than 985,000 desiatiny (1,073,650 hectares) were taken from the peasants and turned over to the landlords. The peasants resisted the implementation of the exploitative reform. About 170 large uprisings were suppressed by tsarist troops from March to May 1861.

The revolutionary democratic movement in the Ukraine was an integral part of the all-Russian revolutionary movement. The leading disseminators of revolutionary ideas in the Ukraine were Lieutenant Colonel A. A. Krasovskii, the student E. M. Mossa-kovskii, and the surveyor I. A. Andrushchenko. Both Russian and Ukrainian democrats supported the Polish Uprising of 1863–64, which spread to parts of the Right-bank Ukraine. The uprising forced the tsarist government to hasten the Peasant Reform in the Right-bank Ukraine and to make it more favorable to the peasants there than in the Left-bank and southern Ukraine. Concurrently, however, national oppression grew. A circular issued by the minister of internal affairs in 1863 prohibited the printing of textbooks and popular science works in Ukrainian.

In the western Ukraine, a political group representing the interests of the large landowners and clergy emerged after the defeat of the Revolution of 1848–49 in Austria. Known as the Mos-cophiles, the group sought the support of the tsarist regime and at the same time curried favor with the Austrian government. The region’s liberal bourgeois Narodovtsy, many of whom were nationalists, aspired to an alliance with the Austrian government. The western Ukrainian revolutionary democrats, headed by I. Ia. Franko, vigorously opposed both the Moscophiles and the Narodovtsy.

From the late 1860’s to the 1880’s the Narodniki (Populists) played the leading role in the revolutionary movement in the Ukraine, as throughout Russia. Populist groups, of which the most prominent were the Kiev Commune and the Odessa section of the Chaikovskii circle, sprang up in several Ukrainian cities in the early 1870’s. Almost all the Ukrainian provinces were affected by the “going to the people” movement. I. M. Koval’skii’s circle and the Southern Rebels were active in the mid-1870’s. In 1877 insurgents led by la. V. Stefanovich tried to incite a peasant rebellion in Chigirin District, Kiev Province, and the next year Ukrainian Populists, among them V. A. Osinskii, committed several terrorist acts against government officials in Kiev, Odessa, and Kharkov.

Members of the People’s Will, including S. N. Khalturin, A. I. Zheliabov, N. I. Kibal’chich, and M. F. Florenko, engaged in revolutionary work in the Ukraine. In November 1879 members of the People’s Will in Odessa and Aleksandrovsk were planning the assassination of Alexander II. The following year members of another Populist organization, the Black Partition (Chernyi Peredel), founded the South Russian Workers’ Union in Kiev. The late 1870’s saw the growing influence of the Gromady, cultural organizations founded by the Ukrainian bourgeois liberal intelligentsia after the Reform of 1861 in Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, and other Ukrainian cities. There were student disturbances at the University of Kiev and at Novorossiia University (Odessa).

The abolition of serfdom was followed by rapid development of capitalism in the Ukraine. From 1869 to 1897 the number of industrial enterprises rose from 3,712 to 8,063, and the value of industrial output increased from 71 million to 439 million rubles. A rapid concentration of production took place. By the late 19th century the Ukraine had become the main coal and metallurgical base of the Russian Empire and the country’s chief sugar producer. Its agricultural machinery was sold nationwide. Belgian, French, and German capitalists invested heavily in Ukrainian industry, especially in mining. The expansion of the Ukraine’s industry and domestic market stimulated railroad construction, so that by the late 19th century the Ukraine had 10,000 versts (10,700 km) of railroads, or one-fifth of Russia’s railroad network. A modern industrial proletariat evolved as the Ukrainian working class increased from 86,000 persons in the 1860’s to 330,000 in the 1890’s. Most of the industrial workers were employed in the mining, metallurgical, and metalworking industries of the southern Ukraine.

Capitalism also transformed agriculture, in which the feudal labor-service system (seeOTRABOTKI) was gradually giving way to the capitalist mode of production. In the 1880’s capitalist relations prevailed in agriculture in the southern and Right-bank Ukraine. Farm machinery was widely used, especially in the southern Ukraine, and more than 90 percent of the sown area was planted to grain. Capitalist expansion in agriculture caused the rapid social decline of the peasantry: in the southern Ukraine hundreds of thousands of farm laborers worked on farms owned by noble landlords and kulaks (rich peasants). Moreover, noble landholdings in the Ukraine decreased from 16 million desiatinas (17.4 million ha) in 1877 to 12.2 million desiatinas (13.3 million ha) in the early 20th century while kulaks’ and merchants’ land-holdings increased. From the 1860’s to the 1890’s cities grew rapidly, and the urban population more than doubled, reaching 4.32 million in 1896.

The Ukraine played a prominent role in Russia’s domestic and foreign trade. Exports through the ports of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and through inland customs houses in the Ukraine accounted for more than 50 percent of the value of Russia’s exports across its European borders.

Under the oppressive rule of Austria-Hungary, the western Ukraine became a source of raw material and a market for manufactured goods. Its industry, consisting chiefly of small enterprises and workshops, developed slowly. Agriculture was in a state of decline. The numerous feudal vestiges that remained after the abolition of serfdom in 1848, coupled with oppressive taxation and exploitation by landlords and kulaks, impoverished the peasantry.

The formation of a bourgeois Ukrainian nation was completed after the Peasant Reform of 1861, when a bourgeois class and a proletariat evolved. The Ukrainian workers’ movement was an integral part of the all-Russian workers’ movement. The number of workers’ demonstrations and strikes increased from year to year, rising from 72 in the 1860’s and 1870’s to 110 between 1880 and 1894 and to 226 between 1895 and 1899.

The first proletarian organization in the Ukraine was the South Russian Workers’ Union, founded in Odessa in 1875 by E. O. Zaslavskii. Marxism began spreading throughout Russia and the Ukraine in the 1870’s. One of the first popularizers of Marx’ economic theories was N. I. Ziber, a professor at the University of Kiev.

The working people of the western Ukraine joined the struggle against social and national oppression under the leadership of I. Ia. Franko and M. I. Pavlik. After 1895 the liberation movement in the Ukraine, as in Russia, entered its proletarian phase. Under the influence of the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, such leagues were founded in Kiev and Ekaterinoslav in 1897. The organizers and leaders of the Ekaterinoslav League of Struggle were V. I. Lenin’s followers and companions-in-arms I. V. Babushkin and I. Kh. Lalaiants. The leagues of struggle led workers’ strikes, engaged in revolutionary propaganda and agitation, and printed and disseminated leaflets. They were instrumental in convening the First Congress of the RSDLP.

The Ukraine in the era of imperialism and of the bourgeois democratic revolutions in Russia (1900–17). In the early 20th century the economy of the Ukraine, like that of all Russia, was marked by the appearance of large monopolies, a strong influx of foreign capital into such important industries as coal mining and metallurgy, and the existence of vestiges of serfdom. The exploitation of Ukrainian workers and peasants by the bourgeoisie and noble landlords was exacerbated by tsarism’s great-power and reactionary policies. Denigrating Ukrainian culture and persecuting its progressive representatives, the government tried to stifle the Ukrainian language, press, and theater.

The main goals of the Ukrainian people’s liberation movement in the early 20th century were the destruction of tsarism, social and national liberation, and the reunification of the western Ukrainian population with the rest of the Ukrainian people. The movement had the same class orientation as the revolutionary struggle of the Russian and other peoples of the Russian Empire against tsarism and capitalism. The unity of the Russian and Ukrainian working class was the decisive factor in the international alliance for the liberation of the Ukraine. Lenin’s newspaper Iskra was of great importance for the political education of the Ukrainian working class in the spirit of proletarian internationalism.

A political demonstration was held in Kharkov in 1900, and two years later a peasant uprising engulfed Kharkov and Poltava provinces. The working people of the Ukraine participated in the general strike that took place in south Russia in 1903 and in the Revolution of 1905–07, when 170,000 people were on strike from January to March 1905. About 50,000 people participated in the 1905 May Day strikes, and that summer the peasant movement spread over half of the Ukraine. The revolt that broke out in June on the battleship Potemkin was supported by the workers of Odessa. About 120,000 workers struck in the Ukraine during the October All-Russian Political Strike of 1905.

By the end of 1905 soviets of workers’ deputies had been formed in Kiev, Ekaterinoslav, Odessa, Nikolaev, Iuzovka, and other cities. Revolutionary disturbances persisted in the army and navy, culminating in the Sevastopol’ Mutiny and the Kiev Sapper Uprising. The December armed uprising in Moscow found support in the Ukraine, where political strikes paralyzed the major industrial centers. The Donets Coal Basin (Donbas) was the scene of an armed uprising whose focal point was Gorlov-ka. During the peasant unrest some 300 landlords’ manors were destroyed.

In 1906 the revolutionary tide ebbed gradually in the cities. The working class did not retreat without a struggle, however; some 100,000 workers went on strike that year. Fearing an escalation of the revolution, the Ukrainian bourgeoisie and its nationalist organizations cooperated with the tsarist government, as shown by the activity of the Ukrainian Duma Gromada in the First and Second state dumas.

The Revolution of 1905–07 had an enormous impact on the various peoples of Austria-Hungary, including its western Ukrainian population. The liberation movement in the western Ukrainian lands spread among the masses and matured politically. During this period demonstrations in support of the Russian Revolution, May Day celebrations, and public gatherings calling for universal suffrage took place in L’vov, Drogobych, Stanislav (now Ivano-Frankovsk), Chernovtsy, and other cities. The number of enterprises affected by strikes increased by a factor of 4 from 1900 to 1905 in Galicia and by a factor of 20 between 1901 and 1905 in the Bucovina. In Galicia alone, peasant strikes were staged in 384 villages in 1906. The national liberation movement gained ground among the western Ukrainian working people, who, unlike the pro-Hapsburg Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists, advocated reunification with Russia.

During the reactionary period that lasted from 1907 to 1910, Bolshevik organizations were persecuted in the Ukraine, trade unions were disbanded, and thousands of participants in the revolutionary movement were executed, imprisoned, or exiled. An economic depression affecting all branches of industry caused the shutdown of enterprises and a decline in the production of coal, manganese, and metal goods. Introduced in 1906, the Stolypin Agrarian Reform was intended to make the kulaks the social bulwark of tsarism in the countryside. Between 1907 and 1911 more than 226,000 fragmented peasant holdings were consolidated into farmsteads, either khutora (farms on which the peasant family lived) or otruba (farms whose owners lived in villages). As more and more nadel land (seeNADEL) was sold off, many impoverished working peasants migrated to Siberia, Middle Asia, and Kazakhstan. From 1907 to 1914 more than 1.1 million people emigrated from the Ukraine, but the harsh conditions in the new places forced about 70 percent of the immigrants to return home.

An industrial revival began in 1910 in the Ukraine, as well as throughout Russia. Coal production in the Donets Basin rose from 1,018,000,000 poods (1 pood = 16.38 kg) in 1910 to 1,550,000,000 poods in 1913. The output of cast iron and steel increased, and new enterprises were established. As the labor movement gained strength, the number of striking workers rose from about 10,000 in 1909 to 15,000 in 1911 and 132,000 in 1912. Political strikes took place more frequently. L. N. Tolstoy’s death in 1910 provided the occasion for antigovernment demonstrations in several Ukrainian cities. The Lena Massacre of 1912 sparked political strikes in Kiev, Nikolaev, and other cities. In 1914, workers in Kiev and Kharkov protested against the tsarist government’s ban on celebrations of the 100th anniversary of T. G. Shevchenko’s birth.

During World War I, industry and agriculture in the Ukraine declined, and the living conditions of the working people deteriorated drastically. Between 1913 and the summer of 1917 the production of iron ore dropped by 46 percent, manganese ore by 29 percent, cast iron by 32 percent, and steel by 33 percent. The sugar output fell from 85 million poods in 1914 to 50 million poods in 1916. The cities were plagued by food shortages, inflation, and speculation. Even worse was the fate of the working people in the western Ukrainian lands, which became battlefields. Under Bolshevik leadership, opposition to the imperialist war assumed a mass character in the Ukraine. In 1915 there were 113 strikes involving 48,000 workers, and the next year more than 196,000 workers participated in 218 strikes.

During the February Revolution of 1917 there were political strikes in Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav, Makeevka, and Gorlovka, as well as at several mines in the Donets Coal Basin. In January and February 1917 there were 50 strikes involving more than 40,000 workers in the Ukraine. After the victory of the revolution in Petrograd on Feb. 27 (Mar. 12), 1917, thousands of people took part in demonstrations and rallies of solidarity in Kiev, Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav, Lugansk (now Voroshilovgrad), Nikolaev, Kherson, and other Ukrainian cities. The tsarist administrative system was abolished, and soviets of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies were formed everywhere.

The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Civil War (1917–20). After the victory of the February Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution, dual power was established in the Ukraine, as throughout Russia. The counterrevolutionary policy of the Provisional Government was supported by the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries (SR’s), who together had a majority in the soviets at that time, as well as by the bourgeois nationalist Central Rada, founded in Kiev in March 1917. The imperialist war and the antipopular policy of the Provisional Government intensified the economic dislocation in the Ukraine (108 plants were idle in May, and 205 in June) and exacerbated the workers’ plight.

The Bolsheviks were the only spokesmen for the social and national aspirations of the Ukrainian working people. After emerging from the underground, the Bolsheviks quickly strengthened their ranks, worked in the soviets, played a major role in creating trade unions, factory and plant committees, and a workers’ militia, and conducted large-scale agitation and propaganda. Several Bolshevik newspapers were founded, including Proletarii (Proletarian) in Kharkov, Golos sotsial-demokrata (Voice of the Social Democrat) in Kiev, and Zvezda (Star) in Ekaterinoslav. V. I. Lenin’s April Theses were approved by the major party organizations in the Ukraine.

The Bolsheviks spread revolutionary ideas among soldiers, chiefly on the Southwestern Front. In the countryside they reiterated Lenin’s slogans calling for the confiscation of landlords’ land and the transfer of the land to the working peasantry. The Bolsheviks opposed both the great-power and chauvinistic policy of the Provisional Government and the antipopular nationalist policy of the Central Rada. In an effort to exploit national traditions, the Central Rada formed military units from among Ukrainian soldiers and detachments of Haidamaks and “free cossacks” from among kulaks. It sought to win over the masses with the slogan of Ukrainian autonomy within a bourgeois Russia.

The revolutionary events in central Russia found an echo in the Ukraine. The April 21 (May 4) demonstration in Petrograd, connected with the April Crisis of 1917, was followed by workers’ demonstrations in Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav, Kiev, and Odessa, in the Donets Coal Basin, and in the Krivoi Rog Region. During the June Crisis of 1917 the working people of Kiev, Kharkov, Lugansk, and several Donbas workers’ settlements, among them Gorlovka, Nikitovka, and Iuzovka (now Donetsk), held numerous rallies and demonstrations affirming Bolshevik slogans. In late June a delegation from the Provisional Government headed by A. F. Kerensky arrived in Kiev to unite the counterrevolutionary forces and to “settle” the conflict with the Central Rada. The General Secretariat of the Central Rada was declared the Provisional Government’s agency in the Ukraine.

The defeat of the Kornilovshchina helped consolidate the revolutionary forces in the Ukraine. There were mass workers’ strikes in the summer and fall of 1917 in Kharkov, Kiev, Ekaterinoslav, Odessa, Nikolaev, and the Donets Coal Basin. The agrarian movement developed into a peasant war, and hundreds of landlords’ estates were destroyed. The Bolsheviks gained a majority in the soviets. Resolutions calling for the transfer of power to the soviets were adopted by the soviets of Odessa, Kiev, Chernigov, and many cities and settlements in the Donets Coal Basin. Red Guard detachments were formed.

The victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution realized the social and national aspirations of all the peoples of the Russian Empire, including the Ukrainians. More than 100 delegates from the Ukraine attended the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which proclaimed the transfer of all power to the soviets. The Ukrainian working people approved the decrees adopted by the Congress of Soviets and expressed their wholehearted support of the Soviet government headed by V. I. Lenin. After the victory of the October Armed Uprising in Petrograd and Moscow, the Bolsheviks in the Ukraine launched a campaign for the establishment of Soviet rule everywhere. They had to fight not only the forces of the Provisional Government but also the Central Rada, which opposed the soviets and was trying to establish its rule over the Ukraine. The Central Rada still enjoyed some support among backward groups of peasants, workers, and Ukrainian soldiers.

In late October and early November 1917 workers established Soviet power without bloodshed in the Donets Coal Basin, the proletarian stronghold of the Ukraine and the place where the Bolsheviks held a majority in the soviets. Among the Donbas cities and workers’ settlements to come under the Soviet power were Lugansk, Makeevka, and Gorlovka. Soviet power was also victorious in the area along the Southwestern Front, in such towns as Lutsk, Vinnitsa, Rovno, Proskurov (now Khmel’nitski-i), Zhmerinka, Kamenets-Podol’skii, and Mogilev-Podol’skii.

A joint session of soviets of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies held in Kiev on October 27 (November 9) adopted the Bolshevik resolution to support the uprising in Petrograd and to transfer power in Kiev to a military revolutionary committee (seeKIEV ARMED UPRISINGS OF 1917 AND 1918). The Provisional Government’s troops were defeated after fierce fighting on Oct. 29–31 (Nov. 11–13), 1917. The Ukrainian bourgeoisie was quick to take advantage of the victory of the revolutionary workers and soldiers. The Central Rada seized government institutions and proclaimed itself the supreme authority in the Ukraine. In a manifesto issued on November 7 (20), the Central Rada proclaimed the Ukraine a “people’s republic” and, seeking to neutralize the effect of Lenin’s decrees, demagogically promised to establish state supervision over industry, to introduce an eight-hour workday, and to transfer the land to the peasants. Simultaneously, it terrorized the revolutionary forces in the Ukraine, dispersing soviets, arresting Bolsheviks, and disarming Red Guard detachments and revolutionary military units. Punitive detachments were sent against peasants who were dividing up landlords’ estates.

After making contact with military representatives of the Entente, the Central Rada agreed to continue the imperialist war, although it sowed confusion on the front by recalling Ukrainian soldiers. It also established contact with Russian counterrevolutionary forces, in particular those of the Don region, becoming a bastion of the all-Russian counterrevolution. In early December 1917 the Council of People’s Commissars of Soviet Russia issued a manifesto to the Ukrainian people recognizing their sovereign rights and requesting the Central Rada not to allow the movement of counterrevolutionary units across the Ukraine to the Don and to stop disarming revolutionary and Red Guard units. However, the Central Rada ignored the legitimate demands of the Soviet government.

Meeting in Kharkov on Dec. 11–12 (24–25), 1917, the First All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets proclaimed the Ukraine a Soviet republic, resolved to establish federal relations with Soviet Russia, and elected the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of the Ukraine. On December 17 (30) the Central Executive Committee formed the first Soviet government of the Ukraine, the People’s Secretariat, which included Artem (F. A. Sergeev), E. B. Bosh, V. P. Zatonskii, and N. A. Skrypnik.

In December 1917 and January 1918 the struggle against the Central Rada became a national struggle. Ukrainian workers and peasants opposing the Central Rada were joined by troops from Soviet Russia sent at the request of the Ukrainian Soviet government. The workers of Ekaterinoslav rebelled against the Central Rada on Dec. 27, 1917 (Jan. 9,1918), establishing Soviet power in the city on Dec. 29, 1917 (Jan. 11, 1918). An armed uprising on Jan. 14–17 (27–30), 1918, led to Soviet rule in Odessa. Red Guard detachments drove White Cossack bands from the Donets Coal Basin in late December 1917 and liberated the entire Left-bank Ukraine in January 1918.

After Soviet power had been established in many towns of the Right-bank Ukraine, Soviet troops fought for the liberation of Kiev. These troops included Red Guard detachments from Kharkov, the Donbas, and Sevastopol’, V. M. Primakov’s Red Cossack Regiment, and Petrograd and Moscow Red Guard detachments. An uprising led by the Bolshevik Revolutionary Committee, whose members included A. V. Ivanov and Ia. B. Ga-marnik, broke out in Kiev on Jan. 16 (29), 1918. The Arsenal Plant became the center of the uprising. The rebels continued the fight until the arrival of Soviet troops, who liberated Kiev on Jan. 26 (Feb. 8), 1918.

The initial period of peaceful socialist construction in the Ukraine was of short duration. Having imposed on Soviet Russia the rapacious Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 1918, the German and Austro-Hungarian imperialists moved their forces into the Ukraine on the basis of an agreement concluded with the Central Rada on Jan. 27 (Feb. 9), 1918, by which the latter agreed to accept German military aid against Soviet Russia. The Ukrainian working people were supported by Soviet Russia in their struggle against the invaders. Five Soviet armies were formed in the Ukraine under the command of V. A. Antonov-Ovseenko. Fierce battles were fought around Bakhmach, at Kharkov and Lugansk, and elsewhere. Nevertheless, the numerically and technically superior Austro-German forces captured Kiev, Chernigov, Odessa, and Poltava in March and Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov, and Simferopol’ in April. The Central Rada returned to the Ukraine with the invaders, who used it for their political aims and then abolished it in late April. On Apr. 29,1918, the former tsarist general P. P. Skoropadskii was proclaimed hetmán of the Ukraine.

In the summer of 1918 uprisings against the occupation forces broke out in Kiev, Poltava, Chernigov, and other provinces. The Ukrainian Bolsheviks led the liberation struggle of the Ukrainian working people. At the First Congress of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine, held in Moscow on July 5–12, the Communist Party of the Ukraine was officially established as an integral part of the unified RCP(B). The All-Ukrainian Central Military Revolutionary Committee was set up to lead the insurrections of the Ukrainian population against the German invaders. Revolutions broke out in Austria-Hungary in October and November and in Germany in November. After the Soviet government annulled the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on November 13, the expulsion of the invaders from the Ukraine was begun with the military aid of the RSFSR.

The exploiting system found a defender in the Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists led by S. V. Petliura. The bourgeois nationalist Ukrainian Directory, headed by V. K. Vinnichenko and Petliura, seized power in Kiev on December 14 and established a brutal counterrevolutionary regime. In late 1918, Entente troops entered the southern Ukraine. In Odessa the underground oblast committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine and its Foreign Board conducted revolutionary work among the interventionist troops. Partisan detachments were formed to fight the interventionists. In January and February 1919 Soviet troops liberated Kharkov, Poltava, Ekaterinoslav, and other cities from the Petliura gangs. Kiev was liberated on Feb. 5,1919. On Mar. 10, 1919, the Third All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets adopted the first constitution of the Ukrainian SSR. G. I. Petrovskii was elected chairman of the Central Executive Committee. In April 1919 revolts broke out among the crews of interventionist ships in Odessa, Sevastopol’, and Kerch’. Soviet troops liberated Kherson and Nikolaev in March and Odessa, Simferopol’, and Sevastopol’ in April.

The Ukrainian SSR, the RSFSR, and other Soviet republics concluded a political and military alliance, confirmed by the June 1,1919, decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Under the alliance they merged their armed forces, economy, and finances.

In 1918 and early 1919 the revolutionary movement spread across the western Ukrainian lands, encompassing eastern Galicia, the northern Bucovina, and the Transcarpathian Ukraine. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary the movement grew stronger. At the People’s Veche (assembly) held in Chernovtsy on Nov. 3,1918, workers demanded reunification with the Soviet Ukraine. The same demand was expressed by the Transcarpathian National Assembly, which met on Jan. 21, 1919, in Khust. The popular masses of eastern Galicia resisted the counterrevolutionary government of the so-called People’s Republic of the Western Ukraine (ZUNR), founded in early November 1918 in L’vov. In January 1919, ZUNR’s leaders made an alliance with Petliura’s supporters to fight Soviet power in the Ukraine. A communist-led uprising that broke out in Drogobych on April 14–15 was brutally suppressed.

The policies of the ZUNR government led to the occupation of the republic by bourgeois-landlord Poland in July 1919. In November 1918 the northern Bucovina had been absorbed by bo-yar-dominated Rumania against the wishes of its population. The Entente imperialists gave Transcarpathia to bourgeois Czechoslovakia. The working people of the western Ukraine, the northern Bucovina, and Transcarpathia never ceased to struggle for reunification with the Soviet Ukraine and for entry into the family of Soviet peoples.

A. I. Denikin’s White Guard troops launched an offensive in the spring of 1919, capturing a large part of the Ukraine by autumn. The Denikin regime restored the old social order in the Ukraine, and during its reign of terror thousands of Soviet people lost their lives. A strong Ukrainian partisan movement emerged under the leadership of the Frontline Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Ukraine, headed by S. V. Kosior. The Red Army’s counteroffensive in the fall of 1919 signaled the liberation of the Ukraine. Soviet troops entered Kharkov on December 12, Kiev on December 16, and Odessa on February 7. The White Guards were driven out of the Donets Coal Basin, but some of them gained a foothold in the Crimea (seeWRANGELEVSHCHINA).

Encouraged by the Western powers, bourgeois Poland began the Soviet-Polish War of 1920. Polish troops invaded the Ukraine, capturing Kiev on May 6. The Fourth All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, held in Kharkov on May 16–20,1920, called on the Ukrainian working people to fight the interventionists. In the course of the Kiev Operation the First Cavalry Army broke through the Polish front on June 5 and liberated Kiev on June 12. Continuing their offensive, Soviet troops liberated the Right-bank Ukraine and part of eastern Galicia, where the Galician Soviet Socialist Republic was set up. In September, Poland recaptured all of eastern Galicia and part of Volyn’. A truce signed in October 1920 was followed by the Treaty of Riga in 1921. In the course of the Perekop-Chongar Operation of 1920, the Red Army drove Wrangel’s troops out of the regions adjoining the Crimea in October and November and took the Perekop by storm on November 9. Soviet troops liberated Simferopol’ on November 13, Sevastopol’ on November 15, and Kerch’ on November 16.

From 1918 to 1920 the Ukraine, like the other fraternal Soviet republics, witnessed not only the rout of foreign and domestic counterrevolutionary forces but also a further strengthening of the friendship among the peoples of the socialist state. At this time, the revolutionary forces of the Ukrainian people were consolidated, the alliance between the working class and the peasantry was strengthened, and a socialist industry and agriculture emerged.

Socialist construction, 1921–41. Substantial socialist transformations had taken place in the Ukraine by the end of the Civil War. Industrial enterprises, including many small ones, had been nationalized, as well as transportation and the banking system. Noblemen’s estates had been abolished, and Lenin’s Decree on Land had been promulgated throughout the Ukraine. Committees of the Poor had been formed in the countryside to strengthen Soviet power. The school system had been separated from the church and the church from the state.

The Ukraine embarked on socialist construction against enormous odds. In 1921 the gross output of Ukrainian heavy industry was only 12 percent that of 1913, and the transportation system was crippled. The sown area had declined sharply, and the number of livestock had decreased. The 1920 grain harvest was 38.5 percent below the 1913 level. Dozens of anti-Soviet kulak and nationalist gangs supported by the imperialist states were ravaging the Ukraine.

The Ukrainian working people built socialism in close cooperation with the peoples of Soviet Russia and the other Soviet republics. Representatives of the Ukraine participated in the Eighth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, held in December 1920. The plan of the State Commission for the Electrification of Russia (GOELRO) approved by the Congress included the restoration and development of the Ukrainian national economy.

The tasks of rebuilding the national economy were discussed at the Fifth All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, held in 1921. The decision of the Tenth Congress of the RCP(B) to adopt the New Economic Policy was of great importance for the restoration of the Ukrainian economy. The working people of the Ukraine were early supporters of the unification of the Soviet republics into one state. The Seventh All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, convened in 1922, endorsed the creation of a Soviet federal state. At the First All-Union Congress of Soviets, held in December 1922, the Ukrainian delegation ratified the Treaty on the Formation of the USSR, and the Ukrainian SSR joined the USSR as a full-fledged Union republic. In 1924 the Moldavian ASSR was formed as part of the Ukrainian SSR. Between 1923 and 1925 the old administrative divisions, 12 provinces subdivided into 102 districts and 1,989 volosti (small rural districts), were replaced by 41 okrugs and 706 raions.

In 1925 the Ninth Congress of the Communist Party of the Ukraine confirmed that the Ukrainian national economy had essentially been restored. Heavy industry was producing about 85 percent of its 1913 output, and the grain harvest was 91 percent of the 1913 level. Furthermore, the socialist mode of production had made considerable advances in all branches of industry.

As everywhere in the USSR, socialist industrialization was accompanied by socialist competition (socialist emulation). By the end of 1929 the Ukraine could claim to have about 250,000 shock workers. Between 1926 and 1929, 408 industrial enterprises were built and 421 were modernized. During the first five-year plan (1929–32) the gross output of large-scale industry increased by a factor of 2.3; the output of machinery increased fivefold, and that of chemicals more than fourfold. Moreover, 386 new factories and plants, among them the Kharkov Tractor Plant, and 30 large mines were put into operation under the plan. The newly built Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant produced more electric power than all of Russia’s power plants had generated in 1913. In the cities the socialist sector supplanted the petite bourgeoisie. Industrialization was effected with the help of the entire country. The largest industrial projects in the Ukraine were essentially all-Union projects, using machinery and equipment obtained from plants in Moscow, Leningrad, and the Urals.

On the eve of the mass kolkhoz movement there were about 5.2 million peasant farms in the Ukraine, more than 30 percent of them owned by small peasants, 65 percent by middle peasants, and 4.5 percent by kulaks. The kulaks owned more than 20 percent of the peasant plowland, 16 percent of the draft animals, and 14 percent of the productive livestock; they produced almost 25 percent of the commercial grain. After the mass kolkhoz movement began in late 1929, the Ukrainian working class sent about 8,000 of its members to work on the kolkhozes as part of the dvadtsatipiatitysiachniki (Twenty-five Thousanders). By Oct. 1, 1929,10.4 percent of the peasant farms had merged to form some 16,000 kolkhozes. Whereas in late 1928 there had been only two machine-tractor stations, in 1929 there were 37.

Collectivization was fiercely resisted by the kulaks, who sabotaged grain procurements, wrecked machinery, and burned kolkhoz property. In late 1929 and in the first half of 1930, kulaks in the Ukraine perpetrated 1,800 terrorist acts against soviet and party personnel and progressive peasants. Trusting in the power of the Soviet state and overcoming the resistance of the class enemy, the Ukrainian peasantry embarked on the path of kolkhoz development. By late 1932, when some 70 percent of the peasant farms and 80 percent of the sown area were owned by kolkhozes, the collectivization of agriculture had essentially been completed. The socialist mode of production prevailed in the countryside, as well as in the cities. With industry accounting for 72.4 percent of the gross product of its economy, the Ukraine emerged as an industrial and kolkhoz republic.

In 1932 the Ukraine was administratively divided into Kharkov, Kiev, Dnepropetrovsk, Vinnitsa, Odessa, Donetsk, and Chernigov oblasts. Four more oblasts were created in 1937, one in 1938, and eight in 1939. By 1941 the Ukraine had a total of 23 oblasts.

During the second five-year plan (1933–37) the socialist sector triumphed completely in the economy of the Ukraine, as throughout the country, accounting for 99.8 percent of the gross industrial output in 1936 and 97.7 percent of the agricultural output. The machine-building industry trebled its output, and the production of cast iron increased by 117 percent and of steel by 165 percent. Thirty-five blast and open-hearth furnaces were put into operation, and metallurgical plants were built, of which the largest were the Zhdanov Azovstal’ Works, the Zaporozhstal’ plant, and the Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant. The living standard of the working people improved. From 1933 to 1936 the wages of industrial and office workers doubled, and the cash income of kolkhoz members increased by a factor of 1.8.

Socialist competition reached a higher level during the second five-year plan. In 1935, A. G. Stakhanov, a coal miner from the Donets Basin, launched the Stakhanovite movement. The five-hundreders’ movement, aimed at encouraging women kolkhoz members to raise 500 or more centners of sugar beets per hectare, was initiated by M. V. Gnatenko, M. S. Demchenko, and A. D. Koshevaia. The tractor driver P. N. Angelina became famous for her high labor productivity. Competitions for the fulfillment and overfulfillment of plans were held between the workers of Moscow and Kharkov and between the kolkhoz members of the Kiev and Moscow environs. The cultural revolution made great strides, and illiteracy was completely eradicated. In 1937 more than 5 million pupils attended general-education schools and more than 100,000 students were enrolled in higher educational institutions. A Soviet Ukrainian intelligentsia emerged to make important contributions to science, literature, and the arts.

The profound changes in the Ukraine’s economy and class structure were given legal sanction in a new constitution adopted by the Extraordinary Fourteenth Congress of Soviets of the Ukrainian SSR in 1937. Socialism had essentially been built in the Ukraine, as in the rest of the Soviet Union, and the kolkhoz system was flourishing. Moreover, a Ukrainian socialist nation had evolved in the course of socialist construction.

The gross industrial output increased by a factor of 7.3 between 1913 and 1940. During this period the output of heavy industry increased by a factor of 10, that of the coal industry by a factor of 3.7, that of ferrous metallurgy by a factor of 5.2, and that of the power industry by a factor of 23. As the primary coal and metallurgical base of the USSR, the Ukraine in 1940 produced 64.7 percent of the country’s cast iron, 48.8 percent of its steel, 67.6 percent of its iron ore, 50.5 percent of its coal, and 74.5 percent of its coke. The republic raised 25 percent of the country’s grain, 73 percent of its sugar beets, and 50 percent of its corn. In 1940 the Ukraine had 1,227 machine-tractor stations, 28,637 kolkhozes, and 929 sovkhozes.

During the five-year plans the number of office and industrial workers nearly trebled, rising from 2.3 million in 1928 to 6.6 million in 1940. Industrialization stimulated the growth of old cities and the rise of new cities, among them Gorlovka, Konstantinov-ka, Makeevka, Marganets, Kramatorsk, and Donetsk. City planning proceeded at a rapid pace. Along with changes in the appearance of Ukrainian villages, which acquired schools, clubs, and libraries, there were transformations in the daily life, customs, and psychology of the peasantry, in which socialist traits became more pronounced.

While the Ukrainian working people were successfully building socialism within the family of Soviet republics, their brothers in the western Ukraine, the northern Bucovina, and Transcarpathia were being oppressed by foreign capitalists and landlords. The governments of bourgeois Poland and Czechoslovakia and boyar Rumania hindered the development of the productive forces in the western Ukrainian lands, making the region a supplier of agricultural raw material. Most of the region’s enterprises were of the semiartisan type. The working people, politically disfranchised and socially and nationally oppressed, were in desperate straits. Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists collaborated with the Polish authorities and established several organizations, of which the largest was the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

When Poland was invaded by fascist Germany at the outbreak of World War II, the Soviet government took under its protection the life and property of the inhabitants of the western Ukraine. On Sept. 17, 1939, the Soviet Army entered the western Ukraine, and ten days later the People’s Assembly, elected by the working people, issued the Declaration on the Establishment of Soviet Power in the Western Ukraine. The assembly resolved to ask the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to admit the western Ukraine into the USSR and to reunite it with the Ukrainian SSR. On October 28 the assembly adopted the Declaration on the Confiscation of Landlords’ Estates and the Nationalization of Banks and Large Industry in the Western Ukraine. Meeting on November 1, the Extraordinary Fifth Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR enacted a law admitting the western Ukraine into the USSR and reuniting it with the Ukrainian SSR. On November 14 the Extraordinary Third Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR confirmed the law admitting the western Ukraine into the Ukrainian SSR. In June 1940, under an agreement reached with Rumania, the, Soviet Union regained Bessarabia and acquired the northern Bucovina. On Aug. 2, 1940, the Seventh Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR enacted a law incorporating the northern Bucovina and the Khotin, Akkerman, and Izmail districts of Bessarabia into the Ukrainian SSR. Bolstered by the socialist economy of the Soviet Union, the working people of the reunited western Ukrainian lands immediately began making far-reaching socialist changes.

Great Patriotic War (1941–45). From the very first days of the war, the Ukraine was the scene of relentless battles with the fascist German aggressors. Factories, scientific and higher educational institutions, and equipment and other property belonging to machine-tractor stations, kolkhozes, and sovkhozes were evacuated to the east from areas threatened by enemy invasion. More than 550 large enterprises were evacuated between July and October 1941, and some 3.5 million people were resettled. A party and Komsomol underground was formed, and partisan units were organized.

Fierce battles were fought at Kiev in July (seeKIEV DEFENSIVE OPERATION OF 1941) and at Odessa in early August (seeODESSA DEFENSE OF 1941). The heroic defense of Kiev and Odessa helped the Soviet Army foil the enemy’s plan for a blitzkrieg on Moscow, the Crimea, and the Caucasus. The Sevastopol’ Defense of 1941–42 was also crucial in the fight against the enemy. The fascist German troops occupied the entire Ukraine during the summer offensive of 1942.

After invading the Ukraine, the Hitlerites partitioned it. A Rumanian governor-generalship, Transnistria, was set up between the Bug and the Dnestr. Parts of the western oblasts of the Ukraine, renamed Galicia District, were placed under the governor-generalship of the Polish lands. The rest of the Ukraine, excluding such frontline areas as the Donets Coal Basin, were under the authority of the Reichskommissariat. A regime of terror was imposed throughout the Ukraine. During the occupation the fascists exterminated about 5 million people and transported some 2 million for work in Europe. Armed bands of Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists took part in the atrocities. Moreover, the leaders of the Uniate Church, headed by Metropolitan A. Shep-titskii, actively collaborated with the fascist German aggressors.

Neither mass killings nor terror could break the Ukrainian people’s will to fight. Partisan warfare began in the summer of 1941, when S. A. Kovpak, S. V. Rudnev, and A. N. Saburov took command of detachments in Sumy Oblast and N. N. Popu-drenko and A. F. Fedorov formed units in Chernigov Oblast. The Ukrainian Staff of the partisan movement was organized in the summer of 1942. Despite the fascist terror, numerous underground organizations fought the aggressors; among them were the Young Guard in Krasnodon (Voroshilovgrad Oblast), the People’s Guard in L’vov, and the Partisan Spark in the village of Krymka, Odessa Oblast (now in Nikolaev Oblast). More than 500,000 people joined the partisan movement and some 100,000 were active in the underground in the Ukraine.

The rout of the fascist German troops at Stalingrad signaled the liberation of the Ukraine. After the defeat of the enemy at the Kursk arc in the fall of 1943, almost the entire Left-bank Ukraine was liberated. Then began the fight for the Dnieper. Kiev was liberated on Nov. 6, 1943, during the Kiev Offensive Operation. In October 1944, after the savage fighting of the Kor-sun’-Shevchenkovskii and L’vov-Sandomierz operations, the entire Ukraine was liberated. One result of the Soviet Army’s mission of liberation was the expulsion of the fascist aggressors from Transcarpathia in October 1944. The working people of the region were given the opportunity to choose their social, national, and political development. Meeting in Mukachevo on Nov. 26, 1944, the First Congress of People’s Committees, groups that had been formed in the underground, adopted a manifesto proclaiming Transcarpathia’s reunification with the Soviet Ukraine. On June 29, 1945, the Soviet government and the government of Czechoslovakia signed a treaty making Transcarpathia part of the Ukrainian SSR. The next year the Transcarpathian Oblast was formed.

The Ukrainian people made a worthy contribution to the common struggle of the peoples of the USSR against the fascist German aggressors and Japanese militarists. Some 4.5 million Ukrainian soldiers fought on all fronts in the Great Patriotic War, and about 2.5 million of them were awarded orders and medals. More than 2,000 soldiers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, which was conferred three times on I. N. Kozhedub and twice on I. N. Boiko, M. Z. Bondarenko, D. B. Glinka, A. I. Molodchii, S. P. Suprun, and P. A. Taran. More than 57,000 Ukrainian partisans and underground fighters were awarded orders and medals, and 97 of them were honored as Heroes of the Soviet Union. The title of Hero City was conferred on Kiev, Odessa, Sevastopol’, and Kerch’.

The fascist German aggressors caused enormous losses in the Ukraine. They destroyed and burned 714 cities and settlements and more than 28,000 villages, leaving about 10 million people homeless. They wrecked and pillaged more than 16,000 industrial enterprises, some 200,000 production buildings, 27,900 kolkhozes, 872 sovkhozes, 1,300 machine-tractor stations, and 32,930 schools, technicums, and higher educational institutions. The immediate material losses amounted to 285 billion rubles, calculated in prewar prices. Even before the war ended, the working people of the Ukraine, drawing on the fraternal aid of all the other peoples of the USSR, began restoring the economy of their republic, while simultaneously helping the other Soviet republics that had suffered from the fascist German occupation.

Restoration of the national economy and the creation of a developed socialist society. After victory, the Ukrainian working people joined the other Soviet peoples in implementing the fourth five-year plan (1946–50). Aimed at rebuilding the war-ravaged national economy, the five-year plan was fulfilled ahead of schedule. The 1950 gross industrial output exceeded the 1940 level by 15 percent. Coal extraction and metal smelting reached their prewar levels. The oil and gas industry grew rapidly, stimulated by the building of the Dashava-Kiev Gas Pipeline in the period 1946–48. The greatest difficulties were encountered in the restoration and expansion of agriculture, and the rate of development was slower there than in industry. The average annual grain harvest did not yet reach the 1940 level. During the fourth five-year plan the working people of the western Ukrainian regions carried out socialist industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture despite the fierce resistance of kulaks and armed bourgeois nationalist gangs.

After the war, the Ukrainian SSR became more active in foreign affairs. A founding member of the UN (1945), the republic was elected to the Economic and Social Council in 1946–47 and to the Security Council in 1948–49. A delegation of the Ukrainian SSR attended the Paris Peace Conference in 1946.

Its national economy restored, the Ukraine continued the joint struggle of the Soviet republics for the completion of the building of socialism. The kolkhozes were enlarged in 1950–51, and the Ukrainian working people built new factories and mastered new technology ahead of schedule. Socialist competition reached its peak on the occasion of the tricentennial of the Ukraine’s reunification with Russia (1954). To mark this event and the labor feats of the Ukrainian people, the Ukrainian SSR and its capital Kiev were awarded the Order of Lenin. In view of the Ukraine’s proximity to and close economic ties with the Crimea, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree on Feb. 19, 1954, transferring the Crimean Oblast from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.

The Ukrainian working people celebrated the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution with outstanding achievements. The 1957 gross industrial output of the Ukraine was 20 times that of 1913, and the republic was producing about five times more cast iron, steel, rolled metal, and coal than all of prerevolutionary Russia. More than 1,000 large industrial enterprises were built from 1951 to 1958. Moreover, the grain harvest increased by 28 percent between 1953 and 1958. For its success in developing agriculture, the Ukrainian SSR was awarded a second Order of Lenin on Nov. 5,1958; the order was also presented to 15 of the republic’s oblasts. Many Ukrainian grain growers became famous throughout the country, among them G. I. Baida, S. E. Beshulia, E. V. Blazhevskii, G. E. Burkatskaia, P. F. Veduta, A. V. Gita-lov, E. A. Doliniuk, V. G. Litvinenko, M. A. Posmitnyi, and M. Kh. Savchenko, all of whom were twice honored as Heroes of Socialist Labor. The growth of industry and agriculture caused a steady rise in the living standard of the working people.

Between 1959 and 1965 some 900 industrial facilities were put into operation. Among the largest were the New Krivoi Rog, Tsentral’nyi, and Ingulets ore-concentration combines, the Dnepropetrovsk Tire Plant, the Kremenchug and Dneprodzerzhinsk hydroelectric power plants, and the Cherkassy and Chernigov chemical fiber plants. The movement of shock workers of communist labor arose and spread widely. In the late 1950’s and early 1960’s the building of a fully developed socialist society was completed in the Ukraine, as in the other Soviet republics.

The Ukraine became one of the most important fuel, power, metallurgical, and machine-building bases of the USSR and a republic with a large-scale chemical industry and a diversified food industry. Guaranteed remuneration of labor was introduced on the kolkhozes in 1966, and the next year a new system of planning and economic incentives was instituted in several branches of Ukrainian industry. In 1970 the Ukraine’s industrial output was twice that of the entire country in 1940. Between 1966 and 1970 the republic’s output of electricity increased by 45 percent, of cast iron by 27 percent, and of steel by 26 percent. Great strides were made in agriculture, whose average annual output was 16.9 percent higher than in the preceding five-year period.

The population of the Ukraine displayed great labor zeal and political enthusiasm on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution (1967), the 100th anniversary of V. I. Lenin’s birth (1970), and the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the USSR (1972). The Ukrainian working people successfully fulfilled the ninth five-year plan, during which total industrial output increased by 41 percent (electric power by 41.4 percent, cast iron by 12 percent, and steel by 13.9 percent), and average annual output of agriculture grew by 15.5 percent. Moreover, the fixed capital of the Ukrainian national economy increased by a factor of 1.5. Guided by the CPSU, the Ukrainian SSR embarked on the tenth five-year plan, adopted by the Twenty-fifth Congress of the CPSU in 1976.

Socialism has radically changed the Ukraine, which has become one of the major industrial and agricultural republics of the USSR. As members of a developed socialist society, the working people of the Ukraine are striving alongside the other peoples of the Soviet Union to create the material and technical basis for communism.

As of Jan. 1,1976, there were 3,000 Heroes of Socialist Labor in the Ukraine. In 1967 the republic was awarded the Order of the October Revolution in recognition of the Ukainian working people’s services to the revolutionary movement and to the October Socialist Revolution, their great contribution to the formation and consolidation of the USSR, their courage and heroism in defending the gains of Soviet rule, and their successes in communist construction. In December 1972 the republic was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the USSR.


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Istoriia Ukrainskoi SSR, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1969.
Ocherki istorii Kommunisticheskoi partii Ukrainy, 3rd ed. Kiev, 1972.
Istoriia robitnychoho klasu Ukrains’koi RSR, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1967.
Istoriia selianstva Ukrains’koi RSR, vols. 1–26. Kiev, 1967–74.
Holobuts’kyi, V. O. Iekonomichna istoriia Ukrains’koi RSR. Kiev, 1970.
Narysy starodavn’oi istorii Ukrains’koi RSR. Kiev, 1959.
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Myshko, D. I. Zv’iazky mizh Ukrainoiu i Rosiieiu v XIV-XVI st. Kiev, 1959.
Hurzhii, I. O., and M. N. Leshchenko. Borot’ba trudiashchykh Ukrainy za sotsial’ne i natsional’ne vyzvoleniia (XW-XIX st.). Kiev, 1967.
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Hurzhii, I. O. Ukraina v systemi vserosiis’koho rynku 60–90 rr. XIX st. Kiev, 1968.
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Iastrebov, F. Revoliutsionnye demokraty na Ukraine: Vtoraia polovina50-kh-nach. 60-kh. gg. XIXv. Kiev, 1960.
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Los’, F. Ie. Revoliutsiia 1905–1907 rokiv na Ukraini. Kiev, 1955.
Kompaniiets’, I. I. Lenin ta internatsional’na iednist’ ukrains’kikh irosiis’kykh trudiashchykh u tr’okh revoliutsiiakh. Kiev, 1970.
Hrytsenko, A. P. Robitnychnii klas Ukrainy u Zhovtnevii revoliutsii. Kiev, 1975.
Korolivskii, S. M., M. A. Rubach, and N. I. Suprunenko. Pobeda Sovetskoi vlastina Ukraine. Moscow, 1967.
Suprunenko, N. I. Ocherki istorii Grazhdanskoi voiny i inostrannoi voennoi interventsii na Ukraine (1918–1920). Moscow, 1966.
Ukrains’ka RSR v period hromadians’koi viiny 1917–1920 rr., vols. 1–3. Kiev, 1967–70.
Kucher, O. O. Rozhrom zbroinoi vnutrishn’oi kontrrevoliutsii na Ukraini u 1921–1923 rr. Kharkov, 1971.
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V. A. GOLOBUTSKII, I. A. GURZII (to the 19thcentury), I. I. KOMPANIETS, V. E. SPITSKII (to 1918), V. A. DIADICHENKO, and IU. IU. KONDUFOR (since 1918)

The Communist Party of the Ukraine is an integral part of the CPSU. The first Marxist workers’ groups were founded in the late 1880’s and early 1890’s in Kiev, Ekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk), Odessa, Kharkov, and other industrial centers. Among the organizers of these groups were Iu. D. Mel’nikov, P. L. Tuchapskii, B. L. Eidel’man, and the exiled Social Democrats A. N. Vinokurov and P. V. Tochisskii. Under the influence of the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, founded in 1895, leagues of struggle were organized in 1897 in Kiev and Ekaterinoslav. The Ukrainian leagues of struggle took part in planning and convening the First Congress of the RSDLP, held in 1898. After the founding of the newspaper Iskra, a network of Leninist Iskra groups and organizations was created in the Ukraine. Prominent party workers from the late 1890’s included I. V. Babushkin, P. A. Krasikov, I. Kh. Lalaiants, F. V. Lengnik, M. M. Litvinov, G. I. Petrov-skii, V. A. Shelgunov, N. A. Skrypnik, A. G. Shlikhter, A. D. Tsiurupa, D. I. Ul’ianov, and R. S. Zemliachka.

After the Second Congress of the RSDLP (1903), a struggle broke out between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks in the Social Democratic organizations of the Ukraine. On V. I. Lenin’s instructions, V. V. Vorovskii, I. Kh. Lalaiants, and K. O. Levit-skii set up the Southern Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP in Odessa in 1904 to direct the work of the Odessa, Ekaterinoslav, and Nikolaev committees. A rallying point of the southern Bolshevik organizations, the bureau pressed for the convocation of the Third Congress of the RSDLP (1905).

During the Revolution of 1905–07, the Bolsheviks of the Ukraine, guided by the decisions of the Third Congress of the RSDLP, urged the working class and the peasantry to struggle against autocracy and to support the minimum program of the RSDLP. Following the example of the proletariat of Ivanovo-Voznesensk, St. Petersburg, and Moscow, Ukrainian workers formed soviets of workers’ deputies in more than 50 cities and factory settlements, among them Kiev, Ekaterinoslav, Odessa, Nikolaev, Enakiev, and Iuzovka (now Donetsk). Ukrainian Bolsheviks made political, organizational, and military-technical preparations for an armed uprising. Workers’ fighting druzhiny and people’s militia detachments were formed in all the industrial centers. The revolt on the battleship Potemkin in June 1905 was a major step forward in the spread of the revolutionary movement. In December 1905, Bolshevik-led armed uprisings broke out in Gorlovka, Ekaterinoslav, Aleksandrovsk (now Zaporozh’e), and Kharkov, and political strikes took place in Kiev, Nikolaev, and many other cities.

The Ukrainian revolutionary organizations of the RSDLP gained considerable strength in the course of the revolution, their membership exceeding 20,000 by 1907. Prominent among those who organized and directed party work were Artem (F. A. Ser-geev), V. D. Bonch-Bruevich, S. I. Gopner, S. I. Gusev, E. M. Iaroslavskii, L. M. Knipovich, G. M. Krzhizhanovskii, G. I. Pe-trovskii, A. G. Shlikhter, N. A. Skrypnik, M. K. Vladimirov, and K. E. Voroshilov.

During the reactionary years (1907–10) the Bolshevik organizations in the Ukraine continued their revolutionary activity in spite of considerable losses. Guided by the decisions of the Sixth (Prague) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (1912), Ukrainian Bolsheviks strove to broaden and strengthen their ties with the masses and to propagate internationalist views. They sought to prepare the working people for more revolutionary battles and to unmask the Liquidators, Otzovisty, Trotskyists, and bourgeois nationalists. In World War I the Bolshevik party organizations of the Ukraine propagandized among soldiers, workers, and peasants Lenin’s slogan of turning the imperialist war into a civil war. They combatted social chauvinism and defensism (those who supported the war effort on the grounds of national defense).

In the February Revolution of 1917 the Bolshevik organizations of the Ukraine, guided by the Central Committee of the RSDLP(B), led the working people’s struggle against autocracy. After the overthrow of the tsarist government, they strove to win over the masses and to discredit the conciliatory and bourgeois nationalist parties. As the differences between the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks in the RSDLP intensified, more and more independent Bolshevik organizations sprang up; by July 1917 they had about 33,000 members. In the summer of 1917 regional committees of the RSDLP(B) were formed for the Southwestern Krai and the Donets-Krivoi Rog Basin. That autumn the party established the Regional Bureau of Front and Rear Military Organizations of the RSDLP(B) in the Southwestern Krai to direct all work on the Southwestern Front. The bureau was subordinate to the regional committee.

After the Sixth Congress of the RDSLP(B), convened in 1917, the Ukrainian Bolsheviks prepared the working people for the overthrow of bourgeois and landlord rule. They were assisted by the Central Committee of the RSDLP(B), which maintained contact with more than 50 Ukrainian party organizations. Among those who were active in preparing the Ukrainian masses for the socialist revolution were V. K. Averin, E. B. Bosh, Ia. B. Gamarnik, S. I. Gopner, A. V. Ivanov, Iu. M. Kotsiubinskii, E. I. Kviring, D. Z. Lebed’, G. I. Petrovskii, V. M. Primakov, Artem (F. A. Sergeev), I. F. Smirnov (N. Lastochkin), K. E. Voroshilov, and V. P. Zatonskii.

The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd was attended by 57 Ukrainian Bolsheviks. At meetings and rallies held in Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav, the Donets Coal Basin, Kiev, Odessa, and other industrial cities and regions, workers expressed their support for the Council of People’s Commissars of the Russian Soviet Republic and their readiness to fight, gun in hand, for Soviet power in the Ukraine. Appeals to the Ukrainian working masses to oppose the Central Rada were issued on Dec. 3–5 (16–18), 1917, in Kiev by the Regional Congress of the RSDLP(B) of the Southwestern Krai and on Dec. 5–6 (18–19) in Kharkov by the Regional Conference of the RSDLP(B) of the Donets-Krivoi Rog Basin. Meeting in Kharkov on Dec. 11–12 (24–25), 1917, the First All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets proclaimed the Ukraine a Soviet republic. In January and February 1918 the military units of the Central Rada were defeated, and Soviet power was established throughout most of the Ukraine.

When Austrian and German troops invaded the Ukraine in February 1918, the Ukrainian Bolsheviks went underground and organized the struggle against the foreign interventionists and domestic counterrevolutionaries, while continuing to consolidate their forces. A party conference held in Taganrog in April 1918 and an underground party conference held in Kiev in May elected the Organizational Bureau and the Provisional All-Ukrainian Party Center. The two organizations made preparations for the convocation of a congress of Ukrainian Bolsheviks.

Table 3a. Membership of the Communist Party of the Ukraine
 MembersCandidate membersTotal
3Actual number exceeds figure given
4Separate counts for members and candidate members not available
19181. . . . . . . . . .4,3644,364
19192. . . . . . . . . .23.000323.0001
19202. . . . . . . . . .4430,0001
1921. . . . . . . . . .4475,113
1923. . . . . . . . . .40,70519,03359,738
1925. . . . . . . . . .53,32548,527101,852
1929. . . . . . . . . .166,62464,736231,360
1932. . . . . . . . . .275,300221,020496,320
1937. . . . . . . . . .210,57086,491297,061
1941. . . . . . . . . .379,750179,485559,235
1945. . . . . . . . . .125,01439,729164,743
1946. . . . . . . . . .245,47374,834320,307
1950. . . . . . . . . .603,87293,253697,125
1955. . . . . . . . . .804,89346,682851,575
1960. . . . . . . . . .1,143,522109,6721,253,194
1965. . . . . . . . . .1,683,318146,3201,829,638
1970. . . . . . . . . .2,212,98788,6702,301,657
1975. . . . . . . . . .2,484,83880,2722,565,110
1976. . . . . . . . . .2,536,77289,0362,625,808
1978. . . . . . . . . .2,655,36693,9022,749,268

The First Congress of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine, held in Moscow on July 5–12, 1918, was attended by 212 delegates from 45 underground Ukrainian party organizations having a total membership of 4,364. The congress set the tasks of the Ukrainian party organizations in the struggle against the invaders and domestic counterrevolutionaries and adopted a resolution making the CP(B) of the Ukraine an integral part of the RCP(B). Emphasizing the loyalty of the Ukrainian communists to the Leninist principles of proletarian internationalism, the Congress urged the Ukrainian Bolsheviks to step up the struggle for the revolutionary unification of the Ukraine and Soviet Russia and denounced the nationalist slogan of “Ukrainian autonomy.” The decisions of the Congress led to the formation of the All-Ukrainian Central Military Revolutionary Committee, with A. S. Bubnov as chairman, and three underground regional committees of the CP(B) of the Ukraine, which were charged with leading the liberation struggle of the working people.

The program of the CP(B) of the Ukraine incorporated the decisions of the Eighth Congress of the RCP(B), held in March 1919, Lenin’s “Letter to the Workers and Peasants of the Ukraine on the Occasion of the Victories Over Denikin” (December 1919), the resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP(B) On Soviet Power in the Ukraine (confirmed by the Eighth Conference of the RCP[B], convened in December 1919), and other documents of the RCP(B).

During the Civil War (1918–20), the Ukraine was a major theater of military operations, and the CP(B) of the Ukraine focused on the struggle against the interventionists and domestic counterrevolutionaries. The Ukraine’s partisan movement was directed by the Frontline Bureau of the Central Committee of the CP(B) of the Ukraine, headed by S. V. Kosior. The Ukrainian CP’s Second and Third Congresses, held in October 1918 and March 1919, and its Fourth and Fifth Conferences, convened in March and November 1920, played a major role in mobilizing the working masses for the rout of the interventionists and domestic counterrevolutionaries, in restoring and consolidating Soviet power in the Ukraine, in creating a system of government, in reviving the economy, and in strengthening the unity of the Ukrainian party organizations.

Prominent among those who did party, state, and military work in the Ukraine during the Civil War were V. A. Antonov-Ovseenko, Artem (F. A. Sergeev), V. K. Averin, V. N. Bozhen-ko, A. S. Bubnov, V. Ia. Chubar’, F. E. Dzerzhinskii, I. F. Fed’-ko, M. V. Frunze, Ia. B. Gamarnik, Ia. A. Iakovlev, A. V. Ivanov, L. I. Kartvelishvili, F. Ia. Kon, S. V. Kosior, G. I. Kotovskii, Iu. M. Kotsiubinskii, N. G. Krapivianskii, E. I. Kvir-ing, M. M. Maiorov, D. Z. Manuil’skii, V. I. Mezhlauk, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, A. Ia. Parkhomenko, G. I. Petrovskii, V. M. Primakov, N. A. Shchors, A. G. Shlikhter, N. A. Skrypnik, I. F. Smirnov (N. Lastochkin), K. E. Voroshilov, and V. P. Zatonskii.

After the Civil War, the CP(B) of the Ukraine directed the efforts of the Ukrainian people toward the restoration of the national economy. The party’s Ninth Congress, held in 1925, summed up the results achieved in reviving Ukrainian industry and agriculture. During the building of socialism the party organized the republic’s working people in the drive for industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution. Socialist construction was accompanied by the further ideological and organizational consolidation of the party along Leninist lines. The Ukrainian party organizations consistently opposed the “left-wing” communists, Democratic Centralists, Workers’ Opposition, Trotskyists, right-wing deviationists, local nationalists, and other antiparty currents and groups. Among the leading party figures of the prewar period were M. A. Burmisten-ko, V. Ia. Chubar’, M. S. Grechukha, L. R. Korniets, D. S. Ko-rotchenko, S. V. Kosior, P. P. Liubchenko, G. I. Petrovskii, P. P. Postyshev, A. S. Shcherbakov, N. M. Shvernik, N. A. Skrypnik, and V. P. Zatonskii.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the CP(B) of the Ukraine organized and inspired the Ukrainian people’s resistance to the fascist aggressors. More than 240,000 Communists were sent to the front, and some 68,000 Communists fought in partisan detachments and in the underground during the occupation. Underground party organizations, including 23 oblast committees, 685 city and raion committees, and 4,316 primary party organizations, operated behind enemy lines, rallying the Ukrainian

Table 3b. Congresses of the Communist Party of the Ukraine
1 Fourth to Eighth Conferences had the status of Congresses
First Congress. . . . . . . . . .July 5–1 2, 191 8
Second Congress. . . . . . . . . .Oct. 17–22,1918
Third Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 1–6, 1919
Fourth Congress1. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 17–23,1920
Fifth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Nov. 17–22, 1920
Sixth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Dec. 9–1 3, 1921
Seventh Congress. . . . . . . . . .Apr. 4–1 0,1 923
Eighth Congress. . . . . . . . . .May 12–1 6, 1924
Ninth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Dec. 6–1 2, 1925
Tenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Nov. 20–29, 1927
Eleventh Congress. . . . . . . . . .June 5–1 5, 1930
Twelfth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 18–23,1934
Thirteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .May27-June3, 1937
Fourteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .June 13–1 8, 1938
Fifteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .May 13–1 7, 1940
Sixteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 25–28, 1949
Seventeenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Sept. 23–27, 1952
Eighteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 23–26, 1954
Nineteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 17–21,1956
Twentieth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 16–17.1959
Twenty-first Congress. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 16–19,1960
Twenty-second Congress. . . . . . . . . .Sept. 27–30, 1961
Twenty-third Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 15–18,1966
Twenty-fourth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 17–20, 1971
Twenty-fifth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 10–13, 1976

working people around the party and inciting them to struggle against the fascist invaders.

After the liberation of the Ukraine in October 1944, the CP(B) of the Ukraine, assisted by the Central Committee of the ACP(B) and the Soviet government, concentrated on eliminating the consequences of the occupation and on restoring and developing the national economy. In carrying out the decisions of the Nineteenth through Twenty-second Congresses of the CPSU, the Ukrainian communists enhanced the leading role of the party organizations in developing society’s material and spiritual life and in increasing the political activity and labor productivity of the republic’s working people. As they implement the Program adopted by the Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU (1961), the decisions of the Twenty-third through Twenty-fifth Congresses of the CPSU, and the resolutions of Congresses of the CP of the Ukraine, the Ukrainian party organizations are improving their guidance of the republic’s governmental, economic, and cultural development.

In 1976 the CP of the Ukraine consisted of 25 oblast committees (the Kiev city committee has the status of an oblast committee), 123 city committees, 115 urban and 451 rural raion committees, 63,892 primary party organizations, 57,703 factory party organizations, and 108,038 party groups. That year the total party membership exceeded 2.6 million persons. The CP of the Ukraine is directing the efforts of the republic’s working people toward the successful fulfillment of the tasks of building a communist society in the USSR. (See Tables 3a and 3b for party membership and congresses.)


KP Ukrainy v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh s”ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, vols. 1—. Kiev, 1976—.
Kommunisticheskaia partiia Ukrainy v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh s”ezdov i konferentsii (1918–1956). Kiev, 1958.
Ocherki istorii Kommunisticheskoi partii Ukrainy, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1972.
Komunistychna partiia Ukrainy: Naochnyi posibnyk z partiinoho z budivnytstva. Kiev, 1972.


The Komsomol of the Ukraine is an integral part of the all-Union Komsomol. The first socialist workers’ youth leagues, known as the Third International Workers’ Youth Leagues, were founded in the Ukraine on the initiative and under the leadership of Bolshevik organizations in the spring and summer of 1917 in such industrial centers as Kiev, Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk), Odessa, Nikolaev, Iuzovka, and Poltava. The workers’ youth leagues of the Ukraine developed and matured through their struggle against Ukrainian and other nationalist youth organizations and against bourgeois and petit bourgeois parties, which tried to gain control over the youth movement. Members of the workers’ youth leagues fought for the victory of the October Revolution of 1917 and resisted the Austro-German invaders in 1918.

After the liberation of the Ukraine from the occupation forces and Petliura’s followers in the spring of 1919, the number of Komsomol organizations grew rapidly. By the summer of 1919 such organizations existed in almost all the major industrial and administrative centers and in a number of villages. The First All-Ukrainian Congress of Youth Organizations, held in Kiev in June 1919, founded the Komsomol of the Ukraine. During the Civil War (1918–20), the Komsomol of the Ukraine helped the CP(B) of the Ukraine bring about the defeat of the domestic and foreign counterrevolutionaries. Some 5,000 Komsomol members went to the front in 1919. The Second Congress of the Komsomol of the Ukraine, convened in 1920, decided that all Komsomol members 18 years of age or older would be eligible for military service. In August 1920 the Central Committee of the Komsomol of the Ukraine drafted 2,000 Komsomol members into the Red Army.

During the transition to peacetime socialist construction the Ukrainian Komsomol took part in the restoration of the national economy, in the fight against kulak gangs, and in the establishment of the first kolkhozes. During the Lenin enrollment in the party (1924), 6,640 Komsomol members joined the CP(B) of the Ukraine. Responding to the Lenin enrollment, 44,800 young

Table 4a. Membership of the Komsomol of the Ukraine
1919. . . . . . . . . .9,000
1920. . . . . . . . . .22,840
1921. . . . . . . . . .55,000
1922. . . . . . . . . .35,000
1924. . . . . . . . . .119,750
1926. . . . . . . . . .352,426
1928. . . . . . . . . .400,000
1931. . . . . . . . . .582,454
1936. . . . . . . . . .744,667
1937. . . . . . . . . .957,939
1939. . . . . . . . . .1,521,695
1940. . . . . . . . . .1,700,000
1946. . . . . . . . . .952,110
1949. . . . . . . . . .1,236,398
1953. . . . . . . . . .2,479,788
1955. . . . . . . . . .2,870,052
1958. . . . . . . . . .2,896,319
1962. . . . . . . . . .3,302,000
1966. . . . . . . . . .4,089,000
1970. . . . . . . . . .4,394,423
1974. . . . . . . . . .5,638,440
1976. . . . . . . . . .5,814,944
1978. . . . . . . . . .6,157,076

people joined the Ukrainian Komsomol between February and July 1924. The Ukrainian Komsomol assigned tens of thousands of its members to work on the construction projects of the first five-year plan. It made a major contribution to the industrialization of the country, the collectivization of agriculture, and the implementation of the cultural revolution.

For their heroic labor, the Komsomol organizations of the Dneproges construction projects (Dneprostroi) and the Donets Coal Basin received Orders of Lenin in 1932 and 1935, respectively. Ukrainian Komsomol members worked on the construction of the Urals-Kuznetsk Basin Combine, the city of Komsomol’sk-na-ure, and the Stalingrad Tractor Plant. In late 1935 more than 22,000 rural Ukrainian Komsomol members worked as tractor drivers and leaders of tractor brigades; 1,364 served as kolkhoz chairmen and 916 as chairmen of rural soviets; and about 1,000 assisted the heads of political departments of machine-tractor stations in matters pertaining to the Komsomol. P. N. Angelina, M. S. Demchenko, M. V. Gnatenko, and other women Komsomol members introduced innovations in agricultural production. The Ukrainian Komsomol was active in the campaign to eradicate illiteracy. In 1924 the Komsomol of the Ukraine took under its patronage (shefstvo) the Black Sea Fleet, the air force, and the border troops, sending thousands of its best members to serve there.

In the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the Komsomol of the Ukraine mobilized the republic’s youth for the struggle against the fascist invaders. More than 1 million Ukrainian Komsomol members fought in the army in the field. Operating underground during the occupation were 12 Komsomol oblast committees, 265 Komsomol city and raion committees, and 670 other Komsomol organizations. Of the more than 25,000 members of the Ukrainian Komsomol who fought in partisan detachments, 8,875 were awarded orders and medals. The Young Guard, the Partisan Spark, and other underground Komsomol organizations displayed extraordinary heroism.

The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was conferred on more than 600 Ukrainian Komsomol members. In 1944 the Komsomol of the Ukraine was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for combat services. Orders of the Red Banner were awarded to the Komsomol organizations of the Hero-cities of Sevastopol’ (1948), Odessa (1949), and Kiev (1974) and to those of Krasno-don (1968) and Shepetovka (1968). Orders of the Patriotic War First Class were awarded to the Komsomol organizations of Kerch’ (1974) and of Pervomaisk Raion in Nikolaev Oblast (1968). Thousands of Ukrainian Komsomol members worked selflessly in industry and agriculture in the eastern USSR.

In the postwar period the Komsomol of the Ukraine mobilized young people for the restoration and further development of the national economy. Abiding by the decisions of the Thirteenth (1946) and Fourteenth (1949) Congresses of the Komsomol of the Ukraine, the Komsomol’s Central Committee and oblast committees sent about 500,000 people to work on major construction projects. In 1954–55, some 75,000 Ukrainian Komsomol members volunteered to help in the development of virgin and fallow land. When in 1956 the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet government decided to open 35 new mines in the Donets Coal Basin, 32,000 Ukrainian Komsomol members opened 37 mines ahead of schedule, in less than a year. For this feat the Komsomol of the Ukraine was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1958. In 1969 the Komsomol of the Ukraine was awarded the Order of the October Revolution on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of its founding. For their heroic military service and feats of labor, 14 oblast, city, and raion organizations of the Komsomol of the Ukraine were awarded various orders of the Soviet Union.

The Ukrainian Komsomol faithfully assists the CP of the Ukraine in building the material and technical basis for communism and in giving the younger generation a communist upbringing. As of Jan. 1, 1976, the Komsomol had 5,814,944 members, of whom 1,961,000 were workers and 420,000 were kolkhoz members. The Ukrainian Komsomol includes 25 oblast committees, the Kiev City Committee (which functions as an oblast committee), 123 city committees, 115 urban and 451 rural raion committees, more than 68,500 primary organizations, 226,000 committees of factory shops, brigades, and university departments (which have the status of primary organizations), and about 70,000 Komsomol groups.

The Komsomol of the Ukraine directs the works of the republic’s Pioneer organization, which as of Jan. 1,1976, had 3,956,000 members belonging to 19,559 Pioneer brigades. (See Tables 4a and 4b for Komsomol membership and congresses.)

Table 4b. Congresses of the Komsomol of the Ukraine
1 Fifth Conference had the status of a Congress
First Congress. . . . . . . . . .June28-July 1,1919
Second Congress. . . . . . . . . .May11–16,1920
Third Congress. . . . . . . . . .May 11–16,1921
Fourth Congress. . . . . . . . . .May 7–12,1922
Fifth Congress1. . . . . . . . . .July2–7,1924
Sixth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 1–6,1926
Seventh Congress. . . . . . . . . .Apr.25-May2,1928
Eighth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 6–12,1931
Ninth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Apr. 2–8,1936
Tenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Nov. 15–23,1937
Eleventh Congress. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 7–12,1939
Twelfth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Sept. 29–30,1940
Thirteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Dec. 10–14,1946
Fourteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 19–21,1949
Fifteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 27–29,1953
Sixteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 25–27,1954
Seventeenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Dec. 22–24,1955
Eighteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 20–22,1958
Nineteenth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 22–24,1962
Twentieth Congress. . . . . . . . . .Apr. 25–27,1966
Twenty-first Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 25–27,1970
Twenty-second Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 5–7,1974
Twenty-third Congress. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 14–16,1978


lstoriia Lenins’koi Komunislychnoi Spilky Molodi Ukrainy. Kiev, 1971.
LKSM Ukrainy v rishenniakh z’izdiv ta konferenlsii, 1919–1966. Kiev, 1969.
LKSM Ukrainy v tsyfrakh ifaktakh. Kiev, 1974.
Tron’ko, P. T. Podvyh tvoikh bat’kiv. Kiev, 1968.
50 rokiv LKSM U.: Dokumenty i materialy. Kiev, 1970.


The trade unions of the Ukraine are an integral part of the trade unions of the USSR. Arising in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ukrainian trade union movement attracted metalworkers, miners, railroad workers, and printers. Organizations were founded in the major industrial cities and centers. In the Revolution of 1905–07 the Ukrainian trade unions took part in the proletariat’s economic and political struggle under the leadership of organizations of the RSDLP. The many unions that were dissolved after the defeat of the revolution were revived in February and March 1917.

The large-scale development of trade unions in the Ukraine began after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917. By the time the First All-Ukrainian Congress of Trade Unions met in Kharkov in April and May 1919, there were some 500,000 trade union members in the Ukraine. The Second Congress of Trade Unions of the Ukraine, held in Kharkov in November 1924, elected the First All-Ukrainian Council of Trade Unions. In the early years of Soviet power, trade unions were founded and strengthened by A. A. Andreev, V. Ia. Chubar’, M. V. Frunze, S. V. Kosior, D. Z. Manuil’skii, G. I. Petrovskii, and N. M. Shvernik.

During socialist construction the Ukrainian trade unions, under the leadership of party organizations, participated in carrying out socialist transformations, the industrialization of the country, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution. The trade unions played a major role in training and educating national cadres of workers and a national intelligentsia. They devoted much attention to developing the creative initiative of the working people, to improving work discipline, and to popularizing mass forms of socialist competition, such as the shock-worker and Stakhanovite movements. In these years work records were set by A. Stakhanov, N. Izotov, M. Mazai, P. Angelina, P. Kri-vonos, M. Demchenko, and other workers. In 1932 the Ukrainian trade unions had more than 4 million members.

In 1939, after the reunification of the western Ukraine with the Ukrainian SSR, the region’s existing trade unions were reorganized and new industrial trade unions were formed in L’vov, Rov-no, Lutsk, Stanislav, and other cities. Through the trade unions the working people became directly involved in the implementation of socialist changes in the western parts of the Ukrainian SSR.

In the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the republic’s trade unions, responding to the party’s appeal, mobilized the working people for the struggle against the enemy and helped organize the partisan and underground resistance to the fascist invaders. They assisted in the evacuation of industrial enterprises and scientific institutions and organizations, found jobs and housing for resettled Soviet citizens, and gave much attention to the production training of the women and adolescents who came to work in plants.

Since the war the Ukrainian trade unions, under the leadership of party organizations, have been encouraging socialist competition among the working people for the restoration and expansion of industry and agriculture and for the further development of culture. The trade unions are organizing the drive for technical progress, increased labor productivity, and workers’ involvement in the management of production. They watch over the observance of labor legislation and are concerned with labor protection and safety technology and with improving the working and living conditions of industrial, office, and agricultural workers. Moreover, they assist in the communist upbringing of the working people.

In early 1976 some 20 million people were taking part in socialist competition in the Ukraine, and about 1 million people, 642,500 of them blue-collar workers, were participating in 20,816 permanent, plant and workshop production conferences. The republic’s 77,000 schools of communist labor are attended by almost 2 million blue-collar and white-collar workers and kolkhoz members. In 1976 there were 19 industrial trade unions in the Ukraine with more than 20 million members. The Ukrainian trade unions operate 3,313 clubs and houses and palaces of culture, 4,389 public libraries, 58,582 “red corners” (devoted to educational and propaganda facilities), and 5,476 motion-picture projection units. They also sponsor 87,832 amateur artistic groups and seven volunteer sports societies. The social security budget was 3,605,000,000 rubles in 1974, as compared to 915,371,000 rubles in 1964.

The Ukrainian trade unions participate in the work of the executive bodies of the World Federation of Trade Unions, in the International Labor Organization, and in UNESCO. The republic’s trade union organizations maintain contact with 880 trade union and labor organizations in 28 countries.


Stadnik, A., and M. Prokhorenko. Profsoiuzy Ukrainy do Velikoi Oktiabr’skoi sotsialisticheskoi revoliutsii. Moscow, 1959.
Slutskii, A., and V. Sidorenko. Profsoiuzy Ukrainyposlepobedy Velikogo Oktiabria. Moscow, 1961.
Shendryk, L. K., and M. L. Horlach. Profspilky Ukrainy z istorii profspilkovoho rukhu na Ukraini. Kiev, 1965.


General characteristics. A highly developed industrial and agricultural republic, the Ukraine has a complex group of heavy, food, and light industries, a well-developed and diversified agriculture, a large construction industry, and an extensive transportation network. The development of its economic structure and specialization is indissolubly bound up with the economy of all the other Union republics. One of the largest coal and metallurgical bases of the USSR, the republic holds second place in the USSR, after the RSFSR, in volume of material production and accounts for about 18 percent of the all-Union national income (1975).

Table 5. Growth rate of gross industrial output (as percentage of 1940)
Power engineering. . . . . . . . . .1238831,3631,932
Fuel. . . . . . . . . .98299361422
Ferrous metallurgy. . . . . . . . . .113445562687
Chemical and petrochemical industries. . . . . . . . . .971,1152,1043,560
Machine building and metalworking. . . . . . . . . .1441,2432,1913,840
Lumber, woodworking, and pulp and paper. . . . . . . . . .146392549738
Building materials. . . . . . . . . .2271,7362,6103,622
Glass and porcelain-faience industries. . . . . . . . . .1527311,1781,865
Light industry. . . . . . . . . .79299536696
Food-processing industry. . . . . . . . . .80312410514
Total. . . . . . . . . .1155568321,177

The structure of the republic’s national income reflects the industrial nature of its economy. In 1975 industry accounted for 50.5 percent of the national income, agriculture for 21.4 percent, construction for 9.9 percent, and transportation and communications for 5.7 percent. That year production fixed assets, constituting 65 percent of the total fixed capital stock, were distributed as follows: industry, 31.4 percent; agriculture, 15 percent; transportation and communications, 13.1 percent; construction, 2 percent; and trade, public food services, procurement, material and technical supply, and other branches, 3.5 percent. Nonproduc-tion fixed assets accounted for 35 percent of the republic’s fixed capital stock in 1975.

Between 1965 and 1975 the gross social product increased by a factor of 1.8, and the national income by a factor of 1.7. The gross industrial output increased by a factor of 86 from 1913 to 1975 and by a factor of 12 from 1940 to 1975. Capital investments increased by a factor of 18 from 1941 to 1975. The Ukraine ranks second among the Union republics, after the RSFSR, in the amount of capital invested in its economy: 234 billion rubles were invested between 1946 and 1975. The republic’s industrial production fixed assets more than doubled between 1965 and 1975. The industrial output increased by 41 percent from 1971 to 1975.

Industry. The Ukraine’s industrial complex is developing rapidly. The highest growth rate may be observed in the industries on which the technical progress of the entire economy depends. Between 1940 and 1975 the gross output of the electric power industry increased 19-fold, that of the chemical and petrochemical industries, by a factor of 35.6, and that of machine building and metalworking by a factor of 38.4. Table 5 shows the growth rate of the gross industrial output.

Socialist industrialization has changed the structure of industrial production: the share of the means of production (group A) in the industrial output rose from 36 percent in 1913 to 62 percent in 1940 and 71 percent in 1975. During socialist construction great changes have also occurred in the branch structure of industry. New industries have been established, such as the construction industry and the manufacture of tractors, machine tools, instruments, radio and electronic equipment, turbines, aircraft, motor vehicles, mineral fertilizers, synthetic fibers, ferroalloys, and aluminum. Moreover, transformations have taken place in the social organization of industrial production. Large enterprises and production associations, of which there were 425 in 1975, have come to dominate industrial production.

At present, the republic’s leading industries are machine building, metalworking, ferrous metallurgy, and the fuel industry, which together employ 55 percent of the industrial labor force. Its food industry is of all-Union importance. The share of such branches as the electric power and chemical industries in the structure of industry has increased. Table 6 shows the growth in the major types of industrial output.

The postwar decades have seen notable changes in the geographical distribution of industry. A diversified industry has been created in the western regions, where L’vov, Chernovtsy, Rovno, Lutsk, and Ivano-Frankovsk have become major industrial centers. The L’vov-Volyn’ Coal Basin has been developed, and a mining and chemical industry is being established in the Carpathian region. The processing of sugar beets has become a major industry in the western Ukraine, where 15 new sugar mills were built between 1946 and 1975. Cities situated in former agricultural areas, among them Vinnitsa, Khmel’nitskii, Cherkassy, Sumy, Kirovograd, Kremenchug, and Poltava, are now important industrial centers.

FUEL INDUSTRY. The republic’s fuel and energy complex includes a large coal and gas industry, petroleum extraction, a peat industry, and a large electric power industry. In 1975 coal accounted for 61.2 percent of all the fuel obtained, natural gas for 30.8 percent, oil for 7.4 percent, and other types of fuel for 0.6 percent. The proportion of gas and oil in fuel extraction is steadily rising. The 1975 coal output was 9.5 times that of 1913 and more than 2.6 times that of 1940. The Donets Basin coking coal is used throughout the USSR. Hard coal is mined in the western Donets Coal Basin (Dnepropetrovsk Oblast) and in. The L’vov-Volyn’ Coal Basin. In 1975 the mining industry operated 349 enterprises, of which 342 were shaft mines and seven were opencut mines.

The petroleum industry has been expanding rapidly since the war, its output increasing 1.7 times from 1965 to 1975. Along with increased production in Ciscarpathia, the new Dnieper-Donets oil region, encompassing Chernigov, Poltava, and Sumy oblasts,

Table 6. Output of major types of industrial products
1Diesel-steam locomotive
2Industrial output
Electricity (billion kW-hrs). . . . . . . . . .0.512.414.753.9194.6
Coal (million tons). . . . . . . . . .22.883.878.0172.1215.7
Petroleum, including gas condensate (milliontons). . . . . . . . . .1.050.350.292.1612.8
Natural gas (billion cu m). . . . . . . . . .0.51.514.368.7
Cast iron (million tons). . . . . . . . . .
Steel (million tons). . . . . . . . . .
Rolled metal (million tons). . . . . . . . . .2.096.526.9321.144.2
Iron ore (million tons). . . . . . . . . .6.920.221.059.1123.3
Coke (million tons). . . . . . . . . .4.415.715.030.140.4
Mineral fertilizers, in conventional units (milliontons). . . . . . . . . .
Chemical fibers and thread (tons). . . . . . . . . .1,6002,90014,200129,100
Soda ash, 100%(tons). . . . . . . . . .113,000413,000531,000773,000871,000
Sulfuric acid (tons). . . . . . . . . .45,000407,000395,0001,311,0004,033,000
Turbines (million kW). . . . . . . . . .
Power transformers (million kilovolt-amperes). . . . . . . . . .0.624.762.2
Metallurgical equipment (tons). . . . . . . . . .16,00042,700106,500145,000
Metalcutting machine tools (units). . . . . . . . . .7011,70010,50020,50035,700
Main-line diesel locomotives (sections). . . . . . . . . .111251,1421,309
Motor vehicles (units). . . . . . . . . .18,3007,500173,500
Tractors (actual units). . . . . . . . . .10,40022,70088,000143,100
Excavators (units). . . . . . . . . .171603,0508,940
Tractor-driven plows (units). . . . . . . . . .19,80040,80080,700126,300
Tractor-driven seeders, excluding fertilizer spreaders (units). . . . . . . . . .11,00062,20072,20090,900
Beet-harvesting combines (units). . . . . . . . . .1,7004,70017,100
Cement (million tons). . . . . . . . . .
Cotton textiles (million m). . . . . . . . . .4.713.820.694.9429
Wool fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .5.312.07.919.154.4
Silk fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .1.340.0159
Linen fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .
Leather footwear (million pairs). . . . . . . . . .8.040.828.876.8165
Cameras (units). . . . . . . . . .32,30030,400301,200358,000
Radios and phonographs (units). . . . . . . . . .1,7008,500231,200350,000
Television sets (units). . . . . . . . . .98,7002,402,000
Household refrigerators (units). . . . . . . . . .200111,900578,000
Meat, including first-category by-products (tons)2. . . . . . . . . .299,300308,500911,4002,215,000
Butter (tons). . . . . . . . . .33,30060,700190,000314,000
Whole-milk products, in milk equivalents (tons). . . . . . . . . .155,0001,467,0004,801,000
Vegetable oil (tons). . . . . . . . . .158,700181,500449,2001,144,000
Granulated sugar (million tons). . . . . . . . . .1.11.581.813.886.03
Canned goods (million standard containers). . . . . . . . . .303392981,1603,658
Grape wine (million decaliters)2. . . . . . . . . .
Table 7. Sown area (hectares)
Grain crops. . . . . . . . . .24,700,00021,400,00020,100,00013,700,00016,600,000
Wheat. . . . . . . . . .8,900,0007,200,0006,600,0004,000,0008,000,000
Corn. . . . . . . . . .900,0001,600,0002,800,0003,000,0001,200,000
Legumes. . . . . . . . . .400,000800,000800,000800,0001,100,000
Buckwheat. . . . . . . . . .700,000720,000630,000390,000240,000
Industrial crops. . . . . . . . . .900,0002,700,0002,900,0003,600,0004,000,000
Sugar beets. . . . . . . . . .600,000800,000800,0001,500,0001,800,000
Sunflowers. . . . . . . . . .80,000720,000890,0001,510,0001,670,000
Fiber flax. . . . . . . . . .20,000120,000130,000220,000240,000
Potatoes, vegetables, and melon crops. . . . . . . . . .1,400,0002,800,0002,500,0002,800,0002,500,000
Fodder crops. . . . . . . . . .900,0004,400,0005,200,00013,400,00010,500,000
Total. . . . . . . . . .28,000,00031,300,00030,700,00033,500,00033,600,000

is being developed. Oil refineries are located in the Carpathian cities of Drogobych, Nadvornaia, and L’vov, as well as in Odessa, Kherson, and Kremenchug.

The gas industry has essentially been built up since the war. Most of the gas is extracted in the Carpathian region (L’vov and Ivano-Frankovsk oblasts) and in the Dnieper-Donets region. Since 1976 a third gas region has been under development along the Black Sea coast; it will supply gas to the Crimean Oblast.

The electric power industry uses coal fines, peat, liquid fuel, and gas (95.1 percent) and water power (4.9 percent). The largest electric power plants were built after the war. The main steam power plants include the Voroshilovgrad, Starobeshevo, Kura-khovo, Shterovka, Mironovskii, Zuevka, and Slaviansk plants in the Donets Coal Basin; the Zaporozh’e, Pridneprovsk, and Kri-voi Rog No. 2 plants along the Dnieper; the Zmiev Plant in Kharkov Oblast; the Ladyzhin Plant in Vinnitsa Oblast; the Tripol’e Plant in Kiev Oblast; and the Dobrotvor and Burshtyn plants in the western oblasts. The Dnieper Cascade, a group of hydroelectric power installations, includes the V. I. Lenin Dnieper, Kakhovka, Dneprodzerzhinsk, Kremenchug, Kanev, and Kiev power plants. The USSR’s first pumped-storage power plant was built near Kiev in 1975. The Chernobyl’, Rovno, and Southern Ukrainian atomic power plants were under construction in 1976. All the large electric power plants are included in a power system that is part of the Integrated Power Grid of the USSR. Through the Peace Power Grid the Ukrainian power plants are linked with the power grids of Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

FERROUS METALLURGY. The republic’s leading branch of industry, ferrous metallurgy, depends on local iron ore, whose output increased by a factor of 6.1 between 1940 and 1975. The principal mining region is the Krivoi Rog Iron Ore Basin, where the ore is extracted mainly by opencut mining. The Krivoi Rog Basin has five ore-concentration combines: the Southern, New Krivoi Rog, Central, Northern, and Ingulets. Iron ore is also mined around Kremenchug, where the first phase of the Dnieper Ore-dressing Combine has been put into operation. The iron ore of the Kerch’ Iron Ore Basin is concentrated and converted into agglomerate at the Kamysh-Burun Iron Ore Combine. The Zaporozh’e Iron Ore Combine has been built at the newly developed Belozerskoe iron ore deposit in Zaporozh’e Oblast. Manganese ore is mined in the Nikopol’ region.

The largest ferrous metallurgy enterprises are located along the Dnieper (Dnepropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk, Zaporozh’e, Krivoi Rog, Nikopol’, and Novomoskovsk), in the Donets Coal Basin (Donetsk, Makeevka, Enakievo, Kommunarsk, and Khartsyzsk), and on the Sea of Azov (Zhdanov).

Between 1940 and 1975 the output of cast iron increased by a factor of 4.8, that of steel by almost 6, and that of rolled metal by 6.8. The principal construction projects of the ninth five-year plan are the unique Model 3600 rolling mill at the Zhdanov Azovstal’ Works, the world’s largest blast furnace at the Krivoi Rog Metallurgical Plant, and a huge shop producing pipes for trunk gas pipelines at the Khartsyzsk Pipe Plant.

NONFERROUS METALLURGY. Before the October Revolution of 1917, the Ukraine had only one nonferrous metallurgy enterprise, the Nikitovka Mercury Plant. Developed in the Soviet period, the nonferrous metallurgy industry now includes the Dnieper Aluminum Plant in Zaporozh’e, the Ukrtsink Plant and the Nikitovka Mercury Combine in Donetsk Oblast, and the Verkhnedneprovsk Mining and Metallurgical Combine in Dnepropetrovsk Oblast. The Ukraine produces titanium, zirconium, and other nonferrous metals and alloys, as well as rolled nonferrous metals. The Pobugskoe Nickel Plant in Kirovograd Oblast was nearing completion in 1976.

MACHINE BUILDING AND METALWORKING. Employing 39.5 percent of the republic’s industrial workers, machine building and metal-working are the most important branches of heavy industry. Heavy machinery, chiefly mining and metallurgical equipment, is manufactured at Kramatorsk, Gorlovka, Druzhkovka, DebaP-tsevo, Dnepropetrovsk, Krivoi Rog, Zhdanov, Donetsk, and Kharkov. One of the leading enterprises, the V. I. Lenin Novo-kramatorsk Machine-building Plant, produces equipment for blast and open-hearth furnaces, mining machinery, hoisting mechanisms, forging and pressing equipment, and walking excavators.

The Ukraine produces all the major types of transportation machinery. Diesel locomotives are manufactured by the October Revolution Voroshilovgrad Diesel Locomotive Construction Works, and railroad cars by plants at Dneprodzerzhinsk, Kremenchug, and Stakhanov. Buses and trucks are built in L’vov, compact cars at the Kommunar Zaporozh’e Automobile Plant (which in early January 1976 released its millionth car), trucks in Kremenchug, and cargo-passenger vehicles in Lutsk. A major center of shipbuilding, Nikolaev produces oceangoing ships, tankers, dry-cargo ships, and diesel-electric ships. Kherson manufactures oceangoing ships, river cutters and diesel boats, and reinforced-concrete docks for seaports, and Kiev produces river and oceangoing vessels. Metal-intensive hoisting and handling equipment is built near the metallurgical bases of Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, and Stakhanov. Non-metal-intensive hoisting and handling equipment is manufactured in Odessa and L’vov.

The main centers of construction and reading machinery— Kremenchug, Kiev, Kharkov, Berdiansk, Nikolaev, and Slaviansk—manufacture excavators, scrapers, and bulldozers. Power-plant machinery and electrical apparatus are produced at Poltava, at Tokmak, and at Kharkov, which has a turbine plant, an electrical equipment plant, and the Elektrotiazhmash Plant (heavy electrical machinery). Machinery for the chemical industry is manufactured at the Frunze Plant in Sumy, the Bolshevik Plant in Kiev, and plants in Berdichev and Fastov. The main centers of equipment for the food and light industries are Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, L’vov, Melitopol’, Simferopol’, Smela, and Karlovka.

Agricultural machinery, including tractors, beet- and corn-harvesting combines, grain loaders, motorized beet planters, tractor-driven planters, and equipment for livestock farms, is manufactured at the Voroshilov Plant in Dnepropetrovsk, the Red Star Plant in Kirovograd, a tractor plant and the Serp i Molot Plant in Kharkov, the October Revolution Plant in Odessa, the L’vovsel’mash Plant in L’vov, and the Petrovskii Plant in Kherson. There are machine tool enterprises in Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk, Kramatorsk, and Khmel’nitskii.

The instrument-making industry, which developed rapidly after the war, includes plants in Kiev (electrical precision instruments), Kharkhov (control and measurement instruments), Sumy (electron microscopes), and L’vov (electrical measurement instruments). During the ninth five-year plan, machine-building enterprises have been built in the smaller cities, among them Uman’, Kovel’ (agricultural machinery), and Zhitomir (automatic machine tools).

CHEMICALS AND PETROCHEMICALS. The importance of the chemical and petrochemical industry in the Ukraine’s industrial complex is growing steadily. The industry produces a wide range of heavy chemistry products, varnishes, paints, synthetic resins, plastics, artificial and synthetic fibers, chemical and photographic reagents, and various agricultural and household chemicals. Heavy chemistry, the leading branch of the chemical industry, is confined for the most part to the cities of the Donets-Dnieper Economic Region (Severodonetsk, Slaviansk, Gorlovka, Dne-prodzerzhinsk, Sumy, and Konstantinovka) and to Kiev, Vinnitsa, Odessa, and Krasnoperekopsk. Potassium fertilizers are produced by the Khlorvinil Production Association at Kalush and the Stebnik Potassium Plant, both of which are located near raw-material deposits.

Paints and varnishes are manufactured in more than 30 major industrial centers. The largest enterprises are in Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkov (the Krasnyi Khimik Plant), Zhdanov (ultramarine), and Krivoi Rog (red lead). Facilities exist for the production of high-quality pigments, including titanium dioxide. The Rubezhnoe Chemical Combine in Voroshilovgrad Oblast is a leading producer of synthetic dyes. The manufacture of synthetic resins, plastics, and chemical fibers and threads is extensively developed in Donetsk (polyvinyl chloride resins), Priluki (phenol-formaldehyde resin and plastic goods), Odessa (manufacture of films and other products from resins), Severodonetsk (fiber glass and plastic goods), and Dnepropetrovsk (processing of phenolic resins). Chemical fibers are produced by the Khimvolokno production associations in Kiev and Chernigov and at chemical fiber plants in Cherkassy, Zhitomir, and Sokal’.

The growing petrochemical industry is linked to petroleum refining and the gas industry. The largest enterprises of the rubber industry—the Chervonyi Humovyk Kiev Plant and the Dnepropetrovsk and Belaia Tserkov’ tire combines—process synthetic and natural rubber shipped from other areas.

FOOD PROCESSING. Important for the economy of the entire Soviet Union, the Ukraine’s food-processing industry ranked second in 1975 in volume of output, after machine building and metalworking, and held third place in the number of industrial personnel, after machine building, metalworking, and light industry. The republic supplies the all-Union market with sugar, wines, alcoholic beverages, salt, confectionery, vegetable oils and animal fats, meat products, flour, and processed and canned fruit and vegetables.

The Ukraine is the world’s largest producer of beet sugar, and sugar refining is the leading branch of the republic’s food-processing industry. The republic’s 187 refineries are located in the forest-steppe zone and in the northern steppe zone. The Southwestern Economic Region, encompassing Vinnitsa, Cherkassy, Khmel’nitskii, and Kiev oblasts, is the main sugar-producing area. The geographic scope of the sugar industry expanded westward and southward between 1946 and 1975, when 15 sugar mills were built in Volyn’, L’vov, Rovno, Ternopol’, Kirovograd, Odessa, and Dnepropetrovsk oblasts. Distilleries in the Poles’e and in the sugar-producing regions manufacture alcoholic beverages from refinery by-products and potatoes.

The meat-packing industry is well developed in the major industrial cities and in Vinnitsa and Poltava. Among the largest plants built between 1971 and 1975 are the meat-packing combines in Kamenets-Podol’skii, Pervomaisk, and Aleksandriia. The oil and fat industry is flourishing in the steppe oblasts of Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Voroshilovgrad, and Kirovograd. The largest fruit and vegetable canneries, an important branch of the food industry, are located in the south, where new plants have been built at Bar in Vinnitsa Oblast and at Nizhnegorskii in the Crimean Oblast. The Ukraine is a major producer of grape wine, with wineries scattered throughout the Crimean, Odessa, Kherson, and Transcarpathian oblasts. The famous Massandra Combine near Yalta produces some 40 brands of wine. The fish-packing industry is concentrated in the coastal cities of Odessa, Zhdanov, Sevastopol’, Berdiansk, Kerch’, and Izmail.

LIGHT INDUSTRY. The leading branch of light industry, textile manufacture accounts for 44.1 percent of the output of that branch. There are cotton-textile enterprises in Kherson, Ternopol’, Donetsk, and Chernovtsy and cotton-yarn enterprises in Poltava, Kiev, Novovolynsk, and L’vov. Wool cloth is manufactured at the Chernigov and Voroshilovgrad combines, silk at the Darnitsa Combine in Kiev and at the Cherkassy combine, and linen at the Zhitomir and Rovno combines. The garment industry, the second most important light industry, is concentrated in Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, L’vov, and Drogobych. Leather goods and footwear are manufactured in Kiev, Voroshilovgrad, L’vov, Vasil’kov, and Berdichev. The concentration of production in light industry increased markedly between 1965 and 1975, when production associations were organized. Among the largest enterprises built between 1971 and 1975 are the Lutsk Spinning and Weaving Factory, a cotton combine in Donetsk, a tricot factory in Mukachevo, a footwear factory in Khmel’nitskii, and a porcelain plant in Druzhkovka.

BUILDING MATERIALS. The output of the Ukraine’s large and diversified building-materials industry increased by a factor of 36.2 from 1940 to 1975. Large production lines were put into operation at the Balakleia and Kamenets-Podol’skii cement plants between 1971 and 1975. Huge cement plants equipped with modern machinery have been built at Nikolaev, Zdolbunov, Krivoi Rog, Amvrosievka, Balakleia, and Kamenets-Podol’skii. Modern plants producing precast reinforced concrete, as well as housing-construction combines, have been built. Synthetic flooring and chipboard and fiberboard panels are manufactured on a large scale. Most of the construction materials enterprises are located in the Donets-Dnieper Economic Region and in Kiev, Odessa, and L’vov. Such nonmetallic construction materials as gravel, sand, and quarry stone are extracted in Zhitomir, Vinnitsa, and other oblasts.

LUMBER, WOOD-PRODUCTS, AND PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRIES. Logging, woodworking, and paper manufacture are extensively developed throughout the Carpathians and Poles’e. Many of the republic’s sawmills are located in the logging regions of the Transcarpathian, Ivano-Frankovsk, Rovno, L’vov, and Chernovtsy oblasts, although a large number are also found in unfor-ested areas, chiefly at Zaporozh’e, Dnepropetrovsk, Severodonetsk, and Kharkov. Plywood is produced in the Southwestern Economic Region, and furniture is manufactured in Kiev, Kharkov,

Table 8. Gross output of main crops (tons)
Grain crops. . . . . . . . . .23,200,00026,400,00020,400,00021,800,00036,400,00033,800,000
Wheat. . . . . . . . . .8,000,0008,400,0006,700,0006,800,00015,600,00018,200,000
Corn. . . . . . . . . .900,0002,600,0004,200,0005,500,0006,300,0003,100,000
Legumes. . . . . . . . . .400,000800,000600,0001,000,0002,100,0001,900,000
Buckwheat. . . . . . . . . .400,000600,000300,000300,000300,000100,000
Sugar beets. . . . . . . . . .9,300,00013,100,00014,600,00031,800,00046,300,00038,300,000
Sunflowers. . . . . . . . . .70,000900,000700,0001,700,0002,700,0002,400,000
Flax fiber. . . . . . . . . .4,00019,00012,00074,00089,000120,000
Vegetables. . . . . . . . . .5,500,0002,300,0004,900,0005,800,0006,000,000
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . .8,500,00020,700,00020,300,00019,500,00019,700,00016,500,000
Table 9. Livestock population1
1On all types of farms, at the beginning of the year
Cattle. . . . . . . . . .9,100,00011,000,00011,200,00017,600,00024,200,000
Cows. . . . . . . . . .4,100,0006,000,0004,800,0007,900,0009,000,000
Hogs. . . . . . . . . .6,500,0009,200,0007,800,00018,200,00016,800,000
Sheep and goats. . . . . . . . . .6,900,0007,300,0006,700,00010,600,0009,100,000

Donetsk, L’vov, and Dnepropetrovsk. The leading enterprises of the pulp and paper industry are the Zhidachov and Iz-mail pulp and cardboard plants, the Koriukovka Industrial Paper Factory, the Rakhov Cardboard Factory, and the Kherson Pulp and Paper Plant at Tsiurupinsk.

Agriculture. The Ukraine has a large and highly mechanized agriculture specializing in the production of grain, industrial crops, and animal products. Land crop production contributed 48 percent of the gross agricultural output in 1975, and animal husbandry, 52 percent. The Ukraine has land resources exceeding 60 million hectares (ha), of which 42.8 million ha are farmland (1974). The farmland includes 34.2 million ha of plowland, 2.3 million ha of hayfields, 5 million ha of pastures, and 1.3 million ha devoted to perennial plantings. The Ukraine ranks third among the Union republics, after the RSFSR and the Kazakh SSR, in the amount of land used by agricultural enterprises and in the proportion of arable land (80.6 percent). In 1975 there were 7,688 kolkhozes of all types (excluding fishing kolkhozes, 7,603) and 1,763 sovkhozes.

The republic’s agriculture rests on a strong material and technical base. In 1975 the republic had 371,700 tractors (compared to 94,600 in 1940), 283,800 trucks (54,900), and 82,500 grain-harvesting combines (33,400). The total power of electric engines on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes increased from 138,000 kW in 1950 to 2.7 million kW in 1965 and 10.2 million kW in 1975. The quantity of mineral fertilizers delivered to agricultural enterprises increased during the eighth and ninth five-year plans, jumping from 1.3 million tons in 1965 to 3.7 million tons in 1975.

Land reclamation projects have augmented the republic’s farmland. The Krasnoznamensk, Ingulets, Danube, and Tatar-bunary irrigation systems and the first phase of the North Crimean Canal have been built in the steppe zone, and the Ka-khovka Irrigation System is under construction. The amount of irrigated land increased from 514,000 ha in 1965 to 1,492,000 ha in 1975. In such swampy regions as the Poles’e, large areas have been drained. The Irpen’, Oster, and Trubezh drainage systems are among the most extensive in the republic. The drainage network increased from 1,373,000 ha in 1965 to 2,035,000 ha in 1975. The 1975 agricultural output, totaling 20.4 billion rubles, was 3.1 times that of 1913 and double that of 1940.

LAND CULTIVATION. In 1975, grain crops covered 49.2 percent of the republic’s cultivated area. Table 7 shows the structure of the sown area.

The gross annual grain output, averaging 33.4 million tons between 1966 and 1970, rose to 40 million tons between 1971 and 1975. The main food crop is winter wheat, although corn is also important, particularly in the steppe zone. In the Poles’e and in the Carpathian foothills, winter rye is the leading crop. The main groat crops are buckwheat and millet. Rice cultivation is expanding on the irrigated land in the southern steppe zone; the rice output increased by a factor of more than 3.5 from 1965 to 1975.

The proportion of the sown area that was planted to various industrial crops rose from 8.6 percent in 1940 to 12.0 percent in 1975. The leading industrial crops are sugar beets, sunflowers, and fiber flax. Sugar beets are grown mainly in the forest-steppe zone, where the natural and economic conditions are conducive to high yields. The republic holds first place in the country in the sown area and output of sugar beets. Sunflowers are the major industrial crop of the steppe zone. Table 8 shows the yield of the chief crops.

Fiber plants are also an important industrial crop. Flax is grown in the Poles’e, the western forest-steppe regions, and the Carpathian foothills, where it is a highly profitable crop. Hemp is raised in the eastern Poles’e and along the middle Dnieper. The Ukraine produces about 63 percent of the country’s hops, grown chiefly in Zhitomir, Rovno, and Volyn’ oblasts. Tobacco is grown in the Crimea, in Transcarpathia, and along the Dnieper.

Potatoes, a food staple and a major industrial crop used to make starch and alcohol, are grown chiefly in the forest-steppe zone (50 percent of the plantings) and in the Poles’e (about 30 percent). The republic is a leading producer of fruit and vegetables. The output of vegetables increased from 5 million tons between 1961 and 1965 to 6.6 million tons between 1971 and 1975, owing mainly to the establishment of large specialized vegetable and dairy sovkhozes in suburban and industrial regions.

The area devoted to orchards and berry plantings has almost doubled since 1940, reaching 1,122,000 ha in 1975. The 1975 harvest of fruit and berries was 2,510,000 tons. The Crimea, Transcarpathia, and the Black Sea Coast are important viticultural regions supplying the all-Union market. In 1975 the republic’s vineyards, covering 275,000 ha, yielded 1,187,000 tons of grapes. Medicinal and essential-oil plants such as mint, valerian, coriander, lavender, and roses are important commercial crops on the forest-steppe and steppe farms.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. The republic’s second most important branch of agriculture, after land cultivation, is livestock raising. The output of animal products increased by a factor of 2.8 between 1940 and 1975. Livestock raising is expanding in conjunction with crop cultivation and the raw-material processing industries. Livestock breeding, the main branch of animal husbandry, is extensively developed almost everywhere. Most of the livestock is raised on kolkhozes, sovkhozes, and other state farms. Table 9 shows the increase in the livestock population.

Dairy farming predominates in suburban areas and in the Poles’e. In the forest-steppe and in the Carpathians both beef and dairy cattle are raised. In the steppe the emphasis is on dairy farming, although large numbers of beef cattle are also raised. Mechanized cattle-fattening farms are becoming increasingly important. Hogs are raised in the forest-steppe and steppe, in areas well supplied with concentrated feed and food by-products. Fine-fleeced sheep are raised for meat and wool in the steppe zone and in the Carpathians, and coarse-wool sheep are raised in the Poles’e. Mechanized poultry farming is expanding, with the number of fowl increasing from 120.5 million in 1965 to 168.3 million in 1975. In poultry farming, production is highly concentrated and mechanized, and large poultry factories are being established. Table 10 shows the output of the most important animal products.

Table 10. Output of main animal products1 (tons)
1On all types of farms
Meat and lard (dressed weight).1,130,0002,100,0003,500,00 0
Milk. . . . . . . . . .7,100,00014,000,00021,300,000
Eggs (billions). . . . . . . . . .
Wool. . . . . . . . . .13,40027,60 028,800

The republic’s agriculture is developing along the line of intensified production through chemicalization, the mechanization of crop farming and animal husbandry, irrigation, and land reclamation. In all branches of agriculture, intensified production has led to an increase in commercial output and consequently a growth in state purchases (see Table 11).

Beekeeping is flourishing in the Poles’e and in the forest-steppe region. Sericulture, based on the raising of the mulberry silkworm, is developing chiefly in the steppe region. Pond fishing is also expanding. There are specialized sovkhozes and farms for raising coypu, silver-black fox, and mink.

Table 11. State purchases of agricultural products (tons)
Grain crops. . . . . . . . . .9,400,0005,900,00011,700,00014,000,000
Sugar beets. . . . . . . . . .12,700,00029,100,00041,800,00035,900,000
Flaxfiber. . . . . . . . . .10,40064,40084,100116,200
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . .1,800,0001,400,0001,700,0002,000,000
Livestock and poultry (liveweight). . . . . . . . . .500,0001,500,0002,600,0003,600,000
Milk and dairy products (in milk equivalent). . . . . . . . . .1,000,0006,000,00010,500,00013,200,000
Eggs (billions). . . . . . . . . .
Wool (standard weight). . . . . . . . . .12,20028,00026,00031,100

Transportation. Railroads are the chief means of passenger and freight transportation within the Ukraine and between the Ukraine and the other republics. The operational length of the railroad lines was 22,300 km in 1975, compared to 20,100 km in 1940. With 36.9 km of track per 1,000 sq km, the Ukraine has one of the densest rail networks in the USSR. In the Soviet period a substantial portion of the railroad has been electrified (6,600 km by 1975) and converted to diesel power. Today, almost all passengers and freight are conveyed by diesel or electric traction. In 1975 the railroad freight turnover was 458.9 billion ton-km, and 976.1 million tons of freight were hauled; the corresponding figures for 1940 are 71.9 billion ton-km and 200 million tons. The railroad freight consists chiefly of coal, coke, iron ore, mineral construction materials, cement, ferrous metals, machines, and grain.

The Donets-Dnieper Economic Region has the densest rail network and the heaviest freight turnover. It accounts for almost three-fourths of the republic’s outgoing freight and two-thirds of its incoming freight. Donetsk Oblast has more than 60 km of track per 1,000 sq km. The principal trunk lines are the Moscow-Kiev, Moscow-Donets Coal Basin, Moscow-Kharkov-Sevastopol’, Kiev-Odessa, Kiev-L’vov, Kharkov-Dnepropetrovsk-Kherson, and Krivoi Rog-Donets Coal Basin lines. Transit lines link the USSR with the Polish People’s Republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, and the Socialist Republic of Rumania.

Another important means of transportation is shipping, whose freight turnover rose from 16.6 billion ton-miles in 1960 to 102.5 billion ton-miles in 1975. Through the seaports of Odessa, Il’i-chevsk, Kherson, Izmail, Zhdanov, and Kerch’, the Ukrainian SSR and the other Soviet republics trade with more than 80 countries. Coastal vessels haul cargo between Kerch’ and Zhdanov and between Odessa and Novorossiisk. The republic had 4,500 km of river waterways in 1975, compared to 3,200 km in 1940. The freight turnover of general-use river shipping was 8.9 billion ton-km in 1975, when 42.3 million tons of freight were hauled. The corresponding figures for 1940 are 1.1 billion ton-km and 4.6 million tons. The major waterway is the Dnieper River (seeDNIEPER BASIN RIVER PORTS). After a series of reservoirs were built on the Dnieper, a single deep channel was created. The major ports are Kiev, Kanev, Cherkassy, Kremenchug, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozh’e, Nikopol’, and Kherson. The larger tributaries of the Dnieper—the Desna and Pripiat’—are also used for shipping. The Iuzhnyi Bug is navigable as far as Voznesensk; the Severskii Donets, from the mouth of the Lugan’; and the Dnestr, from Mogilev-Podol’skii to its lower reaches. There is shipping on the Danube. River cargoes include construction materials, coal, ore, petroleum products, grain, machines, refractory materials, and hardware.

Between 1940 and 1975 the length of paved highways increased from 29,300 km to 116,700 km, and the freight turnover of highway transportation increased by a factor of 35, reaching 58.6 billion ton-km. The Ukraine is crossed by several nationally important highways, including those from Moscow to Kiev, Moscow to Simferopol’ via Kharkov, Odessa to Leningrad via Kiev, Kiev to Donetsk via Dnepropetrovsk, and Kiev to L’vov.

Air transportation connects the Ukraine with the other Union republics and with many foreign countries. There are regularly scheduled flights between Kiev and the other oblast administrative centers. Since the war, an international airport has been built at Borispol’ near Kiev, and major airports have been built at Kharkov, L’vov, Odessa, Simferopol’, Dnepropetrovsk, and Zaporozh’e. In 1975 some 12.4 million passengers and 215,000 tons of freight were transported by air.

Pipelines are the newest type of transportation in the Ukraine, which has more than 14,000 km of pipelines. The USSR’s first gas pipeline, the Dashava-L’vov pipeline, was built in 1940. When it was put into operation in 1948, the Dashava-Kiev pipeline was the longest gas pipeline in Europe; in 1951 it was extended to Moscow. Gas pipelines connect the Carpathian and Shebelinka gas deposits with many Ukrainian cities, among them Kiev, Kharkov, Poltava, Dnepropetrovsk, Kherson, Krivoi Rog, and Odessa, as well as with cities in the RSFSR, Moldavia, Byelorussia, and Latvia. Completed in 1967, the Bratstvo gas pipeline, which runs from Ciscarpathia to Czechoslovakia, also carries gas to Poland. A 680-km section of the Druzhba oil pipeline runs through the Ukraine. Other oil pipelines include those running from Dohna to Drogobych, from Priluki to Gadiach and Kremenchug, and from the Northern Caucasus to Trudovaia (Donets Coal Basin).

Economic regions. The Ukraine encompasses three large economic regions: the Donets-Dnieper, the Southwestern, and the Southern.

One of the largest industrial regions of the USSR, the Donets-Dnieper Economic Region is noted for its heavy industry, chiefly mining and metallurgy. Coal, iron ore, salt, graphite, kaolin, and refractory and high-heat clay are extracted, and cast iron, steel, and rolled metals are manufactured. The region produces much of the republic’s nonferrous metal, electric power, transportation and agricultural machinery, tractors, and chemical products, including soda, mineral fertilizers, tires, chemical reagents, and industrial rubber goods. It also has a thriving construction materials industry. Some of the country’s largest steam power plants are located in the region. The region’s farms produce wheat, corn, legumes, sunflowers, sugar beets, hemp (for fiber), vegetables, and animal products. Vegetable and fruit farms have been established on the outskirts of the major cities. The region’s railroads, pipelines, and shipping facilities serve the entire country.

The Southwestern Economic Region has a well-developed food industry that produces sugar, alcohol, butter, processed fruits and vegetables, and meat products. Its machine-building industry manufactures equipment and apparatus for oil refineries and chemical plants, electrical equipment, motor vehicles, instruments, food-processing equipment, and construction and road-building machinery. Its chemical industry includes mining and chemical enterprises and plants manufacturing chemical fibers. The region also produces construction materials, lumber, and wood products. In agriculture, the chief crops are sugar beets, winter wheat, corn, legumes, fiber flax, potatoes, vegetables, and hops. Livestock raising is also important.

In the Southern Economic Region the leading industries are shipbuilding and ship repair, the manufacture of hoisting and conveying machines and agricultural machinery, fish packing, wine-making, and the canning of fruits and vegetables. The region’s farms grow sunflowers, winter wheat, corn, essential-oil crops, tobacco, and grapes.

Standard of living. The living standard of the population has been steadily rising during the years of socialist construction, especially in the postwar period. Between 1965 and 1975 the republic’s national income increased by a factor of 1.7, reaching 65.6 billion rubles, and the real per capita income increased by a factor of 1.6. Payments made to the population from social consumption funds more than doubled, rising from 7.4 billion rubles in 1965 to 14.9 billion rubles in 1974. The monthly cash income of workers and employees increased from 94 rubles in 1965 to 133.5 rubles in 1975. If payments from public consumption funds are included, the monthly income grew from 126 rubles to 183 rubles in that period. In 1976 the number of people receiving pensions reached 9,613,000, or 218 percent of the number in 1960.

The retail trade turnover amounted to 36.9 billion rubles in 1975, nearly 8.4 times the 1940 figure. Between 1940 and 1975 the number of savings banks almost doubled, increasing from 7,242 to 14,590, and the amount of deposits increased by a factor of almost 167, from 96 million rubles to 16,045,000,000 rubles.

Between 1961 and 1974 some 288.8 million sq m of new housing were made available. Of this area, 151.3 million sq m were built by state and cooperative organizations (excluding kolkhozes) and housing construction cooperatives, 63.8 million sq m by urban and rural industrial and office workers at their own expense, and 73.7 million sq m by kolkhozes, kolkhoz members, the rural intelligentsia, and other sectors of the population. The housing conditions of almost one-fifth of the population improved from 1971 to 1975.


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Medicine and public health. Both folk and monastic medicine are known to have existed in Kievan Rus’ in the tenth and 11th centuries. At the asylums founded by monasteries and churches for the sick and the disabled, medical treatment included amputation, the dressing of wounds, and trepanation. The most famous physicians of that time were Ioann Smerna and Petr Siria-nin. The Kievan princess Evpraksiia Mstislavovna is believed to have written the treatise Ointments, a compendium of 12th-century medical knowledge. Subsequently, the development of medicine in the Ukraine was interrupted by the Tatar-Mongol conquest and the invasions of Polish and Lithuanian armies.

The first physicians to hold medical degrees were Iu. Dro-gobych and the Byelorussian F. (G.) Skoriny, who lived in the 15th and 16th centuries. Specialized medical institutions were founded in cities in the 17th century. In connection with the reforms introduced by Peter I, instruction in medicine was offered at the Kiev Academy and at the collegia in Chernigov, Kharkov, and Pereiaslavl’. Medical faculties were founded at universities in the 19th century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries prominent zemstvo physicians worked in the Ukraine, among them A. T. Bogaevskii, B. S. Kozlovskii, A. A. Abrazhanov, P. N. Diatroptov, L. I. Malinovskii, N. I. Teziakov, and M. S. Uvarov.

In 1913 the Ukraine had 47,700 hospital beds (1.4 beds per 1,000 inhabitants), 7,900 doctors, most of them general practitioners (one per 4,500 inhabitants), and 12,400 paramedical personnel. The mortality rate exceeded 25 per 1,000 inhabitants; among infants, the rate was about 200 per 1,000 live births. Infectious diseases were the main cause of death.

After the Great October Socialist Revolution a number of prominent medical men, notably N. M. Volkovich, L. V. Gro-mashevskii, D. K. Zabolotnyi, A. P. Krymov, B. N. Man’kov-skii, A. N. Marzeev, G. F. Pisemskii, V. P. Protopopov, N. D.

Strazhesko, P. I. Shatilov, and F. G. Ianovskii, helped organize the state public health system and contributed to the development of higher and secondary medical education in the Ukraine.

The fascist German occupation of the Ukraine from 1941 to 1944 caused great damage to the public health system. More than 500 hospitals and about 200 maternity homes were destroyed, as well as more than 1,000 outpatient clinics and polyclinics. The number of beds in medical institutions declined by 40 percent, and infectious diseases spread rapidly. After the war, epidemics of infectious diseases were eradicated through sanitary and coun-terepidemic measures. Since 1960 no cases of typhus, relapsing fever, malaria, poliomyelitis, or tularemia have been recorded, and the incidence of typhoid, children’s infections, tetanus, brucellosis, and other diseases has declined sharply.

In 1975 the birthrate was 15.1 per 1,000 population, and the mortality rate was 10; in 1940 the figures were 27.3 and 14.3, respectively. The infant mortality rate in 1974 was 19.3 per 1,000 live births (164 in 1940). The average life span was 71 years in 1974, compared to 47 years in 1926–27. The main causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms.

In 1976 there were 4,100 hospitals in the Ukraine with 578,000 beds (11.8 beds per 1,000 population), compared to 2,500 hospitals with 157,600 beds (3.8 beds per 1,000 population) in 1940. Of the total number of hospital beds, 128,500 were allocated for internal medicine, 74,400 for surgery, 85,900 for pediatrics, 32,500 for gynecology, 24,700 for neurology, 12,700 for otolaryngology, 10,300 for oncology, 6,900 for gastroenterology, 9,300 for ophthalmology, 3,300 for endocrinology, 1,900 for hematology, and 7,100 for urology.

In 1976 outpatient care was provided by 5,900 polyclinics and outpatient clinics and 17,400 medical centers were staffed by feldshers and midwives. Workers at industrial enterprises were served by 217 medical-hygiene units, 424 public health stations headed by doctors, and 6,100 public health stations run by feldshers. There were 4,500 women’s and children’s consultation clinics. Specialized preventive medical care was given at 215 tuberculosis dispensaries (five in 1913) and at 46 oncological and 108 dermatovenereal dispensaries (none in 1913). There were 5,500 pharmacies and 19,000 pharmacy stations in 1976, compared to 1,024 pharmacies in 1913. A network of public health counterepidemic institutions has been established, including 765 public health epidemiological stations.

In 1975 the republic’s preventive medicine institutions employed 157,000 doctors in all fields of specialization, representing one doctor per 312 inhabitants. In 1940 there were 35,300 doctors, or one per 1,200 inhabitants. Medical personnel are trained at 15 medical institutes, three institutes for the advanced training of physicians, and 108 medical schools. Paramedical personnel may take courses to improve their qualifications at medical schools and at oblast, city, and raion institutions of preventive medicine. Such courses are offered on a permanent basis in 18 of the republic’s oblasts. Conferences of secondary-level medical personnel are held regularly. The republic’s 45 medical research institutes employ 12,000 researchers holding doctoral degrees and 6,600 researchers with candidate’s degrees.

There were 486 sanatoriums and resort hotels with accommodations for 122,200 persons in 1975; the children’s sanatoriums could accommodate 35,100 persons. Among the most popular resorts are those of the Crimean Oblast, including the Southern Crimean Shore, those of the Odessa area, and the resorts of Truskavets, Morshin, Mirgorod, Berezovskie Mineral’nye Vody, Vorzel’, and Siniak. Expenditures on public health and physical culture totaled 1,943,200,000 rubles in 1975, compared to 155.5 million rubles in 1940.


Physical culture, sports, and tourism. Before the Great October Socialist Revolution the Ukraine had some 200 sports clubs, leagues, and groups with about 8,000 members and about 300 instructors. In several large cities sailing, rowing, and tennis clubs were established, as well as clubs for wrestling and weight lifting. There were also 42 soccer clubs with about 1,200 members.

Physical culture and sports developed rapidly from the early years of Soviet rule. The first mass physical-culture organizations were the groups and clubs formed as part of the program of universal military training (vseobuch). Ukrainian teams took second place at the first All-Union Sports Competition, held in 1928. In the 1930’s committees for physical culture and sports were founded in oblasts, cities, and raions, and physical-culture groups were formed at enterprises and institutions, including schools. The Ready for Labor and Defense (GTO) system became the basis for the physical-culture movement. By 1940 the republic had 73 stadiums, about 250 gymnasiums, 160 swimming pools and water sports stations, about 150 ski runs, and more than 13,000 athletic fields. Almost all of these facilities were destroyed in the Great Patriotic War.

In 1975 a number of voluntary sports societies, including army clubs, promoted physical culture and sports among the masses. Founded in 1958, the republic sports society Avangard consisted of 3,200 groups with 2.1 million members in 1975. Kolos, a republic sports society founded in 1950, comprised 13,700 groups with a membership of 2.6 million in 1975. The all-Union sports societies were Burevestnik, Vodnik, Dynamo, Zenit, Lokomo-tiv, Spartak, and Trudovye Rezervy.

In 1975 the republic’s 42,500 physical-culture groups had 10.3 million members and about 50,000 professional instructors, including 36,500 with a higher or specialized secondary education. Sports facilities included 850 stadiums with places for 1,500 or more people, 12,000 gymnasiums, 240 swimming pools, 126,000 athletic fields, 577 ski runs, and about 2,000 sports health camps and hunting and fishing lodges. Training in various sports was offered at 789 juvenile sports schools (281,000 trainees), 11 schools of sports mastery, two institutes and three technicums of physical culture, and 13 physical-culture departments in higher educational institutions. The republic also had 34 oblast and city physical-culture and therapy dispensaries.

The newspaper Sportivnaia gazeta, founded in 1949, has a circulation of 322,000, and the magazine Start, issued since 1957, has a circulation of 73,500. From 5 to 6 million people participate in the republic’s sports competitions, held since 1956.

Between 1966 and 1975 the republic’s sports organizations trained more than 700 international-class masters of sport, 10,200 masters of sport of the USSR, 154 world champions, 288 European champions and 352 champions of the USSR. As of Jan. 1, 1976, the title of Honored Coach of the Ukrainian SSR had been conferred on 680 persons, and 101 persons had received the title of Honored Coach of the USSR. More than 11 million people passed the tests of the Ready for Labor and Defense system from 1972 to 1975.

The most popular sports and games are track and field athletics (1.5 million participants in 1976), volleyball (1.1 million), soccer (more than 850,000), target shooting (more than 750,000), basketball (705,000), checkers (702,000), chess (about 700,000), table tennis (some 600,000), and handball (267,000). The republic has 28 major league teams, including soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, rugby, and water polo teams. Kiev’s Dynamo soccer team, a seven-time champion of the USSR and a four-time winner of the USSR Cup, won a major competition held for European winners of national cups and the 1975 Supercup holder. The Shakhter (miner) soccer team from Donetsk won the USSR Cup twice. The Spartak women’s handball team (Kiev) was champion of the USSR from 1969 to 1976 and won the European Cup five times. Ukrainian athletes participating in Olympic Games won 113 gold, 75 silver, and 63 bronze individual and team medals between 1952 and 1976.

The republic’s abundant recreational resources include (as of Jan. 1, 1976) 113 tourist facilities, camp sites, and hotels, 78 travel and excursion bureaus, and 178 tourist clubs. There are also 79 all-Union tourist itineraries. The major tourist attractions are the Crimea, the coast of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, the Carpathian region, and Transcarpathia, as well as such old centers of national culture as Kiev, L’vov, Chernigov, Poltava, Pereiaslavl’-Khmelnitskii, and Kamenets-Podol’skii. Also popular are boat trips on the Dnieper and Desna and cruises on the Black Sea. In 1975 the republic was visited by more than 4 million tourists, including 67,500 from 42 countries.


Veterinary services. Preventive and antiepizootic measures have eradicated rinderpest, glanders, infectious anemia, equine epizootic lymphangitis, smallpox, and brucellosis of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Trichophytosis, cattle hypodermiasis, and leptospirosis are on the verge of being eradicated. There are sporadic outbreaks of anthrax, blackleg, hog cholera, and swine erysipelas. Leukosis, cattle tuberculosis, and viral diseases of cattle and pigs continue to pose serious problems. The incidence of animal helminthiases is declining.

As of Jan. 1, 1976, the Ukraine’s 5,335 veterinary institutions and organizations included one republic veterinary laboratory, 25 oblast veterinary laboratories, 477 raion veterinary laboratories, and four Ascoli laboratories. In addition, there were 25 oblast and 477 raion disease-control stations, 1,189 district veterinary hospitals, 1,601 veterinary sections, 322 veterinary centers, 1,080 meat-dairy and food control stations, 119 city veterinary-sanitary stations, and 15 veterinary-sanitary teams.

In 1976 there were 11,584 veterinary doctors and 26,954 veterinary feldshers in the Ukraine. Advanced veterinary training is given at the Kharkov and L’vov zooveterinary institutes and by the veterinary departments of the Ukrainian Agricultural Academy and of the Belaia Tserkov’ and Odessa agricultural institutes. Secondary-level specialists are trained at 26 veterinary technicums. The leading veterinary research center is the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Science (UNIIEV).


The history of education in the Ukraine begins in the tenth and 11th centuries, when the first schools were founded in Kievan Rus’, chiefly for the training of priests. From the 12th to the 14th century the development of trade and crafts contributed to the spread of literacy among the urban population.

Subsequently, educational work in the Right-bank Ukraine and the development of a Ukrainian national culture took place amidst a fierce national and religious struggle against Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords and Roman Catholicism. The Brest Union of 1596 strengthened the resistance to Catholicism and caused a proliferation of Brotherhoods (bratstva), which used schools as a means of struggle for national independence. After the first Brotherhood school was founded in L’vov in 1586, such schools were opened in Kiev (1615), Lutsk (1624), and other cities. Brotherhood schools were also established in rural areas. Primary schools that taught the rudiments of reading and writing, as well as singing, were founded in Ukrainian villages in the 16th century.

The Kiev Mogila Academy, founded in 1632 as a collegium, became in the 17th and 18th centuries the center of learning in southern and southwestern Russia. Collegia modeled on the academy were founded in Chernigov in 1700 and in Kharkov in 1727.

The reunification of the Ukraine with Russia in 1654 had a progressive influence on the development of Ukrainian culture and education and contributed to the mutual enrichment of the cultures of the Ukrainian and Russian peoples. The number of primary schools increased in the late 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries, but intensified social oppression caused a decline in education in the latter half of the 18th century. Under serfdom and autocracy schools were generally accessible only to children of the propertied classes, and Ukrainian was never used as the language of instruction.

In the 18th century G. S. Skovoroda made a major contribution to the strengthening of public education. Under the reform of 1803, four types of educational institutions were established: parish schools, district schools (uchilishcha), provincial Gymnasiums, and universities. In the first half of the 19th century, there were ten Gymnasiums, including those of Novgorod-Sever-skii (1804), Kharkov (1805), Kiev (1812), and Simferopol’ (1812). The Nezhin Gymnasium of Higher Learning, founded in 1820, was transformed into a lycée in 1832. Lycées were also established in Odessa (Richelieu Lycée) in 1817 and in Kremen-ets in 1805. The University of Kharkov opened in 1805 and the University of Kiev in 1834. Privileged women’s educational institutions, called institutes for wellborn girls, were founded in the first half of the 19th century in Kharkov, Poltava, Odessa, Kerch’, and Kiev.

In the middle and second half of the 19th century the development of education was greatly influenced by the revolutionary democratic movement, whose members included such Ukrainian cultural figures as T. G. Shevchenko, I. Ia. Franko, P. A. Grabovskii, M. M. Kotsiubinskii, and Lesia Ukrainka. K. D. Ushin-skii called for the establishment of public schools in which Ukrainian would be the language of instruction, and N. I. Piro-gov made a major contribution to the spread of education in the Ukraine. The Revolution of 1905–07 gave impetus to the struggle for the democratization of the schools and for the right to develop a Ukrainian national culture.

Nonetheless, most of the Ukrainian people remained illiterate down to the October Revolution of 1917. The 1897 census showed that the literacy rate among persons nine to 49 years of age was 27.9 percent—41.7 percent for men and 14 percent for women. The corresponding figures for rural areas were 23.5 percent, 37.4 percent, and 9.8 percent. In the 1914–15 school year there were 20,200 schools, some 19,400 of them primary schools, in the Ukraine (within the boundaries that existed before Sept. 17, 1939). The schools had an enrollment of 1,728,300 pupils. Not one state-run school conducted classes in the native language. About 80 percent of the children of school age did not have an opportunity to study. An incomplete secondary education was offered at 341 Progymnasiums and upper-level urban primary schools. More advanced training was available at 577 secondary general-education schools, 61 specialized secondary schools, and 19 institutions of higher learning.

After the victory of the October Revolution of 1917, public education underwent a revolutionary transformation. In 1919 the People’s Commissariat for Education of the Ukrainian SSR promulgated the Statute on the Single Labor School of the Ukrainian SSR. In March 1920 the First All-Ukrainian Conference on Education endorsed a system of public education that included preschool institutions, general-education schools, vocational schools (primary, secondary, and higher), and various cultural-educational institutions for adults. Upbringing and education figured prominently in the discussions of the Ninth and Tenth congresses of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine (1925 and 1927) and the 11th All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets (1929). Every effort was made to eradicate illiteracy. From 1921 schools and centers were established as part of the campaign to eliminate illiteracy, and the Down With Illiteracy! society was founded in 1923. In the 1929–30 school year 560,000 people were learning to read and write.

In August 1930 the Central Committee of the CP(B) of the Ukraine adopted a resolution to introduce universal compulsory education in the 1930–31 school year. That year 98.2 percent of the children between the age of eight and ten were enrolled in primary schools; in cities the proportion was even higher, 99.8 percent. Moreover, 76 percent of the children who completed the fourth grade went on to seven-year schools. The all-Union public education system was firmly established in the Ukraine by the mid-1930’s. By the late 1930’s illiteracy had been virtually eradicated in the republic. In 1939 the literacy rate for persons nine to 49 years of age averaged 88.2 percent. The rate was higher for urban dwellers (94.2 percent) than for the rural population (85 percent) and higher for men (93.9 percent) than for women (82.9 percent).

In 1939 the western Ukraine was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. Although Ukrainians constituted 90 percent of the population of the western Ukraine, only 5 percent of Ukrainian children were being taught in their native tongue, and more than 30 percent did not have an opportunity to attend school. Some 70 percent of the region’s population was illiterate. In the northern Bucovina, included in boyar Rumania until 1940, 80 percent of the population was illiterate. After the reunification of the Ukrainian lands, all the necessary conditions existed for the education of the working people and for their integration into the socialist culture. In the 1940–41 school year the western regions of the Ukraine had 7,034 schools with an enrollment of 1,284,400. Ukrainian was the language of instruction in more than 86 percent of the schools. Transcarpathia’s first university was established in Uzhgorod in 1945.

In the 1940–41 school year the republic had 15,300 primary schools, about 11,000 seven-year schools, and more than 4,400 secondary schools attended by 6,615,100 pupils and staffed by 251,300 teachers. The republic’s 693 specialized secondary schools had an enrollment of 196,200 students, and its 173 higher schools were training 196,800 students.

Universal compulsory seven-year education was introduced in 1949. Ten years later the literacy rate among the urban and rural population was 99.1 percent. In the 1959–60 school year the republic shifted, along with the rest of the country, to universal compulsory eight-year education, and in the 1966–67 school year it instituted universal secondary education. The 1970 census showed that 99.8 percent of the republic’s inhabitants were literate—99.9 percent of its urban dwellers and 99.7 percent of its rural population. In the 1975–76 school year about 98 percent of those completing the eighth grade continued their education at secondary general-education schools, specialized secondary schools, and vocational-technical schools offering a secondary education. The transition to universal secondary education was essentially completed by 1976.

In 1975–76 the republic’s 26,000 general-education schools of all types had an enrollment of 8,276,900. In the sphere of cultural education and the upbringing of schoolchildren, the population was served by 1,564 extracurricular institutions, which included 764 palaces and houses of Pioneers, 213 stations for young technologists, 155 stations for young naturalists, and 28 children’s excursion tour stations. Some 2,037,000 children were attending preschool institutions in 1975.

A system of vocational-technical schools has been established in the years of Soviet power. On Jan. 1, 1976, there were 1,006 vocational-technical schools within the State System of Vocational-Technical Education. The schools had an enrollment of 553,000 students, of whom 213,000 were attending secondary-level schools. The republic’s 730 specialized secondary schools had an enrollment of 783,800 students.

In the 1975–76 school year there were 142 higher educational institutions, including nine universities and seven polytechnical institutes. The largest institutions of higher learning are the universities of Kiev, Kharkov, L’vov, Odessa, and Dnepropetrovsk and the polytechnical institutes at Kiev, Kharkov, L’vov, and Donetsk. The republic’s higher schools, offering training in 300 specialties, had an enrollment of 831,000 students in the 1975–76 academic year.

The Ukraine’s 27,000 public libraries contained 320,448,000 copies of books and magazines in 1975. The largest libraries are the CPSU State Library of the Ukrainian SSR in Kiev, the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, the V. G. Korolenko State Scientific Library in Kharkov, the A. M. Gorky Odessa State Scientific Library, and the V. Stefanik L’vov State Scientific Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.

The republic had 25,900 clubs and 154 museums, including branches, in 1975. In Kiev and L’vov there are branches of the Central Lenin Museum. Kiev is also the site of the Historical Museum of the Ukrainian SSR, the Museum of Ukrainian Fine Arts, the Kiev-Pecherskaia Preserve of Cultural History, the Sofia Museum-Preserve of the History of Architecture, the Kiev Museum of Russian Art, and the Kiev Museum of Western and Oriental Art. Other major art museums are the Kharkov Art Museum, the L’vov Museum of Ukrainian Art, and the Museum of Ethnography and Artistic Crafts in L’vov. The leading historical museums are those of Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, L’vov, and Pe-reiaslavl’-Khmel’nitskii; the Young Guard Historical Museum in Krasnodon; the Museum of the History of the Battle of Poltava in Poltava; and the Museum of the Heroic Defense and Liberation of Sevastopol’. Also outstanding are the A. P. Chekhov Museum-House in Yalta, the T. G. Shevchenko Memorial Museum at’Kanev, and the I. K. Aivazovskii Picture Gallery at Feodosiia.


Kul’turne budivnytstvo v Ukrains’koi RSR: Zbirnyk dokumentiv, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1959.
Narodna osvita ipedahohichna nauka v Ukrains’koi RSR, 1917–1967. Kiev, 1967.


Amateur arts. Workers’ and peasants’ theaters were established shortly after the October Revolution of 1917. Workers’ clubs, people’s houses, Red Army drama groups, and various cultural-educational groups were organized in the 1920’s. Newly founded peasants’ houses promoted the successful development of amateur arts in the countryside. In subsequent decades amateur arts developed on a grand scale, improved organizationally, and reached a high artistic level.

In 1974 there were 216,400 amateur arts groups, including 37,800 choral, 34,700 music, 29,700 drama, 28,200 dance, and 3,400 fine and applied art groups. More than 800 of the best amateur arts groups, about 300 of them theater groups, have been designated people’s collectives. About 3.6 million people participate in amateur arts.


Natural and technical sciences, BEFORE THE GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION. After the formation of a Ukrainian nation, natural science and technology in the Ukraine developed in close contact with the science and culture of the Russian and Byelorussian peoples. The opportunities for the growth of knowledge expanded greatly after the Ukraine’s reunification with Russia in 1654. An important center of learning was the Kiev Mogila Academy, founded as a collegium in 1632 and reorganized as an acad-rêmy in 1701. The academy’s curriculum included instruction in mathematics, astronomy, geography, architecture, and medicine.

In the 19th century scientific work was done at the University of Kharkov (founded 1805), the University of Kiev (1834), and Novorossiia University in Odessa (1865), all of which had scientific laboratories. Learned societies were founded, among them the Kharkov Society of Naturalists (1869), the societies of natural scientists in Kiev (1869) and Odessa (1870), the Kharkov Mathematical Society (1849), and the Odessa (1849) and Kharkov (1864) medical societies. Some scientific research was also done by museums.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries scientific research flourished at the University of Kharkov: V. G. Imshenetskii did work in mechanics and mathematical analysis, A. M. Liapunov developed the general theory of the stability of motion, and V. A. Steklov did research on hydrodynamics, the theory of elasticity, and mathematical physics. Also affiliated with the university were D. M. Sintsov, noted for his work in geometry, and S. N. Bernshtein, who investigated probability theory and the theory of functions. Concurrently, important mathematical research was conducted at the University of Kiev, where M. E. Vashchenko-Zakharchenko focused on the theory of the functions of a complex variable and V. P. Ermakov worked on mathematical analysis, algebra, geometry, the theory of functions, and mechanics. D. A. Grave and his followers founded a school of algebra.

Astronomical observatories were founded at Kharkov in 1808, at Nikolaev in 1821, at Kiev in 1845, and at Odessa in 1871. At the Kharkov Observatory microvibrations of the earth’s crust were studied using horizontal pendulums. Star catalogs were compiled, and research was done in theoretical astronomy, celestial mechanics, and astrophysics. The Ukraine’s first magnetic and meteorological observatory was built in 1895 in Odessa.

In the late 19th century M. P. Avenarius studied thermoelectric phenomena and the physical properties of liquids at the University of Kiev, where the Ukraine’s first chair of theoretical physics was established in 1884. The University of Kharkov initiated research in radio engineering in the Ukraine. Scientists at Novorossiia University conducted research on wave processes and earth magnetism. Russia’s first radiology laboratory was set up at the university in 1910.

The systematic geological study of the Ukraine, begun in the 19th century, gained momentum after the founding of the Geological Committee in St. Petersburg in 1882. Geological maps were compiled of the Dnieper-Donets Lowland, the Black Sea coast, and Volyn’-Podolia, and large deposits of coal, iron ore, and manganese ore were discovered. A team of geologists headed by F. N. Chernyshov and L. I. Lutugin established the basic structure and coal reserves of the Donets Coal Basin. Important contributions to the development of geology in the Ukraine include N. D. Borisiak’s concept of the Greater Donets Coal Basin, P. P. Piatnitskii’s study of the Krivoi Rog Iron Ore Basin, P. A. Tutkovskii’s investigations of Quaternary geology and geomorphology, and N. I. Andrusov’s work on the Noegene stratigraphy of the Pontic-Caspian Basin.

The study of physical geography began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1895, A. N. Krasnov published Russia’s first textbook on general geography; he also held the Ukraine’s first chair of physical geography, established at the University of Kharkov. Among others who advanced the study of geography were the meteorologist P. I. Brounov, who organized a network of meteorological stations along the Dnieper; the botanist G. I. Tanfil’ev, who did a comprehensive geographical study of the Poles’e, the Dnieper region, and the southern Ukraine; and the silviculturist G. N. Vysotskii, who dealt with problems of landscape science and studied the hydrological function of forests.

Research in general chemistry was initiated at the University of Kharkov in the early 19th century. In the latter half of the century N. N. Beketov, a professor at the university, published basic works on physical chemistry. Chemists at the University of Kiev focused on organic chemistry, particularly the reduction of nitro compounds. S. N. Reformatskii synthesized β-hydroxy acids, and other chemists developed a method of nitrating aliphatic hydrocarbons. N. A. Bunge conducted research on electrolysis. At Novorossiia University, L. V. Pisarzhevskii studied the structure of peroxides and peracids, and A. A. Verigo developed new methods for obtaining certain organic substances.

Zoologists and botanists at the universities of Kharkov and Kiev paved the way for the development of biology in the Ukraine. They worked on problems of plant physiology, evolutionary morphology, and animal physiology. A. Ia. Danilevskii and other scientists at the University of Kharkov inaugurated biochemical research in the Ukraine. V. A. Bets did pioneering work on the architectonics of the brain. Several medical men made notable contributions. V. P. Obraztsov developed the technique known as deep sliding palpation. In 1909–10, Obraztsov and N. D. Strazhesko gave a clinical description of myocardial infarction. Meanwhile, at Novorossiia University, E. Metchnikoff and A. O. Kovalevskii conducted their classic study of evolutionary embryology, L. S. Tsenkovskii devoted himself to algology and microbiology, and I. M. Sechenov worked on gas exchange in the blood and the physiology of the nervous system.

In 1871 biologists at Novorossiia University established the Sevastopol’ Biology Station, and in 1886 scientists from the University of Kiev were instrumental in founding a zoology station in Villafranca on the Mediterranean. The founding of bacteriology stations in Odessa, Kharkov (1887), and Kiev (1894) and of a public health bacteriology institute in Ekaterinoslav (1913) inaugurated research in epidemiology, which was continued by D. K. Zabolotnyi.

Handbooks on crop cultivation and animal husbandry appeared in the 19th century. Agricultural research was conducted at botanical gardens, notably the Kharkov Acclimatization Botanical Garden (1804), at the Poltava, Kherson, and Odessa experimental fields, and at the Nosovka, Uman’, Kharkov, and Nemerchany experiment stations. L. P. Simirenko conducted successful experiments in fruit growing. Work on the acclimatization and selective breeding of animals began in the late 19th century in Askaniia-Nova.

The first higher technical schools were founded in the late 19th century. The Kharkov Technological Institute was opened in 1885, and the Kiev Polytechnical Institute was founded in 1898. Established in 1889, the Ekaterinoslav Higher Mining School was reorganized as a mining institute in 1912. A. M. Terpigorev, M. M. Protod’iakonov, and M. M. Fedorov taught and did research at these schools. In the late 19th century technological research focused on the mechanization of blast-furnace production, metal science, the heat treatment of metals, machine building, theoretical problems of electrical engineering, and the theory of electric machines. Investigations in aerodynamics were conducted in Kharkov, and research in mechanics was done at the Kiev Polytechnical Institute and at the Ekaterinoslav Mining Institute (A. N. Dinnik).

Under tsarist rule the Ukraine’s few scientific and higher educational institutions were unable to pursue research on a large scale. The progressive efforts of scientists and specialists to promote science were not supported by the authorities. Only after the October Revolution did conditions favor creative scholarly activity for the benefit of the people.

AFTER THE GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION, 1917–45. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the victory of the working people in the Civil War produced the conditions necessary for the development of the natural and technical sciences in the Ukrainian SSR. The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was founded in 1919, with V. I. Vernadskii as the first president. Specialized research institutes were set up in Kharkov, Kiev, Dnepropetrovsk, and other industrial centers. The departments and laboratories of higher educational institutions greatly expanded their scientific work. The tasks set by the Communist Party—the socialist restoration of the economy, the industrialization of the country, the collectivization of agriculture, and the development of culture—determined the basic directions taken by Ukrainian science in this period. Fundamental and applied research in many branches of science progressed rapidly.

N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov developed the basic principles of nonlinear mechanics. Important research was done on interpolation and mechanical quadratures. K. K. Simanskii, E. O. Paton, and F. P. Beliankin devoted much attention to construction mechanics, material strength, and civil engineering theory, research fields touching on the practical problems of building and repairing bridges and civil and industrial structures. A. N. Dinnik’s theory of elasticity gained wide recognition, as did G. F. Proskura’s work on hydrodynamics and the design of hydraulic turbines, pumps, and hydraulic transmissions.

D. A. Grave’s Ukrainian school of algebra became the theoretical basis for subsequent achievements in a number of related sciences. O. Iu. Shmidt did basic work on the theory of groups; D. M. Sintsov investigated the theory of differential equations; and M. F. Kravchuk worked on approximation methods for the integration of differential and integral equations. Mathematicians proposed a method of formally integrating various classes of differential equations with partial derivatives. Iu. D. Sokolov obtained important results in the analytic theory of differential equations applying his findings to celestial mechanics. Others studied the properties of analytic functions, and developed methods for the Chebyshev approximation of functions, proposed an axiomatic substantiation of the probability theory (S. N. Bernsh-tein), and worked on the approximation of functions by methods of functional analysis.

A notable contribution to the organization of physics research was made by A. F. Ioffe, I. V. Obreimov, K. D. Sinel’nikov, L. D. Landau, A. K. Val’ter, and L. V. Shubnikov. Research was initiated in such fields as low-temperature physics, nuclear physics, solid-state physics, theoretical physics, and radiophysics. In 1932, Ukrainian scientists conducted the first Soviet experiments on the fission of the atomic nucleus of lithium and obtained liquid helium. A. I. Leipunskii studied the interaction of atomic nuclei and neutrons of different energies. In 1934, D. I. Blokhin-tsev proposed the first quantum theory of phosphorescence. The first Soviet electrostatic accelerator of charge particles was built in the Ukraine in 1935–36, and the first Soviet radar device was invented there in 1939. In astronomy A. Ia. Orlov studied the deformation of the earth’s crust and the motion of the poles, and N. P. Barabashov founded a school of planetary study.

Geological prospecting led to the discovery of reserves of oil, iron ore, coal, and other useful minerals. Vernadskii had an immense influence on the development of earth science in the Ukrainian SSR. The publication of the six-volume Description of the Donets Basin (1914–22) and the works of A. A. Skochinskii and N. A. Starikov promoted the development of mining science. N. I. Lebedev and A. A. Shirokov studied the coal reserves of the Donets Basin, and V. N. Chirvinskii investigated the geology of brown coal deposits and participated in geological surveys of the Ukraine. A. N. Krishtofovich’s works on paleobotany became widely known. V. I. Luchitskii made a major contribution to the study of the petrography and geology of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield. Other scientists developed the theory of the inorganic origin of oil and did research on the hydrogeology and climatology of the Ukraine.

The work of Ukrainian scientists in the technical sciences had important practical applications. E. O. Paton initiated research on electric welding and developed an effective method of flux-shielded automatic welding. G. M. Krzhizhanovskii and A. V. Vinter solved various problems of power engineering. Studies were conducted on the rating of complex power systems and power supply networks (V. M. Khrushchev), and electrical engineering equipment was developed. Several fundamental studies were done on the theory of turbodynamos, the theory of heat exchange, and general problems of power engineering.

Another important research field was chemistry and chemical engineering. L. V. Pisarzhevskii studied electronic phenomena in chemistry and the nature of oxidation-reduction reactions. Theoretical knowledge of the kinetics of reactions, catalysis, and electrode processes broadened. Heavy water was obtained in the USSR for the first time in 1934 by A. I. Brodskii, working in the Ukraine. The event was of great importance for the development of Soviet nuclear physics and for the use of atomic energy in the national economy. It also initiated a series of studies on the chemistry and use of istotopes. The techniques that had been developed for synthesizing cyanine dyes enabled A.I. Kiprianov to obtain new photosensitizers. Chemists also studied problems of electrolytic dissociation that were crucial for the development of organic and inorganic chemistry, hydrometallurgy, and other fields. V. A. Plotnikov’s investigations into the electrochemistry of nonaqueous solutions had a practical application in obtaining and refining several metals and making corrosion-resistant roofing materials. Other chemists worked on the theory of acids and bases and the general theory of electrolytes (N. A. Izmailov).

Biologists and medical men made valuable contributions to science. The Ukrainian school of pathophysiology, founded by A. A. Bogomolets, studied problems of fatigue, longevity, and blood transfusion. Bogomolets developed an antireticular cytotoxic serum on the basis of his study of the physiological properties of connective tissue. Biochemical research, a new field, led to major discoveries in the biochemistry of muscle activity (M. D. Ferdman). A. V. Palladin did important research on the comparative biochemistry of nerve tissue. Advances were made in the study of the processes by which cells are supplied with energy. V. P. Filatov developed methods for transplanting the cornea of the eye and for the use of plastic material on a round stalk in eye surgery and developed a theory about biogenic stimulators.

Microbiologists studied pathogenic microorganisms and developed methods of treating infectious diseases. The achievements in medical microbiology owed much to the work of D. K. Zabo-lotnyi. Notable successes were achieved in evolutionary morphology (I. I. Shmal’gauzen) and parasitology. In botany, V. I. Lip-skii and his associates embarked on the multivolume Flora of the Ukrainian SSR. N. G. Kholodnyi proposed a theory about phyto-hormones, and other botanists compiled guides to mosses and lichens. N. I. Vavilov had a marked influence on the development of plant taxonomy, genetics, selective breeding, ecology, and immunity in the Ukraine. Problems of mutation were studied, and work was done on the acclimatization of southern fruit and berry crops in the northern part of the republic.

At the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the scientists of the Ukraine, like Soviet people everywhere, immediately joined the struggle against the fascist invaders. Many of the republic’s research institutes were evacuated to the east. The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was evacuated to Ufa in July and August 1941. Many scientific institutions were reorganized, and related institutes were merged. Scientists and scientific teams concentrated on defense problems. Under E. O. Pa-ton’s direction, the Research Institute of Electric Welding of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR developed a technique for the automatic electric welding of tank chassis and aerial bombs, and it designed and produced the necessary apparatus and equipment. Scientists solved various problems of aircraft and motor building. They designed torque converters and hydraulic clutches for motor vehicles, tanks, and tractors that improved the maneuverability of vehicles and the combat performance of tanks. New types of high-quality cast iron were developed and widely used in machine building and in the manufacture of shells and aerial bombs.

A number of studies in applied mathematics were conducted, and new acoustic instruments for antiaircraft defense were invented. Physicists developed new types of ammunition, perfected optical systems, and invented new kinds of antifreeze. Research in nuclear physics continued. Medical scientists developed methods of treating wounded soldiers. Ukrainian geologists participated in mineral prospecting in eastern regions of the country.

The fascist invaders destroyed many scientific institutions in the occupied areas and removed equipment. In Kiev alone the damage caused by the invaders to the institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR exceeded 126 million rubles (in pre-1961 prices). About 1 million books were removed from the academy’s Central Scientific Library. Scientists and scientific institutions began returning to the liberated parts of the Ukraine even before the end of the war. The Academy of Sciences returned to Kiev in 1944. Despite the harsh wartime conditions, the party and government took vigorous action to revive the work of scientific institutions.

SINCE 1945. After the Great Patriotic War, the material and technical basis for science was restored in the Ukraine, and favorable conditions were created for the development of scientific research. The republic’s network of scientific institutions expanded until every oblast administrative center had higher educational institutions, research institutions, and planning and design organizations. Today, research is conducted in virtually all branches of modern science.

Mathematics. Ukrainian mathematicians have won acclaim for their work on the theory of nonlinear differential equations and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. N. N. Bogoliubov and others have worked out and mathematically substantiated asymptotic methods. They have worked on the method of averaging, proposed a general method of solving equations with slowly changing coefficients, and developed the method of integral manifolds. Criteria have been established for the stability of solution of linear differential equations with quasiperiodic coefficients, and methods of solving linear differential equations with partial derivatives have been elaborated. Studies in functional analysis have concentrated on the spectral theory of operators and the theory of space with an indefinite metric. Important results have been obtained in the geometric theory of differential equations and in nonholonomic differential geometry. Mathematicians have developed a geometric theory of convex surfaces with a regular metric and have done important work on the theory of surfaces with a limited outer curvature. Outstanding work has been done on the theory of the functions of complex variables, on the theory of quasiconformal mappings (to which M. A. Lavrent’ev made a major contribution), and on the theory of approximating functions.

Ukrainian mathematicians have developed the theory of stochastic differential equations, have studied the limit theorems for sums of independent random values, and have investigated the theory of random processes. They have made a substantial contribution to mathematical statistics, to the queueing theory, and to the theory of reliability. Fundamental research has been done on group theory, on the theory of matrices, on several sections of the Galois theory, on the theory of fields of algebraic numbers, and in linear algebra. Important contributions have been made to the theory of solvable and nilpotent groups, and a theory of linear inequalities over an arbitrary ordered field has been advanced. Work is being done on the history of mathematics.

Cybernetics. Studies have been conducted on the principles of cybernetics. One of the Soviet Union’s first computers, the MESM, was built in the Ukraine in 1951 by S. A. Lebedev. The all-purpose computer Kiev was designed in 1959. The experience gained in designing and building these machines was used to make computers of the second, third, and fourth generation. V. M. Glushkov developed a general theory of digital automatons and mathematical machines that served as the basis for analyzing and synthesizing cybernetic devices. Research is under way in analogue computer technology and in industrial, economic, and biological cybernetics. Scientists have formulated and worked out the basic concepts for an all-Union automatic system of data retrieval and processing to be used for statistical surveys and national economic planning. Automatic control systems have been introduced at enterprises with diversified production.

Mechanics. Important contributions have been made to the study of the dynamic strength of machine parts under variable stress and the fatigue of metal structural members. M. K. IangeF solved various theoretical and applied problems of aircraft mechanics, and G. N. Savin obtained significant results in his investigation of the concentration of stress around recesses in isotropic and anisotropic mediums. Scientists have conducted comprehensive studies of the strength of various types of new metallo-ceramic materials and have proposed methods for calculating the strength of products made of such materials. Research has been done on the strength, plasticity, hardness, and elasticity of many refractory materials at temperatures of up to 3500°C. Scientists have been studying the brittle strength of metals at very low temperatures and the stress condition and deformation of polymer and fiber-glass articles and structural members. N. V. Kornou-khov has worked on the strength and durability of core systems, and A. D. Kovalenko developed a theory of linear and nonlinear thermoviscous elasticity that takes into account the interaction of deformation and temperature fields.

Significant results have been obtained in the nonclassical theory of shells and in the study of dynamic contact problems (impact theory). The theory of elasticity and elasticity-plasticity problems have been studied by A. Iu. Ishlinskii and other researchers at the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The theory of the cold brittleness of metals has been investigated by N. N. Davydenkov. Scientists have investigated the dynamics of transients in machines and the dynamics of machines, taking into account the elasticity of the components. They have developed methods for calculating transients in the hydraulic and pneumatic systems of heavy machines. A significant contribution has been made to the development and design of aircraft, including the world’s largest airplane, the Antei. A. G. Ivchenko is noted for his work on aviation engines. Other research fields include the hydraulics of open waterways and hydraulic engineering.

Physics. A series of studies have been done on invariant-group methods in the theory of gravitation (A. Z. Petrov). The intermediate state in antiferromagnetic substances has been discovered and theoretically and experimentally investigated. G. D. Latyshev solved a set of problems relating to the interaction between gamma radiation and matter. Important results have been obtained in the physics of elementary particles and plasma physics. The discovery of the turbulent heating and anomalous resistance of plasmas is of great importance for solving problems of thermonuclear fusion and for developing plasma methods of accelerating particles.

I. M. Lifshits and his associates discovered and studied the exciton state in molecular crystals, solved many problems of the modern theory of metals, explained the relation between the topology of the Fermi surface and the properties of metals, and elucidated the electron energy spectrum of metals. S. I. Pekar developed a basic theory of polarons, and G. V. Kurdiumov advanced a theory of martensite transformations. Other physicists developed the physical principles of the plasticity, heat-resistance, and hydroextrusion of metals, studied problems of crystallization (V. I. Danilov), and did work on the physics and technology of particle accelerators and on high-energy physics. Research on superconductivity has yielded fundamentally new results, and superconducting solenoids with high parameters have been developed. The experimental and theoretical study of the tunneling of Cooper pairs has led to the discovery of the ultrahigh-frequency radiation accompanying this phenomenon.

A great deal of research has been devoted to low-temperature physics and its applications, to the physical and technical principles of optical electronics, to methods of generating millimeter and submillimeter waves, to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in material media in a wide range of frequencies, and to the physics of the generation and propagation of radio waves. A series of studies on the physical principles of controlling the frequency of laser radiation made it possible to create a set of lasers with a tunable radiation frequency. A new branch of ultrahigh-frequency electronics, called diffraction electronics, has been created, and a new class of electrovacuum generators with diffraction radiation has been developed.

Research in radio astronomy was given impetus by the building of the UTR-2 radio telescope. N. P. Barabashov and other Ukrainian scientists made a significant contribution to astronomy. Fruitful work has been done on determining the exact position and movement of celestial bodies, on the rotation of the earth, on the physics of comets, on the study of variable stars, on determining changes in latitude and polar motion, and on the physics of the planets, the sun, and the interstellar medium.

Physical geography. The study of the Ukraine’s natural conditions and mineral resources continues to expand. D. N. Sobolev and other geomorphologists have described the topography of the Ukraine and its various regions. The synthesizing monograph Climate of the Ukraine was published in 1967. The Ukrainian Hy-drometeorological Scientific Research Institute has conducted numerous studies of the distribution and dynamics of the major climatological and hydrological characteristics of the Ukraine. The physical geography of the Ukraine and its regions has been fully described. The division of the republic into geobotanical regions, carried out in 1962, was followed by a soil regionalization in 1965 and a physicogeographical regionalization in 1968. A comprehensive atlas of the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSR’s was published in 1962.

Geology. Geological research is focusing on problems relating to the geological structure of the Ukraine. Studies are being conducted on the age, stratigraphy, and petrogenesis of the Precambrian. N.I. Svital’skii has studied the origin of the ore deposits of the Ukrainian Crystalline Massif, and N. N. Dobrokhotov and S. P. Rodionov have investigated the ore deposits of the Krivoi Rog Basin. The origin of manganese and iron ore of the Kerch’ type has been investigated. Scientific prediction led to the discovery of the Dnieper-Donets oil- and gas-bearing region. O.S. Via-lov and his associates identified patterns of sediment formation and substantiated the stratigraphic division of sedimentary strata. K. I. Makov and other scientists are studying underground water, in particular mineral springs. Important work has been done on the geomorphology of the Ukraine and on theoretical tectonics. S. I. Subbotin and other geologists are investigating the abyssal structure of the earth’s crust and mantle and are creating models of the earth. The physical properties of rocks and minerals are being studied. Other research fields include problems of mineralogy and petrography, the geochemistry and cosmochemistry of isotopes, nuclear geochronology, the crystal chemistry of minerals, and the theory of ore formation.

Ukrainian geologists have compiled a general tectonic map of the Ukraine, a metallogenic map of the Ukraine and Moldavia, and maps showing the structure of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, the Donets Ridge, the Carpathians, the Black Sea Coast, and the Ukrainian Crystalline Massif. They have completed a tectonic regionalization of the Ukraine and have provided a general description of its geological structure and mineral resources. Geological research has produced such outstanding works as The Geology of the Ukrainian SSR, The Hydrogeology of the Ukrainian SSR, The Stratigraphy of the Ukrainian SSR, and the Atlas of Paleogeo-graphic Maps of the Ukrainian SSR and the Moldavian SSR.

Mining sciences. A number of important studies have aimed at improving the exploitation of mineral deposits. Scientists have determined the relations between the mining-geological, economic, and technical factors affecting the choice of mining methods and systems. They have solved the problem of selecting rational plans for opening coal deposits and choosing the techniques of working deposits of great depths, including the gas-filled and steep seams of the central Donets Basin. The western Donets Basin, a new coal region marked by complicated mining and geological conditions, has been explored and developed. Significant results have been obtained in studying rock pressure by mathematical methods (A. N. Dinnik) and in determining the quantitative indexes of rock pressure on supports.

Methods have been developed for predicting the presence of gas pockets in coal mines and for preventing sudden coal falls and mine explosions. Scientists have worked on the theoretical principles of ventilation and have proposed methods of ventilating deep mines and creating comfortable temperatures in them. The efficiency of iron ore mining has been raised by a new highly productive system of induced block caving using deep boreholes (N. A. Starikov). The theoretical principles of continuous operation in quarries have been developed, and new methods for the magnetic concentration of ores have been proposed.

Materials science. Scientists at research institutes attached to the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences and at specialized research institutes have improved the technology of obtaining and processing metals, have developed new methods of joining metals, have contributed to the theory of synthesizing new materials, and have designed new equipment, instruments, and machinery.

The scientific principles of electric welding have been further developed. A new method of joining thick metals, electroslag welding, has been developed by B. E. Paton and has been adopted in industry. The USSR was the first country to use this method (with forging) in the manufacture of semifinished products of unlimited weight and size for atomic, electric-power, and heavy machine building. New methods of refining and smelting steel and alloys by electron-beam and plasma-arc rèmelting have been developed and introduced in industry. These methods have given rise to a new branch of metallurgy, known as electrometallurgy. B. E. Paton and his associates have proposed a new method of electroslag remelting that makes it possible to obtain steel and alloys with special properties. Among other new techniques that have been developed and adopted are methods of electron-beam, argon-arc, and microplasma welding; blast welding methods; and methods of laser, condenser, and thermoreso-nance microwelding. A number of studies have been devoted to continuous flash welding, welding in a carbon dioxide medium, welding metallurgy, welding with covered electrodes and the making of such electrodes, and underwater arc welding and metal cutting.

Many problems of powder metallurgy have been studied. Metallurgists have developed the materials needed for new technological processes and have studied the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials with respect to production conditions. A large number of metalloceramic materials with friction-resistant, friction, and filtering properties have been developed and tested under industrial conditions. Research has been done on the theory of solid-phase sintering, liquid-phase sintering, and activated sintering. Technological processes for producing rolled metalloceramic materials, both sheets and merchant shapes, from powdered metals and alloys have been developed and applied in industry.

A notable achievement was the development of methods of obtaining high-temperature materials: hard refractory combinations of transition metals (belonging to groups IV, V, and VI of the periodic system) with boron, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and several other nonmetals. Many new compounds have been synthesized and studied. Scientists have developed the technology of producing plastic wire and thin-wall chromium tubes and have worked out the theoretical principles and techniques for obtaining new erosion-resistant reinforced composite materials using polymer matrices. They have devised methods of producing semiconductor alloys and high-temperature dielectrics. A wide range of metallization processes involving various materials has been studied, as well as the technology of combining such materials as diamonds and cubic boron nitride with metals. Techniques have been developed for soldering metal, glass, and various ceramic and other materials using graphites, carbides, borides, and other substances.

Soviet Ukrainian scientists were the first to propose the use of natural gas in blast furnaces. They have developed a highly efficient foundry technology, have investigated the thermophysical processes involved in the formation of large ingots, and have worked on important theoretical and practical problems of metal rolling (A. P. Chekmarev). New types of nickel-free construction steel and heat-resistant alloys have been developed, as well as a low-alloy high-strength semikilled steel to replace killed steel. Metallurgists have introduced into mass production a new technique of pouring molten steel and making sheet ingots using molds with a corrugated inner surface and highly effective melting intensifiers that are added directly into the stream of liquid steel. Steel plants have also adopted a newly developed technique for the electroslag smelting of sheet ingots and ingot slabs in an automatic movable grooved crystallizer.

A recently proposed adsorption-electrochemical theory of the corrosion fatigue of metals has led to the use of various types of protection from corrosion of loads. Scientists have solved problems relating to the limit equilibrium of brittle bodies with cracks, have proposed new methods of calculating the resistance of materials to brittle fracture, and have determined the critical temperatures of cold brittleness. New highly efficient tools made of synthetic diamonds and superhard metals have been devised for various types of mechanical processing.

Power engineering. Ukrainian power engineers have done fundamental research on the theory of heat and mass transfer and have used their findings to develop highly efficient power-engineering equipment. They have made a notable contribution to the development and fabrication of highly efficient and powerful steam-turbine units with high initial parameters. They have won recognition for their optimal planning of electric transmission lines and electric supply networks. The USSR’s first investigations into the problem of high-voltage transmission by direct current were begun in the Ukraine. The republic’s scientists have worked out and introduced systems for compounding generators of electric power plants (S. A. Lebedev), and they have developed techniques and apparatus for the automation and protection of power grids and power installations. Progress has been made in developing methods of rating complex electric circuits, methods of electrical and magnetic measurement (A. D. Neste-renko), and methods for the mathematical, electronic, and physical modeling of problems of electrodynamics and electric power engineering. The republic’s power industry is using newly developed compensating transformers, various new transforming, stabilizing, and balancing devices, and automatic measuring bridges. Effective techniques have been developed for lowering the temperature of turbogenerators heated up by magnetic diffusion flux and for raising their load capacity and reliability. The development of the theory of resonance transformers led to the construction of effective systems of stabilized current to be fed into lasers and electric-arc, electrohydraulic, and other equipment.

Chemistry. Ukrainian chemists are credited with a number of important achievements in the study of the mechanism and kinetics of chemical reactions (E. A. Shilov), organic synthesis, the theory of the structure of organic compounds, and the chemistry of complex compounds. Research chemists, notably A. I. Brodskii, made a major contribution to the chemistry of free radicals by establishing the structure of free radicals and their function in the intermediate stages of organic reactions. V. A. Roiter’s theory of heterogeneous and heterogeneous-homogeneous catalysis opened the way for synthesizing new compounds and for improving the technology of producing various chemicals. Scientists have advanced a general theory of the electronic structure of organic comulenes in different conformations. Progress has been made in the study of sorption and the development of new types of synthetic zeolites. B. S. Lysin has studied the properties of clay and of silicate and cement raw materials. New silica gels, new or-ganosilicon and other sorbents, and high-quality fillers, plasticiz-ers, and adsorbents have been obtained. Chemists have also developed new materials based on clay minerals for use in solutions in deep drilling for oil and gas. P. P. Budnikov has worked on techniques for obtaining binding substances, refractory materials, and other silicates.

Much attention has been given to radiation chemistry. Scientists have studied the tracks of high-energy particles, have developed chemical methods of measuring various types of radiation, and have conducted research on increasing the heat resistance and strength of polymer materials through radiation. A new theory of the oxidation of organic compounds led to the development of methods of chlorine bleaching of cotton yarn. A. I. Ki-prianov has worked on the chemistry of cyanine dyes and on the theory of chromaticity. A new class of dyes, called azastyryls, has been discovered, and new stable fabric dyes have been synthesized.

The republic’s research chemists have devised original methods of calculating the distribution of the electron density in organic molecules, and they have studied the action of organic catalysts in reactions involving the acylation of amines. They have developed a general theory of the electrode potentials of metals in fused salts, have established the dependence of electrode potentials on the atomic number of the element, and have proposed new polarography methods for fused salts. A new phenomenon has been discovered, the transfer of metals from the cathode to the anode during the electrolysis of ions in the fused state. The corrosion processes on the surface of metals have been studied, an electrochemical theory of corrosion protection for gas pipelines has been worked out, and corrosion inhibitors for metals have been proposed.

The chemistry of organic phosphorus and sulfur compounds has been developed and a large number of organic phosphorus, sulfur, and fluorine compounds with valuable properties have been synthesized and studied. Research has been done on the chemistry of psychotropic substances and on stereochemistry.

Research in polymer chemistry is flourishing. New polymers and ultraheat-resistant copolymers have been synthesized using cyanuric acid. Polymer materials such as polyoxazoles and poly-triazoles have been obtained, as well as semiconducting polymers. Chemical, radiochemical, and photochemical methods of altering polymer materials have been proposed.

In petrochemistry, the republic’s scientists were the first in the USSR to develop methods for using synthetic zeolites in the petrochemical and oil-refining industry. They discovered the reaction of the condensation of methyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons with methanol. Studies have been conducted on the chemical processing of hydrocarbon gases and on the use of gas fuels in industry. A method has been proposed for the automatic regulation and control of the chemical processing and burning of gas. Scientists have developed technological plans for the purification, ozonation, and chlorination of drinking water that are being used in water supply systems, and they have designed adsorption systems for the purification of industrial wastes.

Biological sciences. Notable progress has been made in the study of the biochemistry of proteins, enzymes, and vitamins, in plant cytology and embryology, in the study of diseases of cultivated plants, and in controlling crop pests. The Ukrainian school of biochemists founded by A. V. Palladin established the biochemical composition of various parts of the nervous system with respect to its functions, studied changes in the composition and metabolism of the nervous system in the course of ontogenesis and phylogenesis, explained the nature of energy metabolism in the brain under various functional conditions, identified and studied a number of specific proteins and enzymes of the nervous system, and studied the biochemical principles governing the effect of various neurotropic substances on biochemical processes in the brain. Research has been done on fat metabolism and on the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and new intermediate products involved in these processes have been discovered. Several purified and crystalline enzymes have been identified, and a technology for obtaining glucosidase and catatase has been developed.

P. G. Kostiuk and other Ukrainian physiologists advanced new ideas on the physical and chemical basis of excitation and inhibition. For the first time in the USSR, instruments were invented for drawing off potentials from individual nerve cells, and methods were developed for using specialized computers to analyze electrophysiological research on neurons. Ukrainian physiologists made a major contribution to the study of the physiology of the nervous system, digestion, and blood circulation and to research on the exhaustion and renewal of physiological processes. They advanced several hypotheses on the physiology of endocrine functions and developed new methods for the electrical stimulation of the heart.

Another important research field is microbiology. New medicinal preparations for controlling bacteria have been developed, notably the microcide antiobiotics produced by N. M. Pidoplich-ko. Researchers are extracting antibiotics from fungi and higher plants. Research in industrial microbiology has expanded. New strains of yeast have been developed, and several new types of raw material have been discovered for synthesizing protein-vitamin concentrates from petroleum hydrocarbons. New strains of Azotobacter have been produced, and new data have been obtained on the molecular mechanisms governing protein synthesis.

The patterns of plant resistance to unfavorable conditions such as radiation, drought, and frost and the ways of increasing such resistance have been investigated by A. I. Zadontsev. Botanists and zoologists have conducted systematic studies of the flora and fauna of the Ukraine. Multivolume works on the republic’s flora and fauna have been published, as well as guides and handbooks for the study of plants and animals. Botanical studies served as the basis for land reclamation projects covering large areas and for the cultivation of high-yield varieties of sugar beets, winter rye, and other important crops. The republic’s zoologists provided the scientific foundation for completely halting the reproduction of locusts and beet webworms and for minimizing the reproduction of harmful rodents and beet weevils.

Ukrainian hydrobiologists are studying the life and biological resources in the republic’s seas, rivers, and lakes. The construction of large reservoirs on the Dnieper prompted research on the development of dense masses of aquatic vegetation and the fauna inhabiting them, on the patterns of fish spawning (V. A. Mov-chan), and on the formation of plankton and benthos. Comprehensive studies on water bloom have been initiated. Hydrobio-logical research on the Black Sea placed the fishing industry on a scientific basis. Biologists have advanced the theory of the hypo-neuston, groups of living organisms that live below the surface film of seas and that play an important role in the life of many marine organisms.

The achievements of Ukrainian biologists have provided a firm basis for the further development of the medical and agricultural sciences in the republic.

Medicine. Medical scientists are working on measures for preventing and eradicating diseases, chiefly mass infections, and for increasing longevity. Ukrainian medical men have solved a number of important theoretical and clinical problems pertaining to public health and have improved public health practices. Advances have been made in oncology, heart surgery, space physiology and medicine, otorhinolaryngology (A. I. Kolomiichenko), and gynecology (A. Iu. Lur’e).

Agricultural sciences. Agricultural research is devoted to such problems as ensuring high yields of grain and industrial crops under unfavorable weather conditions, obtaining the maximum agricultural output with a minimum of expenditure per unit of land, and raising livestock productivity. Extensive research is being done on the genetics and selective breeding of agricultural plants, on seed growing, on land reclamation and improvement, on top-dressing, and on feeding agricultural animals. Much attention is being given to the all-round intensification of agricultural production through chemicalization. Ways of efficiently using microfer-tilizers have been proposed. Ukrainian scientists, notably V. Ia. Iur’ev and V. N. Remeslo, have developed new crop varieties. Several high-yield varieties of winter wheat are widely known: Odessa 3, Odessa 16, Michurinka, Mironovskaia 808, and Iubi-leinaia.

The development of a monospermous sugar beet variety has eliminated the labor-intensive process of thinning shoots. The physiological principles of raising the sugar content of sugar beets have been studied. Ukrainian scientists have had notable success in developing high-yield hybrids and varieties of corn. New high-yield varieties of groats, legumes, oil-bearing crops, essential-oil crops, and fodder crops are now being cultivated, as are wart-resistant varieties of potatoes and new high-yield lines and hybrids of vegetables and melons. Improved methods of growing vegetables in greenhouses and in open fields have been devised. A large number of hybrids of various fruits and berries have been created. Problems of growing and processing grapes are being studied. Breeders have done a great deal to improve existing livestock breeds and have produced new breeds. A fractional method has been developed for the artificial insemination of pigs. The research of A. A. Vasilenko and other agricultural specialists was used in designing new grain- and corn-harvesting combines, beet harvesters, cultivators, planters, and other agricultural machinery and mechanisms.


Social sciences, PHILOSOPHY. Ukrainian philosophical and sociological thought has its roots in the culture of Kievan Rus’. The common origin and historical destiny of the Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian peoples, as well as their joint struggle against social, national, and religious oppression, determined the similarity and cohesion of their spiritual culture and philosophical and sociological thought. The Old Russian nation, out of which the Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian peoples evolved, produced such cultural masterpieces as Vladimir Monomakh’s Exhortation to His Sons (11th century), Metropolitan Ilarion’s Discourse on Law and Grace (11th century), the Primary Chronicle (12th century), the Tale of Igor’s Campaign (12th century), and the Kievo-Pecherskii Patericon (13th century). These works patriotically affirmed the unity of all the Russian lands, advocated a strong centralized state that would repel foreign invaders, and expressed the need to develop culture and education.

A religious ideology prevailed in Kievan Rus’, and its philosophy was dogmatic and speculative. Especially influential were the idealist concepts of Neoplatonism and the ethical doctrine of Stoicism, both derived from the classical and medieval philosophical ideas that Rus’ absorbed through the Byzantine culture. Concurrently, the clash between paganism and Christianity gave rise to religious skepticism and freethinking.

During the cultural revival that ended the dark age caused by the Mongol-Tatar invasion of the mid-13th century, the protest of the popular masses against social and national oppression took the form of large-scale heretical movements. The Judaizers, heretics inspired by the works of Jewish thinkers writing in Arabic, took a critical approach to biblical myths. Some of the Judaizers, notably Stepan Lovan’, leaned toward materialism. The religious heresies were based on ideas propounded by the Novogorod-Pskov and Moscow-Novgorod heretics Feodosii Kosoi, Fedor Kuritsyn, and Matvei Bashkin. In combating heresy, the Orthodox Church was obliged to develop its theological doctrines and to justify its religious dogmas.

In the 15th and 16th centuries humanist ideas developed alongside the heresies. The humanists affirmed the intrinsic worth of the human personality and directed philosophy toward the study of nature. In the works of Iurii of Drogobych, Stanislav Ore-khovskii (Stanislaw Orzechowski), Pavel Rusin (Paulus Ruthe-nus), Master Lukash of Novoe Mesto, and Martin of Zhuravitsa (Marcin of Zórawica), humanist ideas were combined with a justification of the Ukrainian people’s national liberation struggle against the Polish feudal lords and their fight for reunification with Russia.

In the 16th and 17th centuries the Ukrainian people’s antifeudal national liberation struggle against social, national, and religious oppression by the Polish nobility, their resistance to the imposition of Catholicism and the Uniate Church, and their striving for reunification with fraternal Russia were expressed in religious polemics. A number of polemical works were influential in rallying the Ukrainian people to the struggle for reunification with Russia. They included I. Vyshenskii’s Message to All Those Who Live in the Land of the Poles and Message to Bishops Who Have Strayed From the Orthodox Faith, G. Smotritskii’s Key to the Kingdom of Heaven, S. Zizanii’s Sermons of Saint Cyril, I. Boretskii’s Perestoroga (Warning), Kh. Filalet’s Apokrisis, Z. Kopystenskii’s Palinodiia, M. Smotritskii’s Trenos, and P. Mogila’s Lithos (The Stone). Works by men of learning affiliated with the Ostrog Academy and with the Brotherhood schools served the same purpose. Their writings, however, were directed not only against the Vatican and the Catholic Church but also against the higher Orthodox clergy, who had betrayed the people in their struggle against the Polish and Ukrainian feudal lords. Both the polemical writers and the leaders of the Brotherhood schools were intellectually akin to the Western European reformers in their work on translating the Bible into literary Slavonic, their critical interpretations of biblical texts, their belief in equality and brotherhood, and their idealization of the social relations of the early Christian communities.

The establishment in 1632 of the Kiev Mogila Academy, the Ukraine’s first institution of higher learning, gave impetus to the development of philosophy, although the philosophy courses offered at the academy were of a scholastic nature. Continuing the ideological struggle against Catholicism and the Uniate Church, the academy’s professors affirmed the correctness of Orthodoxy. Moreover, despite the original theological outlook, I. Konono-vich-Gorbatskii, I. Gizel’, I. Krokovskii, S. Iavorskii, F. Pro-kopovich, M. Kozachinskii, and G. Konisskii sought to separate philosophy from theology and espoused Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment ideas. In their works they introduced pantheistic and deistic ideas and combined mechanism with a spontaneous dialectics. In the Ukraine, 18th-century Enlightenment thought was divided into two trends, one scientific and educational and the other ethical and humanist. The outstanding representatives of the first trend were Prokopovich and Konisskii; the second trend had a forceful spokesman in G. S. Skovoroda, philosophe, humanist, and democrat.

The further progress of philosophical and sociopolitical thought occurred within the context of expanding capitalist relations and an intensification of the antiserfdom movement. Ia. P. Kozel’skii, I. S. Rizhskii, P. D. Lodii, I. P. Kotliarevskii, and V. N. Karazin advanced Enlightenment ideas to justify economic, cultural, and educational development and the moral transformation of society. In the early 19th century the struggle against tsarism and serfdom and the growing criticism of the spiritual culture of feudal society derived inspiration from A. N. Radishchev and the Decembrists P. I. Pestel’, V. F. Raevskii, I. D. Iakush-kin, I. I. Gorbachevskii, and P. I. Borisov, whose works circulated in manuscript copies throughout the Ukraine. The Decembrists’ ideas influenced the program of the Society of Cyril and Methodius, whose goals included the abolition of serfdom and class privileges and the unification of the Slavic peoples in a federal republic.

A number of professors at the universities of Kiev and Kharkov and at the Odessa and other lycées vehemently opposed the dissemination of materialism and progressive sociopolitical ideas and expounded idealist views. Foremost among them were A. I. Dudrovich, M. D. Kurliandtsev, and K. P. Zelenetskii, who in their defense of idealism rejected what was most valuable in the doctrines of I. Kant, J. G. Fichte, and F. Schelling, that is, the dialectics. The progressive philosophers and natural scientists of the first half of the 19th century, notably M. M. Terekhovskii, M. P. Shumlianskii, P. M. Liubovskii, A. I. Stoikovich, T. F. Osipovskii, and V. I. Lapshin, resisted the attempts to impose idealism and religion and defended and developed materialist concepts in philosophy and science.

The revolutionary democratic movement that arose in the Ukraine in the 1840’s was closely identified with the Russian revolutionary movement. The works of T. G. Shevchenko, the movement’s ideologist, promoted the development of materialist philosophy and antifeudal ideology and strengthened the national consciousness of the Ukrainian people. After 1850 materialist thought matured in the course of a struggle against the official idealist philosophy, whose leading exponents—P. D. Iurkevich, S. S. Gogotskii, K. Gankevich, A. A. Kozlov, P. I. Linitskii, and V. V. Lesevich—leaned toward neo-Kantianism, neo-Hegelianism, and positivism. The same philosophical camp also included the ideologists of Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism, notably P. A. Kulish, V. B. Antonovich, V. G. Barvinskii and E. N. Ogonovskii, who believed that a “classless” and “spiritually and ideologically homogeneous” Ukrainian nation was developing on the basis of a mystical “national spirit.”

The revolutionary Narodniki (Populists) A. I. Zheliabov, la. V. Stefanovich, V. K. Debogorii-Mokrievich, L. G. Deich, and I. F. Fesenko promoted the spread of progressive philosophical and sociopolitical thought in the Ukraine. In the 1880’s the further development of revolutionary democratic ideology was associated with the public and literary activity of I. Ia. Franko, M. I. Pavlik, S. A. Podolinskii, P. A. Grabovskii, M. M. Kotsiu-binskii, and Lesia Ukrainka, all of whom expounded a materialist view of nature and dialectics in philosophy and regarded the history of society as a process governed by natural laws.

The founding of Marxist groups and Social Democratic circles ushered in a new phase in the development of philosophy in the Ukraine. Various works of K. Marx and F. Engels had been known here from the mid-19th century, and some aspects of Marxist doctrine had been popularized by members of the bourgeois liberal intelligentsia (N. I. Ziber, I. G. Kaufman), by revolutionary Populists, and by revolutionary democrats. The systematic dissemination and popularization of Marxism began in the mid-1880’s. In the Ukraine, Marxist philosophy was locked in an uncompromising struggle against idealism and metaphysics, as well as against liberal Populism and Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism. The works of V. I. Lenin were of paramount importance for the development of Marxist philosophy and for the struggle against the anti-Marxist views of the Populists, Mensheviks, legal Marxists, and Machists. V. I. Lenin’s companions-in-arms, the Social Democratic leaders I. V. Babushkin, V. V. Vorovskii, G. I. Petrovskii, F. A. Sergeev (Artem), N. A. Skrypnik, and A. G. Shlikhter, propagated Marxism-Leninism and ideologically paved the way for the victory of the socialist revolution in the Ukraine.

After the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution, Marxist-Leninist philosophers overcame the opposition of the exponents of idealist philosophies (neo-Kantianism, positivism) and Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism. Marxist-Leninist philosophy became an effective ideological weapon in the struggle to build socialism, as well as the methodological foundation of the social and natural sciences. S. Iu. Semkovskii, N. V. Biliarchik, Ia. G. Bilyk, Ia. S. Bludov, S. F. Girchak, P. I. Demchuk, O. I. Zagorul’ko, M. A. Nirchuk, and T. K. Stepovskii energetically disseminated Marxist philosophical ideas in the 1920’s. The Artem Communist University, the Ukrainian Institute of Marxism-Leninism (1922–31), the All-Ukrainian Association of Marxist-Leninist Institutes (1931–36), and the Institute of the Red Professors were established to work on problems of Marxist-Leninist philosophy and to train Marxist social scientists.

A series of discussions held in the 1920’s and 1930’s were of great importance for the development of Marxist-Leninist philosophy in the Ukraine. The participants examined pressing problems of dialectical and historical materialism, discussed the Leninist phase in philosophy and the methodology of the natural sciences, and criticized errors and various revisionist and mechanistic tendencies. In the 1930’s and 1940’s philosophers devoted much attention to the criticism of bourgeois philosophy, Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism, and fascist ideology.

The establishment in 1946 of the Institute of Philosophy under the republic’s Academy of Sciences and of philosophy subdepartments at the republic’s higher educational institutions stimulated philosophical study. The republic’s philosophers have generalized from the experience of building socialism in the USSR and the experience of the international revolutionary movement, and they have contributed to the study of scientific communism. Since the 1950’s, important work has been done on dialectical materialism, the history and theory of dialectics, and the methodology of scientific knowledge by M. E. Omel’ianovskii, P. V. Kopnin, V.I. Shinkaruk, P. S. Dyshlevoi. Other major research fields are social development, communist upbringing, and the formation of the new man. V. I. Voitko and V. I. Kutsenko have examined methodological problems of logic, philosophical problems in contemporary natural science, and problems of aesthetics and atheism. D. F. Ostrianin and N. S. Shlepakov have studied the history of philosophical thought in the Ukraine and have given critiques of contemporary bourgeois philosophy and Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism. The republic’s philosophers maintain close ties with the philosophers in the fraternal Union republics by conducting joint research and participating in theoretical conferences. The journal Filosofs’ka dumka (Philosophical Thought) was published from 1927 to 1937 and was revived in 1969.


HISTORY. The earliest examples of historical thought are the ancient Russian chronicles of the Kievan Rus’ period, the common source of Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian historiography. After the formation of the Ukrainian nation, distinctly Ukrainian chronicles were compiled, most of them in monasteries. They include the Short Kiev, Mezhigor’e, Gustynskii, L’vov, and Russian chronicles. Historical surveys written in the second half of the 17th century, of which the best known are F. Safonovich’s Chronicle and L. Bobolinskii’s Synopsis and The Chronicler, presented Ukrainian history in relation to Russian history.

The late 17th and the 18th centuries saw the emergence of Ukrainian starshina-noble historiography, best exemplified in the Chronicle of an Eyewitness, the works of G. Grabianka and S. Velichko, the Lizogub Chronicle, and several surveys of Ukrainian history, notably P. Simonovskii’s Brief Description of the Cossack Little Russian People and Their Military Campaigns (1765), S. Lukomskii’s Historical Collection (1770), and G. Po-letika’s Historical Information. The starshina-noble view of Ukrainian history was marked by a glorification of the cossacks, especially their elite, the starshina. The feudal outlook of the authors of the above-mentioned works is reflected in their contemptuous attitude toward the popular masses (the chern’) and their outright condemnation of antifeudal movements.

Historical writing continued to develop in the first half of the 19th century. The anonymous History of the Ruthenians (Istoriia Rusov), a survey of Ukrainian history from earliest times to 1769, was unfortunately marred by inaccuracies and distortions, including idealized accounts of various hetmans. D. N. Bantysh-Kamenskii and A. A. Skal’kovskii interpreted Ukrainian history from a monarchist-noble standpoint.

Writing from the 1830’s through the 1850’s, M. A. Maksimo-vich dealt with several important problems of Ukrainian history. He sought to refute the Norman theory concerning the origin of the Eastern Slavs and the rise of the ancient Russian state. Mak-simovich also studied the history of the Zaporozh’e cossacks and the Ukrainian people’s struggle against the Polish nobility and their efforts to unify the Ukraine with Russia. A major contribution to the development of Ukrainian historiography was made by T. G. Shevchenko, the founder of its revolutionary democratic school. The study of historical sources expanded in the first half of the 19th century largely owing to the publishing efforts of O. M. Bodianskii. Founded in Kiev in 1843, the Temporary Commission for the Study of Ancient Acta published many historical documents. Although the selection of documents was tendentious, reflecting the ideology of the ruling class, many of the documents are valuable sources on Ukrainian history.

In the second half of the 19th century the conflict between the revolutionary democratic and liberal bourgeois trends in history intensified. The revolutionary democrats I. Ia. Franko, S. A. Po-dolinskii, P. A. Grabovskii, and Lesia Ukrainka made an outstanding contribution to the development of Ukrainian historiography. Franko published several scholarly studies and popular works on major aspects of Ukrainian history from ancient times to the early 20th century. Podolinskii focused on a new problem, the development of capitalism and the formation of the industrial proletariat in the Ukraine.

The bourgeois liberal historians N. I. Kostomarov, A. M. La-zarevskii, and D.I. Bagalei revealed some aspects of the real history of the Ukraine. Kostomarov’s works describe the Ukrainian people’s struggle against foreign oppressors. Lazarevskii used a wealth of documentary material to show the enserfment of the peasants in the Left-bank Ukraine. Among his best-known works are Little Russian Peasants (1866) and Description of Old Little Russia (vols. 1–3, 1888–1902). Much factual material may be found in Bagalei’s Essays on the History of the Colonization and Daily Life of the Steppe Borderlands of the Muscovite State (1886–87); his Essay on the History of the University of Kharkov (vols. 1–2, 1893–1904), based on unpublished materials; and his History of the Sloboda Ukraine (1918). In studying the history of the Ukrainian people, Bagalei stressed the bonds between the Russian and Ukrainian nations.

The Populist democratic historian A. Ia. Efimenko studied the enserfment of the Ukrainian peasants, the development of the cossack starshina into a landlord class, social and political life in the Ukraine from the 15th to the 18th centuries, and the political and administrative organization of the Left-bank Ukraine. Efimenko’s major work is the comprehensive History of the Ukrainian People (vols. 1–2, 1906). The Populist historian O. I. Levitskii devoted several works to the peasant movements of the 16th to the 19th century, and D.I. Evarnitskii studied the history of the Zaporozh’e Sech’ cossacks. An opponent of liberal Populist historiography, V. A. Barvinskii examined feudal landowner-ship in the monograph The Peasants in the Left-bank Ukraine in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Of considerable importance as a reference and bibliographical work is the Essay on Russian Historiography (vols. 1–2,1891–1908) by the bourgeois liberal historian V. S. Ikonnikov.

The crisis that engulfed bourgeois historiography in the late 19th century was especially evident in the works of V. P. Antono-vich, M. S. Grushevskii, and other bourgeois nationalist historians, whose view of Ukrainian history was colored by their bourgeois nationalist and antiscientific theory of the “unique” and “classless” nature of the Ukrainian nation. The bourgeois nationalist historians distorted the history of the Ukrainian people with the aim of causing a rift between the fraternal Ukrainian and Russian peoples.

K. Marx and F. Engels played an important role in the development of historical studies in the Ukraine. On several occasions they referred to Ukrainian history, commenting on feudal-serf relations, the Zaporozh’e Sech’, and peasant movements.

The publication of V. I. Lenin’s first works in the 1890’s heralded a new, Leninist phase in the development of historical science in both Russia and the Ukraine. In many of his works Lenin dealt with the similarity between the social and economic processes in Russia and the Ukraine, the joint class struggle of the Ukrainian and Russian working people, and the national liberation movement in the Ukraine.

The victory of Soviet power in the Ukraine created the conditions for the triumph of Marxist historiography, and historical scholarship in the Ukrainian SSR became an integral part of Soviet historical science. Established in the 1920’s, the All-Ukrainian Istpart (called the Institute of the History of the Party and the October Revolution from 1929 to 1939) and its several regional branches studied the October Revolution and the history of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of the Ukraine. Istpart’s journal Litopys revoliutsii (Chronicle of the Revolution), published from 1922 to 1933, played a major role in the collection of documents and memoirs. The development of Ukrainian historiography was promoted by the establishment of the Main Archival Administration of the Ukrainian SSR (1921), specialized republic archives, and regional archives. A number of valuable documentary sources on the history of feudalism were prepared by institutions of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.

The main achievement of the 1920’s and 1930’s was the accumulation of materials on the history of the working class, the revolutionary struggle of the working people against autocracy, the October Revolution, and the Civil War in the Ukraine. Marxist historical science steadily gained ground in its ideological struggle against Grushevskii and his “school” and against M. I. Iavorskii’s petit bourgeois views. In the prewar years Ukrainian historians published a number of works in the Ukrainian-language series Essays on the History of the Ukraine and History of the Ukraine in Documents and Materials. Works by party and state officials, among them E. B. Bosh, V. P. Zatonskii, S. V. Kosior, D. Z. Manuil’skii, P. P. Liubchenko, G. I. Petrovskii, N. A. Skrypnik, A. G. Shlikhter, and V. Ia. Chubar’, were also important for the study of the history of the Communist Party of the Ukraine.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941—45), Ukrainian historians popularized the heroic traditions and the military valor of the Ukrainian people, who fought against the foreign invaders alongside Russians and the other peoples of the USSR.

Soviet Ukrainian historiography reached a high level in the postwar period. In the two-volume History of the Ukrainian SSR, published between 1953 and 1957, Ukrainian historians drew on the achievements of Soviet historiography in working out a scientific periodization of the history of the Ukrainian people. Another major work was Studies in the Ancient History of the Ukrainian SSR, published in 1957.

Historians specializing in the history of the Ukrainian Communist Party have done outstanding work. The first Ukrainian-language edition of Lenin’s Complete Collected Works was published between 1969 and 1975. Other major publications include the Studies in the History of the Communist Party of the Ukraine, studies in the history of the party organizations of Vinnitsa, Volyn’, Transcarpathia, Zaporozh’e, Kiev, L’vov, Nikolaev, Odessa, Poltava, Kharkov, Khmel’nitskii, and Chernigov oblasts, and books on party congresses and conferences. A. A. Borodin, V. E. Malanchuk, I. D. Nazarenko, A. T. Chekaniuk, V. I. Iur-chuk, and other party historians have investigated major events in the history of the Bolshevik organizations in the Ukraine before the October Revolution; the leading and guiding role of the Communist Party in the socialist revolution, in the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, and in socialist and communist construction; and problems of the party’s Leninist nationality policy.

From 1971 to 1975 more than 400 monographs, pamphlets, and collections of documents were published on the history of the party, on the party’s leadership role in economic, sociopolitical, ideological, and scientific and technological progress, on the strengthening and broadening of friendship among nations, on the internationalist upbringing of the working people, and on the improvement of the party’s organizational activity. Some of the works dealt with problems of historiography and the study of sources with respect to the history of the party and the Komsomol. Several criticized foreign ideological opponents. Another major topic is the increasingly leading role of the party in a developed socialist society. The most important party documents have been published in the two-volume Communist Party of the Ukraine in Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences, and Plenary Sessions of the Central Committee. In five years alone (1956—61) some 70 volumes of collections of documents were published.

On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Soviet power, the 100th anniversary of V. I. Lenin’s birth, and the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the USSR, Ukrainian historians published a revised edition of the two-volume History of the Ukrainian SSR (1967) and a number of important new works, among them the History of the Working Class of the Ukrainian SSR (2 vols., 1967), the History of the Peasantry of the Ukrainian SSR (2 vols., 1967), The Victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution in the Ukraine (2 vols., 1967), The Ukrainian SSR in the Civil War, 1917–1920 (3 vols., 1967–70), The Ukrainian SSR in the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941–45 (3 vols., 1967–69; Russian edition, 1975), and The Wreath of Friendship (3 vols., 1972). The 26-volume History of the Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR was issued between 1967 and 1974. Major reference works include the 17-volume Soviet Ukrainian Encyclopedia (1959–65) and the four-volume Soviet Encyclopedia of the History of the Ukraine (1969–72).

The history of the October Socialist Revolution and of Soviet society is the subject of works by B. M. Babii, B. P. Kovalevskii, S. M. Korolivskii, M. A. Rubach, and N. I. Suprunenko. V. E. Malanchuk and 1.1. Kompaniets’ have written about the struggle of the working people of the western Ukraine for social and national liberation and unification with the Soviet Ukraine. The history of the Ukrainian working class and peasantry in the capitalist period is elucidated in monographs by I. A. Gurzhii and F. E. Los’, and the feudal period has been studied by V. A. Golobut-skii, K. G. Guslistyi, I. P. Krip’iakevich, E. I. Stetsiuk, A. G. Shevelev, F. P. Shevchenko, and many other historians. V. I. Klokov, I. N. Mel’nikova, and A. N. Shlepakov have written on the history of foreign countries and on diplomatic history. A number of works are devoted to ancient history and to historiography, the study of sources, and other auxiliary disciplines. Comprehensive collaborative monographs on the history of Ukrainian culture have been published.

Historical research is conducted by the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, by the Institute of Party History under the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Ukraine, and by subdepartments of history and social and political science at universities and other higher educational institutions.

History periodicals include the Ukrains’kii istorichnyi zhurnal (Ukrainian Journal of History, since 1957), Arkhivy Ukrainy (Archives of the Ukraine, since 1965; from 1947 to 1965 it was called Naukovo-informatsiinyi biuleten’ Arkhivnoho upravlinnia URSR [Scholarly Information Bulletin of the Archival Administration of the Ukrainian SSR]), and Pamiatniky Ukrainy (Monuments of the Ukraine, since 1969). The University of Kiev publishes the thematic collection Naukovi pratsi z istorii KPRS (Scholarly Works on the History of the CPSU) and Pytannia no-voi ta novitn’oi istorii (Problems of Modern and Contemporary History, since 1965). The University of Kharkov issues Pytannia istorii narodiv SRSR (Problems of the History of the Peoples of the USSR). The specialized collection Istorychni dzherela ta ikh vykorystannia (Historical Sources and Their Use) has been published since 1964. Six issues of the collection Istoriohrafichni dos-lidzhennia v Ukrains’koi RSR (Historiographie Research in the Ukrainian SSR) were published from 1968 to 1973.


ECONOMICS. Economics began to evolve as a separate discipline in the late 18th and first half of the 19th centuries during the decline of serfdom and the development of capitalist relations. The democratic economist Ia. P. Kozel’skii defended and developed the economic views of the early Enlightenment. The Ukrainian Enlightenment thinker G. S. Skovoroda propounded the idea of the decisive role of work in human life. Pioneering work in economics was also done by V. N. Karazin, who wrote on the development of industry, agriculture, finance, and trade.

In the middle of the 19th century the historian and economist A. A. Skal’kovskii studied the economy of the southern Ukraine, and the bourgeois liberal statistician D. P. Zhuravskii initiated statistical research. The first studies in economics and statistics were conducted in this period by the subdepartments of political economy and statistics at the universities of Kiev, Kharkov, and Novorossiia (founded in Odessa in 1865) and by scientific societies and commissions. The Southwestern Branch of the Russian Geographic Society was founded in 1873. T. F. Stepanov, I. V. Vernadskii, and G. M. Tsekhanovetskii published a number of works on the development of the Ukrainian and Russian economy. The Ukrainian zemstvo statisticians V. E. Varzar, A. A. Ru-sov, and A. P. Shlikevich augmented statistical theory and practice. V. I. Lenin used some of their material in his works.

In 1885, N. I. Ziber, a professor at the University of Kiev, published David Ricardo and Karl Marx: Their Socioeconomic Research, a book that helped popularize Marxist economic theory not only in the Ukraine but in the whole Russian empire. The first persons to apply Marxist doctrine to the Ukraine were the revolutionary democrat S. A. Podolinskii, whose works also reflected Populist ideas, and I. Ia. Franko and M. I. Pavlik, both of whom lived in the western Ukraine. The revolutionary democratic school in Ukrainian social and economic thought also included P. A. Grabovskii and Lesia Ukrainka. As elsewhere in Russia, the systematic dissemination of Marxist economic theory began after the founding of the Emancipation of Labor in 1883. The exponents of Marxism waged a bitter struggle against the bourgeois economists, who were increasingly becoming apologists for the “natural” and “eternal” capitalist economic system.

Nevertheless, the Ukrainian bourgeois economists of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries produced some important studies in concrete economics. One such work, N. Naumov’s The Budget of the Workers of Kiev (1914), was widely known among revolutionary Marxists. The mathematician and statistician E. E. Slutskii made an important contribution to the theory of the balanced consumption budget; his work is still of some value for the mathematical study of the relationship between the function of demand and changes in prices and earnings.

V. I. Lenin’s works laid the foundation for Marxist-Leninist economics in all of Russia, including the Ukraine. The leaders of the Social Democratic movement in the Ukraine—V. V. Vorovskii, G. I. Petrovskii, Artem (F. A. Sergeev), N. A. Skrypnik, and A. G. Shlikhter—expounded the economic theory of scientific socialism and disseminated Leninist ideas among the masses.

The victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution created the conditions that made Marxist-Leninist economics the theoretical basis for the building of a socialist society. The study of economics in the Ukraine developed an integral part of Soviet economics. The economic theory of socialism was enriched and developed by documents and decisions of the Communist Party of the Ukraine and by the works of party and state officials, notably G. I. Petrovskii, E. I. Kviring, V. Ia. Chubar’, V. P. Zatonskii, S. V. Kosior, and P. P. Postyshev.

Economic problems of socialist construction were studied at the Ukrainian Institute of Marxism-Leninism from 1922 to 1931 and at the All-Ukrainian Association of Marxist-Leninist Institutes from 1931 to 1936. Economic research was conducted by institutions of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, first by the Division of Social and Economic Sciences and after 1921 by the Social Commission, the Commission for the Study of Finances, and the Commission for the Study of the National Economy of the Ukrainian SSR. The Ukrainian Commission for the Study of Productive Forces, headed by L. N. Iasnopol’skii, functioned from 1927 to 1934. In 1929 the commission published the bulletin Productive Forces of the Ukraine (issues 1–4). It was superseded by the Council for the Study of Productive Forces of the Ukrainian SSR, founded in 1934. Both of these institutions studied the republic’s mineral resources ahd did technical and economic research on the Greater Dnieper Region.

The Institute of the Socialist Reconstruction of Agriculture, which operated from 1930 to 1934, studied socialist changes in agriculture. Researchers at the Demography Institute (1919–38) initiated the systematic study of population statistics. Fourteen volumes of the Transactions of the Demography Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences appeared between 1924 and 1938. The demographic research of the institute’s director, M. V. Ptukha, received world recognition. The Institute of Economics, organized in 1936 under the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, soon became the republic’s leading center of economic research.

National economic problems were studied at the Institute of the Scientific Organization of Labor, the Institute of the Socialist Reconstruction of Agriculture, the Scientific Research Institute of Cooperation, and the All-Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of the Economics and Rationalization of Trade. The economists of the State Planning Commission of the Ukrainian SSR published their findings in the Transactions of the State Planning Commission of the Ukrainian SSR. The Commission for the Electrification of the Ukrainian SSR studied economic problems pertaining to the republic’s power base.

After the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the republic’s economists embarked on research in all the major branches of Soviet economics. A. M. Rumiantsev and A. A. Nesterenko published works on the political economy of socialism. Primary attention was given to problems of industrial and agricultural economics. Among the more important collaborative monographs produced in this period were Ways of Raising Labor Productivity in the Industry of the Ukrainian SSR (1951), The Fixed Capital of Industrial Enterprises and Its Use (1954), and The Cost of Production and Resources for Lowering It in the Industry of the Ukrainian SSR (1956). P. N. Pershin and M. E. Braslavets wrote on the economics of agriculture. Joint monographs in this field include The Development of the Socialized Economy of the Kolkhozes of the Southern Ukrainian SSR (1954), Ways of Lowering Labor Expenditure in Agriculture (1956), The Cost of Production and the Profitability of Production on Kolkhozes (1961), The Indivisible Capital Fund of Kolkhozes (1960), and Questions of Labor Payment on Kolkhozes (1960).

The most impressive works on the history of world and Soviet statistics were Ptukha’s Studies in Population Statistics (1960) and Studies in the History of Statistics in the USSR (vols. 1–2, 1955–59). I. S. Paskhaver dealt with labor statistics in agriculture. The two-volume Studies in the Economic Geography of the Ukrainian SSR was published between 1949 and 1952. P. I. Liashchenko worked on the history of the republic’s national economy. The collaborative Studies in the Development of the National Economy of the Ukrainian SSR was published in 1954.

In the 1960’s and 1970’s new research institutes were established, the number of economists increased markedly, and the scope of research expanded. Problems of the political economy of developed socialism have been studied, and some of the republic’s leading economists have published works on questions of ownership and production relations. Political economists have devoted much attention to the study of distribution, labor problems, and material incentives. Economists at research institutes and university subdepartments have investigated major problems of commodity and money relations.

The economic reforms that were introduced in the USSR have stimulated the development of economic thought. The republic’s economists have worked on ways of improving the economic system. Some of their findings were published in the collaborative monograph Economics and the Economic Reform (1970). Several economists have written on production efficiency (P. I. Verba) and on improving profit-and-loss accounting and material incentives. At the Institute of Industrial Economics of the republic’s Academy of Sciences, V. K. Mamutov has been studying the profit-and-loss accountability of economic agencies. Exhaustive research has been done on problems of management, on the application of mathematical methods, and on the design of automatic control systems (A. N. Alymov, N. G. Chumachenko). The republic’s economic research institutions have devoted considerable resources to studying the management of scientific and technological progress. S. M. Iampol’skii and V. P. Aleksan-drova are noted for their work in this field. Research is under way on the economics of various branches of industry.

Agricultural economists have been working on problems of mechanization, on ways of increasing the intensity and efficiency of agricultural production, and on developing specialization, concentration, and the integration of agriculture and industry (I. I. Lukinov, A. M. Onishchenko, O. A. Storozhuk). Pershin has founded a school of agricultural economists specializing in the economic evaluation of land. Economists have done methodological and field work in preparing the land cadastre of the Ukrainian SSR.

Research is under way on the economics of construction, transportation, trade, and food service. Relatively new fields of economics are also developing, for example, the economics of education, the economics of occupational counseling and occupational recruitment, and the economics of science (G. M. Dobrov). Economic problems relating to environmental protection are studied by the Council on the Study of Productive Forces of the republic’s Academy of Sciences. At the Odessa Division of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences, M. T. Meleshkin and his associates are working on the economics of the sea. Other economists are studying the overall use of land, water, mineral, energy, and labor resources.

The republic’s economists are studying territorial aspects of the development and distribution of the Ukraine’s productive forces, keeping in mind the unity of the national economy of the USSR. Works have been published on the geography of the republic’s industry, on the location and specialization of agriculture, on the development and distribution of productive forces in economic regions, and on the theoretical principles governing the functional structure of industrial complexes (M. M. Palamarchuk, L. M. Koretskii). K. G. Voblyi has given a detailed description of the economic geography of the Ukrainian SSR.

Extensive demographic research was conducted in the 1960’s and 1970’s, chiefly by the Institute of Economics of the republic’s Academy of Sciences. A number of works have been published on the economics of various branches of the economy and on statistics, finance, and credit. Further research on the history of the national economy has produced several basic works, including Pershin’s The Agrarian Revolution in Russia (vols. 1–2, 1966), Nesterenko’s The Development of Industry in the Ukraine (vols. 1–3,1959–66), the collaborative monograph The Development of the National Economy of the Ukrainian SSR, 1917–1967 (vols. 1–2, 1967), and T. I. Dereviankin’s The Industrial Revolution in the Ukraine (1975). The systematic study of the history of economic thought in the Ukraine was begun in the mid-1950’s by D. F. Virnyk and L. Ia. Korniichuk.

Ukrainian economists are also studying the world economy and giving critiques of bourgeois reformist and revisionist concepts. Several monographs and collections of articles on these topics have appeared. Of importance to both specialists and nonspecialists is the Encyclopedia of the National Economy of the Ukrainian SSR (vols. vol, 1969–72) and the Dictionary of Economics (1973).

The main centers of economic research are the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (founded 1936), the Academy’s Institute of Industrial Economics (1969), the Academy’s Council on the Study of Productive Forces, the Economics Scientific Research Institute, founded in 1962 by the State Planning Committee of the Ukrainian SSR, the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Scientific and Technical Information and Technical and Economic Research, organized in 1966 by the republic’s State Planning Committee, and the Chief Scientific Research and Information and Computer Center, established in 1964 by the State Planning Committee. Two research institutes are affiliated with all-Union organizations: the A. G. Shlikhter Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of the Economics and Organization of Agriculture, established in 1956 under the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Trade and Food Service, founded in 1946 by the Ministery of Trade of the USSR. Several all-Union research institutes have branches in the Ukraine. Economic research is also conducted by economics sections, economics laboratories, and other subdivisions of institutions specializing in other kinds of research and by more than 130 economics subdepartments in the republic’s institutions of higher learning. The Economics Division of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR was founded in 1976.

The journal Ekonomika Radians’koi Ukrainy (Economy of the Soviet Ukraine), the organ of the State Planning Committee and the republic’s Academy of Sciences, has appeared since 1958.


JURISPRUDENCE. Before the October Revolution legal science flourished at the universities of Kiev, L’vov, and Kharkov, where the eminent legal scholars M. F. Vladimirskii-Budanov, D. I. Ka-chenovskii, and V. A. Nezabitovskii taught. After the October Revolution, Ukrainian legal science developed as an integral part of Soviet jurisprudence. The works of K. Marx, F. Engels, and V. I. Lenin, as well as Lenin’s work in building the Soviet state and drafting Soviet legislation, were of immense importance for the founding and development of Soviet legal science. Soviet Ukrainian jurisprudence was shaped by the building of the Soviet state machinery, the drafting of Soviet legislation, the struggle against bourgeois concepts and nationalist tendencies, and the process of creating a new, socialist theory of law.

In the very first years of Soviet rule the legal scholars L. A. Malitskii, A. I. Khmel’nitskii, M. O. Reikhel’, V. I. Slivitskii, and V. M. Gordon, all of whom taught in the law department of the Kharkov Institute of the National Economy, rallied around the journal Vestnik Sovetskoi iustitsii (Bulletin of Soviet Justice), the organ of the People’s Commissariat of Justice of the Ukrainian SSR and of the Legal Society of the Ukrainian SSR. The journal’s contributors drew theoretical conclusions from the experience of creating the Soviet state and Soviet law, affirmed the principles of Marxist-Leninist ideology and methodology, and elucidated current problems of the fledgling Soviet legal science. Founded in February 1919, the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR included several commissions on law. Several Ukrainian legal scholars were elected to the academy between 1919 and 1930, among them Gordon, an expert on civil law and on bills of exchange and notes, V. E. Grabar’, a specialist in international law, and N. I. Palienko, whose field was constitutional law. In the 1920’s and early 1930’s these and other jurists published works that influenced the development of the state and law in the Ukrainian SSR.

In 1930 the law department of the Kharkov Institute of the National Economy was reorganized as the Ukrainian Communist Institute of Soviet Construction and Law, which in turn became the Kharkov Law Institute in 1937. In the mid-1930’s a law department was created at the University of Kiev. A law research institute established at that time functioned until the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45).

On Oct. 5, 1946, the Central Committee of the CPSU issued the decree On Expanding and Improving Legal Education in the Country, which strongly influenced the development of jurisprudence. The decree prompted several measures aimed at further developing legal training and legal studies in the Ukraine: law departments were founded at the universities of Odessa and L’vov, and in 1949 an independent state and law sector was set up within the Social Science Division of the republic’s Academy of Sciences. In 1969 the sector was reorganized as the Institute of State and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The institute studies the history of the state and law in the USSR, international law, the constitutional law of foreign socialist countries, and theoretical problems concerning the people’s state, socialist democracy, and the strengthening of socialist legality. A department for the study of legal problems was established at the Institute of Industrial Economics of the republic’s Academy of Sciences.

Ukrainian legal scholars are expanding and deepening the study of theoretical problems of the Soviet state and law within the context of developed socialism and the further unfolding of communist construction. They are focusing on the political organization of Soviet society, the improvement of state control and economic management, the strengthening of state and labor discipline, the ways of enhancing the role of soviets of working people’s deputies, and the further strengthening of socialist legality and socialist law and order. Extensive work is being done on civil, land, kolkhoz, and labor law, housing legislation, and environmental protection legislation. Current problems of international law also hold an important place.

Two outstanding collaborative works have been produced: The Political Organization of Society (1967) and History of the State and Law of the Ukrainian SSR (vols. 1–2,1967; Russian edition, 1976). Among the best monographs of the 1960’s and 1970’s are P. E. Nedbailo’s The Application of Soviet Legal Norms (1960), B. M. Babii’s The Soviet Ukrainian State in 1921–1925 (1961), V. M. Terletskii’s The Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of the Ukrainian SSR During the Building of Socialism (1966), A. P. Taranov’s Fiftieth Anniversary of the USSR (1972), V. V. Tsvet-kov’s The Leninist Science of the Organization of Labor and Management (1969), Ia. M. Brainin’s Criminal Law and Its Application (1967), P. S. Matyshevskii’s Criminal Law and the Protection of Property in the Ukrainian SSR (1972), and V. M. Koretskii’s Declaration of the Rights and Duties of States (1962). Important work has also been done by the jurists V. A. Babkin, M. I. Baru, S. N. Landkof, I. I. Lukashuk, V. K. Mamutov, G. K. Matveev, E. F. Mel’nik, V. I. Sapozhnikov, and V. V. Stashis.

Ukrainian legal scholars maintain close contacts with institutes of law affiliated with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR as well as with other organizations in Moscow. They are participating in research on important legal problems conducted by the Institute of State and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and are contributing to collaborative works published by the institute. The republic’s jurists are working with the Scientific Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the principles of development of the state, administration, and law. They contribute to the country’s leading legal journal, Sovetskoe gosu-darstvo i pravo (Soviet State and Law). The republic’s legal journal Riadians’kepravo (Soviet Law) has appeared since 1922.

LINGUISTICS. Grammars and dictionaries of Church Slavonic and Old Ukrainian were published in the 16th and 17th centuries. Such books as L. Zizanii’s Lexicon and Grammar, P. Berynda’s Slavo-Ruthenian Lexicon, M. Smotritskii’s Correct Syntagm of Slavonic Grammar, and I. P. Uzhevich’s Slavonic Grammar were known not only among the Eastern Slavs but also among the Western and Southern Slavs. The first grammar of the living Ukrainian language, A. P. Pavlovskii’s Grammar of the Little Russian Dialect, was published in 1818.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries school grammars were written by Ia. F. Golovatskii, I. S. Nechuia-Levitskii, and A. E. Krymskii. Bilingual and phraseological dictionaries were compiled by M. Levchenko, N. V. Zakrevskii, F. Piskunov, M. Umanets, A. Spilka, and M. Nomis, and materials on folk terminology were collected and published by I. Verkhratskii and V. Vasilenico. The most complete dictionary was the Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language, edited by B. D. Grinchenko (vols. 1–4, 1907–09). The Ukrainian scholars M. A. Maksimovich, 1.1. Sreznevskii, A. A. Potebnia, P. I. Zhitetskii, and K. P. Mikhal’-chuk made a major contribution to the development of scientific linguistics and to the study of the history of the literary language, to dialectology, and to the history of phonetics and grammar.

Linguistic research has been flourishing in the Soviet period. Monographs on the phonetics, grammar, and lexicology of modern Ukrainian and Russian and books on stylistics have been published by N. K. Grunskii, A. N. Siniavskii, P. P. Pliushch, V. M. Rusanovskii, and M. A. Zhovtobriukh. Of great value for the study of the literary language are A Course in Modern Literary Ukrainian, edited by L. A. Bulakhovskii (vols. 1–2, 1951), and Modern Literary Ukrainian, edited by I. K. Beloded (books 1–5,1969–73). Terminological dictionaries have been published, as well as one-volume and multivolume Ukrainian-Russian and Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries. The ten-volume explanatory Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language is being issued.

Linguists are working on historical phonetics and grammar and publishing textbooks for higher educational institutions. L. L. Gumetskii is editing a dictionary of the Ukrainian chancellery language of the 14th and 15th centuries, and Beloded has edited A Course in the History of Literary Ukrainian. Many works written in Old Ukrainian have been published. A traditional field for Ukrainian linguists, the study of Russian has been developed by V. I. Borkovskii and G. P. Izhakevich. Important work in general and Slavic linguistics is being done by N. Ia. Kalinovich, Bulakhovskii, Beloded, A. A. Beletskii, A. S. Mel’nichuk, and Iu. A. Zhluktenko. Other linguists are working on Romance, Germanic, and Finno-Urgic philology and studying classical languages.

The centers of linguistic study are the A. A. Potebnia Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, founded in 1930 to replace the Academy’s Institute of Scientific Ukrainian (1921–30); the linguistics department of the Institute of Social Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, established in 1939; and the linguistics subdepartments of universities and pedagogical institutes. The principal journals are Movoznavstvo (Linguistics), issued since 1967; Ukrains’ka mova v shkoli (The Ukrainian Language in the Schools), founded in 1951 and in 1963 renamed Ukrains’ka mova i literatura v shkoli (The Ukrainian Language and Literature in the Schools); and Russkii iazyk i literatura v shkolakh UKSSR (The Russian Language and Literature in the Schools of the Ukrainian SSR), published since 1976.


Scientific institutions. Under Soviet rule an extensive network of scientific institutions has been established, and the geographical distribution of research centers has changed. Today, there are scientific institutions in every oblast administrative center. Most higher educational institutions are also engaged in scientific work. In 1975 there were more than 800 scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions (compared to 442 in 1940 and 754 in 1965). Of these, more than 350 were research institutes, together with branches and divisions (163 in 1940 and 272 in 1965). The foremost scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, comprising some 80 research institutions. In 1976 its members included 116 academicians (including 11 academicians and five corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) and 175 corresponding members (among them one academician and one corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR). In 1975 the republic had 171,500 scientific workers, compared to 19,300 in 1940 and 94,000 in 1965. Of these, more than 51,500 were doctors or candidates of sciences; in 1965 they numbered 21,200.

The republic’s scientific institutions are actively engaged in solving national economic problems. Nineteen research institutes and branches conduct research in machine building, 17 in coal mining, 16 in ferrous metallurgy, 14 in chemical technology, 32 in agriculture, and 43 in public health. Higher educational institutions and their research institutes and laboratories also play a prominent role in scientific research. There are several research and production associations. A number of specialized scientific institutions are under the jurisdiction of ministries and agencies of the USSR. The Southern Division of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences is based in the Ukraine. Research in the various branches of the economy is coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, the State Planning Committee of the Ukrainian SSR, and the respective republic ministries.

Ukrainian scientists and scholars work closely with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and with research and higher educational institutions in the other Soviet republics. The cooperation includes joint research, expeditions, and scientific conferences. Some of the republic’s scientific institutions lead Soviet research on certain scientific problems. They include the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding and the institutes of cybernetics, materials science, and geotechnical mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR; the Scientific Research and Design-Technological Institute of Synthetic Superhard Materials under the State Planning Committee of the Ukrainian SSR; and the Scientific Institute of the Heavy Chemical Industry. Several major scientific and technical journals are published in the republic, among them Avtomaticheskaia svarka (Automatic Welding, since 1948), Poroshkovaia metallurgiia (Powder Metallurgy, since 1961), and Kibernetika (Cybernetics, since 1965).

The Ukraine’s scientific and higher educational institutions are broadening their ties with the scientific institutions of other socialist countries, principally those of the Polish People’s Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, and the German Democratic Republic, with many international scientific organizations, and with scientists and scholars in the USA, France, Japan, and other countries. International scientific conferences are held in Kiev, Odessa, and other Ukrainian cities.



Istoriia Akademii nauk Ukrains’koi RSR, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1967.
Ukrainskaia Sovetskaia Sotsialisticheskaia Respublika. [Encyclopedic handbook.) Kiev, 1967.
Nauchno-tekhnicheskiiprogress v Ukrainskoi SSR (1961–1970). Kiev, 1971.
Istoriia otechestvennoi matematiki, vols. 1–4. Editor in chief, I. Z. Shtokalo. Kiev, 1966–70.
Savin, G. N., and V. V. Georgievskaia. Razvitie mekhaniki na Ukraine za gody Sovetskoi vlasti. Kiev, 1961.
Razvitie biologii v SSSR [Za 50 let]. Moscow, 1967.
Narysy z istorii instytutiv viddilu tekhnichnykh nauk. Kiev, 1961.
Narodna osvita, nauka i kul’tura v Ukrains’kii RSR: Statystychnyi zbirnyk. Kiev, 1973.
Narodnoe gospodarstvo Ukrains’koi RSR. Kiev, 1974.
Istoriia filosofii v SSSR, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1968–71.
Z istoriifilosofs’koi dumky na Ukraini. Kiev, 1963.
Borot’ba mizh materializmom ta idealizmom na Ukraini v 19st. Kiev, 1964.
Narys istorii filosofii na Ukraini. Kiev, 1966.
Rozvytok filosofii v Ukrains’kii RSR. Kiev, 1968.
Diadichenko, V. A., F. E. Los’, and V. G. Sarbei. Razvitie istorichsskoi nauki v Ukrainskoi SSR. Kiev, 1970.
Marchenko, N. I. Ukrains’ka istoriohrafiia: Z davnikh chasiv do serednyny XIXst. Kiev, 1959.
Babii, B. M. Pravovye issledovaniia v Akademii nauk Ukrainskoi SSR. Kiev, 1974.
Beloded, I. K., V. I. Borkovskii, and P. I. Goretskii. Izuchenie ukrainskogo i belorusskogo iazykov. Moscow, 1958.
Horets’kyi, P. I. Istoriia ukrains’koi leksykohrafii. Kiev, 1963.
Movoznavstvo na Ukraini za p’iatdesiat rokiv. Kiev, 1967.

In the Ukraine the origin of book printing dates from the second half of the 16th century and is associated with Ivan Fedorov, the first Russian printer and a man of learning. In 1574, Fedorov printed a new edition of the Acts of the Apostles, to which he appended an autobiographical sketch, at the printshop he had established in L’vov the year before. The same year he issued, also in L’vov, The Primer, the first Ukrainian printed school-book. Fedorov subsequently printed six more books in the Ukraine, all of them showing a high level of artistry and printing skill for that time.

By the end of the 17th century there were about 20 printshops in the Ukraine. For a long time the largest of them was the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura press, founded in 1616. Among the many books, both religious and secular, issued by the press was the first Ukrainian dictionary, P. Berynda’s Slavo-Ruthenian Lexicon and an Interpretation of Names (1627). Progressive Ukrainian cultural figures consistently found support among enlightened members of the Russian public. Thus, I. P. Kotliarevskii’s Aeneid was published in St. Petersburg in 1798, and T. G. Shevchenko’s The Kobzar’ was first published there in 1840. As capitalism developed, more private publishing enterprises were founded, chiefly in Kiev, Kharkov, Chernigov, Poltava, and Odessa. However, only some ten to 15 of the titles published annually were -in Ukrainian. In 1913 some 11.5 million copies of books were issued.

The first periodical to be published in the Ukraine was the French-language L’vov Gazette, founded in L’vov in 1776. In the first half of the 19th century periodicals were founded in other cities. The leading newspapers were Khar’kovskii ezhenedel’nik (Kharkov Weekly, 1812), Khar’kovskie izvestiia (Kharkov News, 1817), Odesskii vestnik (Odessa Herald, 1827), and Kievskie ob”iavleniia (Kiev Announcements, 1835). The most widely read magazines were Khar’kovskii Demokrit (Kharkov Democritus), Ukrainskii vestnik (Ukrainian Herald, 1816), and Ukrainskii zhurnal (Ukrainian Journal, 1824). From 1838 the semiofficial Gubernskie vedomosti (Provincial Gazette) was published in all provincial capitals. By 1913,172 newspapers, most of them Russian-language papers, were published in the Ukraine.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a new type of press appeared in the Ukraine under the influence of the Russian revolutionary movement—the newspapers of the revolutionary proletariat. The largest such newspapers were Vpered (Forward, 1896) and Rabochaia gazeta (Workers’ Gazette, 1897), issued in Kiev, and Iuzhnyi rabochii (Southern Worker, 1900), published in Ekaterinoslav. Lenin’s Iskra (Spark) circulated in the Ukraine; some of its issues were reprinted by illegal printing presses in Kiev, Nikolaev, Ekaterinoslav, and Uman’. The Bolsheviks stepped up their publishing activity during the Revolution of 1905–07. In addition to printing numerous leaflets and bulletins, they published both underground and legal newspapers, including Rabotnik (Worker, 1906) in Kiev and Donetskii kolokol (Donets Bell, 1906) in Lugansk. V. I. Lenin’s article “On the Eve” initially appeared in the first issue of Rabotnik on June 8,1906, after being telegraphed from St. Petersburg (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 13, pp. 206–07).

After the bourgeois democratic revolution of February 1917, legal Bolshevik newspapers were founded in the Ukraine. These newspapers played a major role in paving the way for the socialist revolution and in the fight for Soviet power. The most influential Bolshevik newspapers were Proletarii (Proletarian) in Kharkov, Golos sotsial-demokrata (Voice of the Social Democrat) in Kiev, Zvezda (Star) in Ekaterinoslav, and K. E. Voroshilov’s Donetskii proletarii (Donets Proletarian) in Lugansk (seeBOLSHEVIK PRESS).

The victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 ushered in a new phase in the development of the Ukrainian periodical press and book publishing. The first issue of the newspaper Visnyk Ukrains’koi narodnoi respubliky (Bulletin of the Ukrainian People’s Republic), the organ of the Central Executive Committee of the Ukrainian Soviet of Workers’, Soldiers’, and Peasants’ Deputies, was published in Kharkov in December 1917 in both Ukrainian and Russian. The next year another newspaper was founded in Kharkov, the Russian-language republic newspaper Kommunist (Communist), published in Ukrainian from 1927 and renamed Radians’ka Ukraina (Soviet Ukraine) in 1943.

The republic’s press expanded rapidly in the 1920’s: between 1925 and 1928 the number of newspapers rose from 116 to 246 and the number of magazines and journals, from 369 to 412. A total of 37,124 copies of books and pamphlets were printed in 1928. Moreover, almost four times as many Ukrainian-language books were published in the first ten years of Soviet rule as in the preceding 120 years. By 1940 the republic had 1,672 newspapers, including 53 in the western regions, with a daily circulation of 6,916,000. That year its publishing houses issued 4,836 titles of books and pamphlets numbering 51,370 copies.

The temporary fascist German occupation of the Ukraine in the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) caused great damage to book publishing: the republic’s printing industry was almost completely destroyed. However, the publication of Ukrainian books, newspapers, and magazines continued in Moscow, Saratov, Ufa, and other Soviet cities, as well as along the front. The republic newspapers Komunist (Communist) and Sovetskaia Ukraina (Soviet Ukraine) came out regularly. The newspaper Za Radians’ku Ukrainu (For the Soviet Ukraine) was published from July 1941 especially for the population of the occupied territory. Behind enemy lines, partisan units and detachments and underground organizations printed leaflets, appeals, combat leaflets, and communiqués issued by the Soviet Information Bureau; some 30 house organs were also published in enemy-held territory.

After the Great Patriotic War the Ukrainian printing industry was rebuilt, and by 1950 its output exceeded the prewar level. The older printshops were modernized, and new ones were built; many large book, newspaper, and magazine enterprises were established. Printing and publishing became specialized and centralized. By 1975 the republic had more than 560 printing enterprises, of which 510 were city and raion printshops.

In 1974 the republic’s publishing houses issued 8,814 titles of books and pamphlets numbering 153,506,000 copies, three times as many copies as in 1940. V. I. Lenin’s works were published in the Ukraine more than 1,200 times; their total printing exceeded 32 million copies, including more than 29 million copies in Ukrainian. The publication of a Ukrainian translation of the fifth edition of V. I. Lenin’s Complete Collected Works (55 volumes) was completed in 1975.

The largest Ukrainian publishing houses are Politvydav (Political Literature Publishing House, 1922), Radians’ka Ukraina (Soviet Ukraine, 1920), and Naukova Dumka (Scientific Thought, 1922). The publishing association Vyshcha Shkola (Higher School) comprises a head publishing house (1968); several publishing houses and editorial boards at the universities of Kiev, Kharkov, L’vov, Odessa, and Donetsk; and the chief editorial board of the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia, which from 1959 to 1965 published the 17-volume Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia. Other major publishing houses include Radians’ka Shkola (Soviet School, 1919), Tekhnika (Technology, 1930), Budivel’nik (The Builder, 1947), Urozhai (Harvest, 1925), Zdorov’ia (Health, 1929), Dnipro (The Dnieper, 1919), Radians’ku Pys’-mennyk (Soviet Writer, 1933), Mystetstvo (Art, 1919), and Mo-lod’ (Youth). Seven regional publishing houses are based in the oblast centers of Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Odessa, Simferopol’, L’vov, and Uzhgorod.

Today, a large variety of magazines are published in the republic in both Ukrainian and Russian. They include magazines devoted to party affairs, sociopolitical issues, literature and art, and popular science, as well as youth, children’s, women’s, and satirical magazines. The leading magazines are Komunist Ukrainy (Communist of the Ukraine), Pid praporom leninizmu (Under the Banner of Leninism), Ukraina (Ukraine), Vitchyzna (Fatherland), Dnipro (Dnieper), Vsesvit (All the World), Raduga (Rainbow), Zhovten’ (October), Prapor (Banner), Donbas (Donets Coal Basin), Ekomonika Radians’koi Ukrainy (Economy of the Soviet Ukraine), Radians’ka zhinka (Soviet Woman), Nauka i suspil’stvo (Science and Society), Liudyna i svit (Man and the World), Znaniia ta pratsia (Knowledge and Labor), Ranok (Morning), Perets’ (Pepper), Pioneriia (Pioneer Movement), Barvinok (Flower), and Maliatko (Little People). In 1974 there were 506 magazines and journals, both periodicals and serials, with an annual circulation of 218,236,000.

In 1975 the republic had 2,029 newspapers with a daily circulation of 24,344,000. They included 19 republic, 72 oblast, 88 city, and 437 raion newspapers; 640 house organs; and 797 kolkhoz newspapers. The largest republic newspapers are Radians’ka Ukraina (Soviet Ukraine, since 1918), Pravda Ukrainy (Pravda of the Ukraine, 1938), Robitnycha hazeta (Workers’ Gazette, 1957), Sil’s’ki visti (Rural News, 1920), Molod’ Ukrainy (Youth of the Ukraine, 1925), Komsomol’skoe znamia (Komsomol Banner, 1938), Kul’tura i zhyttia (Culture and Life, 1945), Literaturna Ukraina (Literary Ukraine, 1927), Radians’ka osvita (Soviet Education, 1940), Sportivna hazeta (Sports Gazette, 1949), Zirka (The Star, 1925), and lunyi leninets (Young Leninist, 1938).

Books, magazines, and newspapers published in Ukrainian account for more than two-thirds of the total output; the remaining printed matter appears in Russian and Moldavian, as well as several foreign languages. The State Museum of Books and Printing of the Ukrainian SSR was opened in Kiev in 1975.

The Radiotelegraph Agency of the Ukraine (RATAU) has been operating in Kiev since 1922. The first radio broadcast in the Ukraine was made from Kharkov on Nov. 16,1924. By 1941 radio broadcasts were being transmitted from Kiev and the republic’s other 25 oblast centers. During the fascist German occupation Ukrainian-language radio broadcasting was done from Moscow and Saratov and from the frontline zone. In late 1943, Kiev again became the center of republic radio broadcasting. In 1975 daily republic and oblast broadcasting exceeded 83 hours. Broadcasts are made in Ukrainian, Russian, Moldavian, Hungarian, German, and English.

The Kiev Television Center was put into operation in 1951. In 1975 the Ukraine had 15 television centers and some 250 relay stations that transmit the three black-and-white and color programs of the central, republic, and oblast television systems.


Old literature. Ukrainian literature derives from the literature of Kievan Rus’, the Old Russian state that flourished from the ninth to the 12th century. Prior to that time, the Old Russian nation had produced a rich and varied folk literature that included ritual songs (both calendar and everyday songs), koliadki (songs associated with the Koliada festival), fairy tales, funeral songs, riddles, proverbs, and sayings. Folk epic songs, called byliny, appeared in the tenth and 11th centuries. After the adoption of Christianity in 988, a literature written in Old Church Slavonic developed. Various foreign Christian works were translated, among them biblical books, apocrypha, church and historical chronicles, and writings of the church fathers, as well as secular tales and legends. The translations stimulated the rise of an original literature that included chronicles, sermons, hagiographies, and pilgrim’s tales. The Tale of Igor’s Campaign, written in the late 12th century, belongs to the common literary heritage of the Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian peoples. Incorporating the best traditions of folk poetry and written literature, the Tale is a brilliant testimony to the high artistic culture of the period.

The Mongol-Tatar invasion in the 13th century, the expansion of the Lithuanian princes in the 14th century, and the incessant Turkish and Tatar raids between the 15th and 17th centuries hindered the development of literature. The literary traditions of Kievan Rus’ were preserved in original chronicles (the Galician-Volynian and West Russian chronicles of the 13th to 15th centuries and the Short Kiev Chronicle, compiled before 1543), sermons, hagiographic works, and pilgrim’s tales. Kievan traditions were also reflected in the translations of foreign church and secular literature, works that contained elements of the Ukrainian written language (Ruthenian). Two outstanding translated works are the Transcarpathian-Korolevo Gospel (1401) and the Pere-sopnitsa Gospel (1556—61). But even at that time such works as the Life of Alexander Nevsky, the Tale of the Destruction of the Russian Land, and the Tale of the Resurrection of Lazarus belonged equally to Ukrainian, Russian, and Byelorussian literature. In the early 16th century two new genres appeared in folk poetry, epic-lyric dumy and historical songs.

Old Ukrainian literature proper began to develop more intensively at the time of the general European Renaissance, which coincided with an upsurge in the liberation struggle against social, national, and religious oppression by foreign conquerors. The liberation war of 1648–54 under the leadership of Bogdan Khmel’nitskii, which ended with the Ukraine’s reunification with Russia in 1654, had an enormous impact on the revival of culture and learning, chiefly by preventing Catholic-Jesuit expansion. The war also gave impetus to the founding of religious-social Brotherhoods in the cities, to the strengthening of old and new cultural centers, to the founding of schools, and to the development of book printing, begun in 1574 by I. Fedorov, the first Russian printer. There was an expansion of cultural and literary ties not only with the Slavic but also with the West European Renaissance. Alongside such traditional works as K. Trankvilion-Stavrovetskii’s oratorical sermons, new redactions of the Kiev-Pecherskii Patericon, Daniil Korsunskii’s pilgrim’s tales, and the Ostrog, L’vov, and Khmel’nik chronicles, there appeared new genres—polemical prose, school poetry, verse declamations, dialogues, and intermedia.

The appearance of original polemical prose was associated with the Protestant anti-Catholic literature of the West and, more directly, with the Brest Union of 1596. Even before the proclamation of the union the Jesuit-Catholic expansion was denounced by various anonymous authors and by G. Smotritskii, the rector of the Ostrog School. The leading polemical prose writers were I. Vyshenskii, S. Zizanii, Khristofor Filalet (pseudonym), Klirik Ostrozhskii (pseudonym), M. Smotritskii (c. 1578–1633), and Z. Kopystenskii. Their theological polemics, reflecting a deep concern with social problems, attacked serfdom and church and secular dignitaries and defended Orthodoxy and the common peasants (kholopy).

The first syllabic poems (virshy) appeared with the development of book printing. The early virshy of A. Rymsha and G. Smotritskii were followed by panegyric, heraldic, didactic, spiritual, and epigrammatic virshy, composed by K. Trankvilion-Stavrovetskii, T. Zemka, G. Dorofeevich, and Vitalii. Dialogues and declamations on Christmas and Easter subjects were also written in verse (P. Berynda, A. Skul’skii), as were intermedia.

In the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries literature was enriched by new ideas, themes, genres, and styles. Such Ukrainian writers as S. Polotskii, F. Prokopovich, S. Iavorskii, and G. Konisskii wrote also for Byelorussian or Russian readers. Among the best prose works of this period were the polemical writings of M. Andrella, I. Galiatovskii, and L. Baranovich, the oratorical sermons of A. Radivilovskii, the hagiographies of D. Tuptalo-Rostovskii, and the pilgrim’s tales of V. Barskii. The most important historical memoirs were the cossack chronicles of Samovidets (Eyewitness), G. Grabianka, and S. Velichko and the anonymous Synopsis.

In their theological and moralizing works Ukrainian preachers and polemicists raised important patriotic and social issues and affirmed the dignity and rights of the common man. They used motifs from folklore and from world written literature and introduced a new kind of rhetoric and versification known as “school baroque.” Their style is best exemplified in Galiatovskii’s The Teaching or the Manner of Composing a Sermon and I. Velich-kovskii’s Hours Half Hours and Milk From the Shepherd’s Ewe. The authors of the cossack chronicles dwelt mainly on the liberation war of the Ukrainian people of 1648–54. Many of their works reflected the ideology of the cossack elite, the starshina.

The poetics of school plays and the theory of versification were refined at the Kiev Mogila Academy and various collegia. The historical poems and secular lyrics of S. Iavorskii (1658–1722), F. Prokopovich (1681–1736), Klimentii Zinoviev, and several anonymous authors are noteworthy for their wealth of genres and thematic and artistic diversity. The principal genres of the school play, also written in verse, were the tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy, and intermedium, represented by the Christmas plays of D. Tuptalo-Rostovskii and M. Dovgalevskii and the Easter plays of Dovgalevskii, S. Liaskoronskii, and several anonymous authors. Also popular were miracle plays such as the anonymous Alexis, the Man of God, the morality plays of V. Lashchevskii and G. Konisskii, and historical plays, notably F. Prokopovich’s Vladimir and the anonymous God’s Mercy. This period also saw the rise of the folk drama, both intermedia and the vertep puppet show, which increasingly portrayed social conditions in a satirical vein.

In general, 18th-century Ukrainian literature was characterized by a strengthening of Ukrainian-Russian relations through the influence of A. D. Kantemir, V. K. Trediakovskii, M. V. Lo-monosov, A. N. Radishchev, and N. I. Novikov, by a rejection of old scholastic theological traditions in favor of folk poetry and the vernacular, and by the development of new secular lyric genres, burlesque, and social satire. Many 18th-century works were written by “wandering cantors” who had studied in lower schools, collegia, or seminaries. These itinerant authors composed verse and prose travesties, parodies of church services, and humorous “pauper” verse about their indigent life. Many of them wrote satirical works about the clergy, the cossack starshina, and the serf-owning nobility, of which the most famous are the Verses About Poor Kirik and the Greedy Priest, Father Negrebetskii, Fearless Marko, Lament of the Kiev Monks, Satirical Koliada, and A Nobleman’s Lament. Also popular were the satires by I. Nekrashevich.

The works of G. S. Skovoroda (1722–94)— philosophe, writer, and educator—constitute a bridge between old and modern Ukrainian literature. Skovoroda is best known for his KharkovFables, his poetry collection Garden of Heavenly Songs, and his parables and epistles. The literature of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries prepared the intellectual and artistic ground for modern Ukrainian literature.


Mid-18th to early 20th century. A heightened interest in the life and culture of the people, an increasing preference for the vernacular and realistic description, the spread of humanism, and the secularization of culture—such was the cultural milieu that gave rise to modern Ukrainian literature in the late 18th century. The first work of modern Ukrainian literature was the verse travesty Aeneid by I. P. Kotliarevskii (1769–1838). The epic was published in stages: parts 1 to 3 appeared in 1798, a fourth part was added in 1809, and the complete work was issued in six parts in 1842. Its appearance coinciding with the formation of the Ukrainian nation and the increasing role of the popular masses, the Aeneid announced to the world the existence of a new ethnic community, the Ukrainian people, and gave a glimpse of their history and national character. The poem depicts the daily life, customs, and mores of all strata of society and takes a critical attitude toward the vices of feudal society. It is imbued with a humanist spirit and compassion and love for the popular masses. Kotliarevskii’s plays Natalka Poltavaka and The Magician Soldier, both staged in 1819, heralded the beginning of modern Ukrainian dramatury.

Kotliarevskii directed attention to the artistic perception of folk life and characters and to moral and ethical problems. He firmly established in Ukrainian literature such genres as the burlesque poem and ode, the social drama, the vaudeville, and the lyric song. Harmoniously blending the best traditions of oral and written literature, he created a literary language based on the vernacular. He was also largely responsible for bringing modern Ukrainian literature into the mainstream of Russian literary life.

The rise of modern Ukrainian literature reflects a complex synthesis and clash of various sociopolitical and artistic currents. The intensification of social and national oppression in the Ukraine and the complete enserfment of the peasantry had an adverse effect on the formation of a national Ukrainian culture. At the same time, the Ukraine’s inclusion in Russia’s economic and political life and the participation of Ukrainians in the country’s cultural life promoted the development of progressive trends in Ukrainian society. The Russian-language literary miscellanies and magazines that appeared in Kharkov and other cities elucidated problems of Ukrainian history and national life. The most important of these periodicals were Khar’kovskii Demokrit (Kharkov Democritus), Ukrainskii vestnik (Ukrainian Herald), Ukrainskii zhurnal (Ukrainian Journal), Utrenniaia zvezda (Morning Star), and Ukrainskii zbornik (Ukrainian Collection). The first collections of Ukrainian songs were published in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov, and L’vov in the 1820’s and 1830’s, among them N. A. Tsertelev’s Collection of Old Little Russian Songs (1819) and M. A. Maksimovich’s Little Russian Songs (1827) and Ukrainian Folk Songs (1834). The two most important Ukrainian-language miscellanies were Lastovka (The Swallow, 1841) and Molodyk (New Moon, 1843–44). Many Russian literary men wrote on Ukrainian subjects. The Ukrainian language and literature asserted their right to an independent existence and development.

A number of talented writers appeared on the literary scene, among them P. P. Gulak-Artemovskii (1790–1865), G. F. Kvitka-Osnov’ianenko (1778–1843), and E. P. Grebenka (1812–48), all of whom wrote both in Ukrainian and Russian. Having entered the mainstream of Russia’s accelerated literary development, Ukrainian literature presented a motley picture: classicism coexisted with sentimentalism and romanticism with enlightened realism. Writers mixed styles and genres. From the 1820’s to the 1840’s the leading genre was the fable, written by Gulak-Artemovskii, L. I. Borovikovskii (1806–89), and Grebenka. Various prose genres were introduced, and translations of Russian and foreign works appeared. Writers such as Kotlia-revskii, Gulak-Artemovskii, Kvitka-Osnov’ianenko, Grebenka, and Konstantin Puzyna (1790–1850) gave an increasingly large place to descriptions of daily life and made attempts at social analysis.

Kvitka-Osnov’ianenko was the founder of modern Ukrainian prose and one of the first to write stories about the common people. In his humorous stories of peasant life, in the novella The Witch of Konotop (1834), and in the comedy Marriage Proposal at Goncharovka (1836), Kvitka carried on the traditions of the burlesque and freely used folk anecdotes and legends. His somewhat sentimental realistic novellas Marusia, A Lively Girl, Kind Oksana, and Sincere Love center on a folk hero who lives by a high moral code. However, Kvitka’s works also uphold the monarchy and serfdom, idealize patriarchal customs, and preach Christian humility.

When romanticism first appeared in Ukrainian literature in the 1820’s, it was a contradictory blend of progressive and conservative trends, and its positive program was weak and lacking in force. The works of A. L. Metlinskii (1814–70), N. I. Kostoma-rov (1817–85), Borovikovskii, and A. S. Afanas’ev-Chuzhbinskii (1817–75) were full of pessimism and nostalgia for the lost past, which was idealized. P. A. Kulish (1819–97) and A. A. Korsun (1818–91) held reactionary views. Nevertheless, the Ukrainian romantics expressed the individual’s longing for freedom, gave psychological depth to the lyric persona, developed the poetic means of expression, and assimilated the poetics of the folk song (Grebenka, M. N. Petrenko [1817-?], and V. N. Zabila [1808–69]). Drawing on folklore, they created literary ballads, romances, historical poems, and tragedies.

In Galicia, the beginnings of modern Ukrainian literature are associated with the activity of the “Ruthenian trinity”—M. S. Shashkevich (1811–43), Ia. F. Golovatskii (1814–88), and I. N. Vagilevich (1811–66)—and with the publication of the miscellany Dnestr Mermaid (1837). In its denunciation of political and social oppression, its opposition to ecclesiastical literary standards, and its use of the vernacular and folk poetry, the Dnestr Mermaid was, according to I. Ia. Franko, a truly revolutionary phenomenon for its time. Three other promising writers began their careers in this period: N. L. Ustiianovich (1811–85) and A. L. Mog-il’nitskii (1811–73) in Galicia and A. V. Dukhnovich (1803–65) in Transcarpathia.

The publication of T. G. Shevchenko’s verse collection Kobzar’ (1840) and narrative poem Haidamaks (1841) opened a new era in the development of Ukrainian literature. Shevchenko, who lived from 1814 to 1861, began as a romantic and soon became a leading exponent of revolutionary romanticism. He wrote not only about the Ukraine’s past, where he sought examples and moral strength for the struggle against autocracy, but also about the life of the peasantry, wrathfully denouncing serfdom. Shevchenko’s political, philosophical, aesthetic, and literary views and his realistic method were influenced by the liberation movement in Russia, particularly by Decembrist ideas and the activity of the Russian revolutionary democrats.

Shevchenko raised cardinal social issues and made literature a means of instilling class consciousness in the people. He caustically exposed the nationalistic pseudo-patriotism and sham populism of the Ukrainian liberal nobility. Drawing on folk poetry, he created a poetic world characterized by original imagery, a rich and highly developed literary language, and profound insight into social phenomena and conflicts and human nature. He enriched Ukrainian literature with political and philosophical poetry, social satire, and several new genres, and he greatly enhanced the means of poetic expression. Shevchenko’s work became known throughout the world and had an immense influence on the development of literature and culture in all the Slavic countries.

By the 1850’s and 1860’s two major trends were clearly visible in Ukrainian literary criticism and aesthetics: one revolutionary democratic and the other liberal bourgeois. The latter trend, whose theoretician was Kulish, advocated narodnqst’ (close ties with the people), but interpreted it as ethnographic authenticity and as religious and didactic tendentiousness in the spirit of Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism. These principles were reflected in Kulish’s own works, notably his Little Russian Short Stories (1841), in some of Kostomarov’s short stories, and in the work of A. P. Storozhenko (1805–74).

The realist tendencies that existed in Ukrainian literature in the 1840’s, 1850’s, and 1860’s required revision in the spirit of revolutionary democratic aesthetics. Marko Vovchok (M. A. Vi-linskaia-Markovich, 1833–1907) was able to do for prose what Shevchenko had done for poetry by developing critical realism. Her best-known works are Folk Stories (vols. 1–2, 1857–62), attacking serfdom, and the novella College Girl (1860). Marko Vovchok’s novellas and many of her short stories depict the awakening of class consciousness among the peasantry, the growing peasant discontent, and the beginning of open protest against serfdom. Her characters are uncompromising, strong-willed, and courageous. Close to Marko Vovchok stood A. P. Svidnitskii (1834–71), who wrote the first Ukrainian social novel, The Liu-boratskii Family (written in 1861–62, published in part in 1886 and in full in 1901). The realist trend also included the “small prose” of the writers who contributed to the magazine Osnova (Foundation), published in 1861–62. They included D. Mordo-vets (D. L. Mordovtsev, 1830–1905), M. Olel’kovich (M. N. Aleksandrovich, 1840–81), and M. Chaika (V. Guglinskii). Also published in Osnova were works by Ganna Barvinok (A.M. Be-lozerskaia-Kulish, 1828–1911) and P. S. Kuz’menko (1831–67), containing naturalistic ethnographic descriptions of peasant life.

Shevchenko had many followers, of which the most important were L. I. Glebov (1827–93), a talented fable writer who exposed the vices of the feudal serf-owning society; S. V. Rudanskii (1834–73), a democratically oriented realist poet who wrote intimate lyrics and humorous and satirical poems on civic themes; and the romantic poet Ia. I. Shchogolev (1823–98).

Several democratic poets emerged in Galicia, Bucovina, and Transcarpathia in the 1860’s. The best poems of V. M. Shashkevich (1839–85) and A. I. Pavlovich (1819–1900) were imbued with a longing for the unification of the Ukrainian lands and love for the enslaved people. Another prominent Ukrainian democratic writer, Osip Iurii Fed’kovich (1834–88), was the founder of modern Ukrainian literature in Bucovina. The main themes of his poems, collected in The Poetry of Iosif Fed’kovich (1862), are the wretched life of the peasantry, the vices of the clergy, and the liberation struggle of the Slavic peoples. His popularity rested chiefly on his short stories and novellas, whose blend of romanticism and realism is best exemplified in Shtefan Slavich, Who Is to Blame!, The Heart Doesn’t Learn, Safat Zinich, and Three Who Are Like Brothers.

Despite the harassment and bans of the censorship, Ukrainian literature, organically linked to the liberation movement in Russia, continued to develop in the 1860’s and 1870’s. Revolutionary democratic and democratic forces played a decisive role in literary development.

The 1870’s and 1880’s saw the literary debut of the great realist writers I. S. Nechui-Levitskii (1838–1918), Panas Mirnyi (A. Ia. Rudchenko, 1849–1920), and I. Karpenko-Karyi (I. K. Tobile-vich, 1845–1907) and of the revolutionary democrat, writer, and scholar I. Ia. Franko (1856–1916). The publication of Ukrainian works shifted to Galicia, where a number of democratic and revolutionary democratic periodicals were founded with Franko’s help, among them Drug (Friend, 1874–77), Gromads’kyi drug (Gromada Friend, 1878), Divin (Bell, 1878), Molot (Hammer, 1878), Svit (World, 1881–82), Narod (The People, 1890–95), Khliborob (Farmer, 1891–95), and Zhitie i slovo (Life and Word, 1894–97). Uncensored sociopolitical and socioeconomic collections, edited by M. P. Dragomanov (1841–95) and M. I. Pavlik (1853–1915), were published in Geneva from 1878 to 1882.

From the 1870’s to the 1890’s the revolutionary democratic literary theoreticians defended and developed Shevchenko’s revolutionary traditions, the achievements of Russian materialist aesthetics, and the principles of critical realism, ideinost’ (ideological commitment), and narodnost’. Drawing on the theoretical heritage of V. G. Belinskii and N. G. Chernyshevskii, Franko began in the 1870’s to develop materialist principles and views on the social function and aims of literature, focusing on the problem of the social nature of art and the sociological principles of literary criticism and materialist aesthetics. He showed the epistemologi-cal roots of idealist views of art and the fallacy of the decadent theory of “pure art.” From the 1870’s to the 1890’s Galician periodicals included literary criticism and publicist articles by Pavlik, Lesia Ukrainka (L. P. Kosach, 1871–1913), P. A. Grabovskii (1864–1902), V. S. Stefanik (1871–1936), and Dragomanov.

Ukrainian prose made great strides in presenting a general picture of social conditions and in analyzing all the circumstances involved in character formation in relation to the social milieu and history. Alongside the short story, novella, historical drama, comedy of manners, and documentary sketch, there appeared the first monumental works, social and sociopsychological novels. The range of subjects expanded to include village life after the abolition of serfdom and the lives of hired workers in capitalist enterprises. Writers began to portray the intelligentsia, officials, capitalists, the proletariat, and people from the “lower depths” of society.

In such early works as the novella Two Soldiers’ Wives (1868), Nechui-Levitskii gives a broad picture of social conditions, of the tragic and hopeless life of the peasants in the post-reform village. In the novel Mikola Dzheria (1878) and the novella The Female Barge Hauler (1876), he depicts the proletarianization of the countryside, the growth of workers’ class consciousness and protest, factory conditions, and the first parvenus—“governors of the peasant’s sweat and tears.” The portrayal of the intelligentsia and petite bourgeoisie in the novels Storm Clouds (1874) and Over the Black Sea (1888–90) reveals Nechui-Levitskii’s liberal-bourgeois and nationalistic narrow-mindedness. His Old-Fashioned Priests and Their Wives (1884–85) and The Rogue of Afon (1890) are brilliant satires of clerical life.

The Ukrainian sociopsychological novella and novel was largely created by Panas Mirnyi, whose early novella The Drunkard (1874) depicted the tragic fate of the “little man” in an inhumane society. His novella Villains (1877) drew the first portraits of the revolutionary Populists of the 1870’s, seeking to answer the question What is to be done? Mirnyi’s novels Do Oxen Bellow When the Manger Is Full (Geneva, 1880; censor’s title Lost Strength) and Wayward Girl (parts 1–2,1883–84; parts 1–4, 1928) are veritable encyclopedias of Ukrainian manners and mores, as well as histories of Ukrainian bourgeois society in the second half of the 19th century.

Ukrainian dramaturgy rose to new heights. The life of various classes and social groups was reflected in the social drama of M. L. Kropivnitskii (1840–1910), whose most important plays were Giving the Heart Freedom Leads to Enslavement (1863), The Dew Will Burn Away Your Eyes Before the Sun Can Rise (1882), Two Families (1888–89), and The Extortionist, or The Spider (1882). The playwright Karpenko-Karyi wrote satirical social comedies, a new genre in Ukrainian literature, dramas, and tragedies. A recurrent theme in his plays is the capitalistic rapa-ciousness, greed, miserliness, hypocrisy, and bigotry of the new parvenus, brilliantly portrayed in The Woman Farm Laborer (1887), One Hundred Thousand, Martyn Borulia (both published in 1891), and The Master (1902). Karpenko-Karyi mixed the serious with the comic and the high with the low and introduced the grotesque into satire. His satirical comedy Vanity (1905) deals with the relations between the artistic intelligentsia and the people, and his historical tragedy Savva Chalyi (1899) affirms his faith in the people’s ideals in the social and national struggle.

M. P. Staritskii (1840–1904) and I. I. Manzhura (1851–93) played a prominent role in the development of democratic tendencies in Ukrainian literature. Following the realist traditions of Shevchenko and N. A. Nekrasov, Staritskii’s best poems proclaim the poet’s high civic calling. Staritskii also wrote plays on contemporary and historical themes: It Was Not Destined (1883), Don’t Go, Hrits (1890), Fate (1894), Bogdan Khmel’nitskii (1897), and The Defense of Busha (1899). The liberal-bourgeois program expounded by Olena Pchilka (O. P. Kosach-Dragomanova, 1849–1930) and A. Ia. Konisskii (1836–1900) was nothing more than narrowly nationalistic “culture-mongering.” B. D. Grinchenko (1863–1910), who initially shared some of their views, joined the general Russian democratic movement in the 1890’s. P. A. Grabovskii (1864–1902), who began his literary career as a revolutionary Populist and a champion of the poorest peasants, came to understand the importance of the proletariat’s class struggle. He is best known for his narrative poems From Siberia (1888) and The Turkoman Woman (1892) and his poetry collections Snowdrop (1894), From the North (1896), and The Kobza (1898).

The greatest poet to come after Shevchenko was Franko, whose collections From the Summits and the Depths (1887), Withered Leaves (1896),. My Emerald (1898), Poems (1899), From the Days of Sorrow (1900), and Semper Tiro (1906) marked the beginning of a new period in Ukrainian poetry. Franko created a new kind of political and philosophical lyric and a modern epic that explored the complex political, moral, and philosophical questions raised by the liberation movement. His highest achievements in the latter genre are Cain’s Death (1889), The Funeral (1889), Ivan Vyshenskii (1900), and Moses (1905). An artist who reflected on social history and who discerned the general and historical in the fate of individuals, Franko treated universal social issues in the novellas and novels Boa Constrictor (1879), Borislav Laughs (1880–81), The Pillars of Society (1894–95), For the Family Hearth (1897), and The Crossroads (1900) and in the play Lost Happiness (1894). The novel Borislav Laughs reflects the author’s premonition of the historic role of the working class in the radical transformation of society. In recognizing the historical limitations of critical realism and in portraying life as revolutionary development, Franko prepared the ground for the rise of socialist realism in Ukrainian literature.

Franko had a strong impact on the work of Pavlik, S. M. Kova-liv (1848–1920), N. I. Kobrinskaia (1855–1920), T. I. Borduliak (1863–1936), O. S. Makovei (1867–1925), Stefanik, Les’ Marto-vich (1871–1916), and Mark Cheremshina (1874–1927), all of whom showed the extreme impoverishment and ruin of the Galician peasantry as a result of capitalist development. In her novella Land (1902), O. Iu. Kobylianskaia (1863–1942) depicted the life of the Bucovina peasantry, the destructive “power of land, ” and the brutal economic and political oppression of the popular masses in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Stefanik, Martovich, Cheremshina, and M. M. Kotsiubinskii (1864–1913) produced some of the Ukraine’s finest short stories.

A pleiad of outstanding realist writers and ardent revolutionary democrats, among them Lesia Ukrainka, Kotsiubinskii, and Stefanik, experienced the beneficial influence of Marxism. A passionate fighter against political oppression and a champion of democratic freedom and the rights of the individual, Lesia Ukrainka contributed to the flowering of Ukrainian civic poetry. Among her most enduring works are the collections On Wings of Songs (1893), Thoughts and Dreams (1899), and Echoes (1902), the lyrical epics An Old Tale (1896) and Robert Bruce, King of Scotland (1894), and the dramatic poems Cassandra (1908), In the Wilderness (1910), and The Forest Song (1912). The poems are a philosophical interpretation of man’s condition in a society beset by class antagonisms and a quest for individual and national liberation. The problem of the artist’s position in society holds an important place in her work. For Lesia Ukrainka, poetry was a weapon in the struggle for the interests of the people. In her literary works and criticism she vehemently opposed the apolitical outlook, pessimism, and escape from reality propounded by the decadent poets V. N. Pachovskii (1878–1942), G. O. Chuprinka (1879–1921), and B. S. Lepskii (1872–1941) and the bourgeois-nationalist individualism and contempt, for the masses shown by V. K. Vinnichenko (1880–1951).

Kotsiubinskii’s work was a major step forward in the development of the sociopsychological short story, novella, and novel. The stories “Laughter” (1906), “On the Road” (1907), “Persona Grata” (1908), “Intermezzo” (1909), “A Name-day Present” (1912), and “The Horses Are Not to Blame” (1912) evoke the complex sociopolitical, moral, and psychological atmosphere of the Revolution of 1905–07. In the novel Fata Morgana (parts 1–2, 1904–10) Kotsiubinskii shows the futility of the peasantry’s spontaneous struggle and creates a popular hero who has found the way to organized revolutionary struggle. Among the highly talented writers who appeared in the two decades before the revolution were the realist writers and democrats A. E. Teslenko (1882–1911) and S. Vasil’chenko (S. V. Panasenko, 1879–1932).

The ideological and aesthetic aspirations of modern Ukrainian literature in the pre-October period and its important achievements in’the development of realism and narodnost’ assured it a prominent place in world literature and made possible the flowering of Ukrainian literature in the Soviet period.


Soviet Ukrainian literature. A qualitatively new phenomenon, Soviet Ukrainian literature represents a synthesis of the revolutionary democratic heritage of the classics and the new artistic ideas and forms of socialist realism. Inspired by V. I. Lenin’s theory of socialist culture and encouraged by the Leninist national policy of the Communist Party, Soviet Ukrainian literature has become a strong factor in building a new world and in fostering a socialist consciousness in the people. It is developing through close interaction with all the literatures of the Soviet Union, primarily Soviet Russian literature.

Immediately after the October Socialist Revolution, Ukrainian literature was reinforced by new writers from among workers, peasants, and the democratic intelligentsia. Moreover, the best of the established writers supported Soviet power. Soviet Ukrainian literature emerged amid a bitter class struggle. The writers who did not understand the significance of the socialist revolution joined the nationalist émigrés, although some, realizing their mistake, soon returned to the homeland.

The first important works of Soviet Ukrainian literature were the poetry collections The Plow (1920) by P. G. Tychina (1891–1967) and The Red Winter (1921) by V. N. Sosiura (1898–1965). For some writers, the path to socialist realism was not direct, as evidenced by Tychina’s collection of symbolist and impressionist poems Instead of Sonnets and Octaves (1920) and the artistic evolution of F. M. Ryl’skii (1895–1964), whose poetry during the Civil War (1918–20) was apolitical and completely divorced from social problems. The subsequent literary development of the prose writers A. V. Golovko (1897–1972), M. Irchan (A. D. Ba-biuk, 1897–1937), and P. I. Panch (1891–1978) was shaped by their participation in the revolutionary struggle and service in the Red Army.

Toward the end of the Civil War and throughout the 1920’s new writers appeared whose works were to determine the ideological and thematic content of Ukrainian literature. Besides those previously mentioned, the group included Mikola (N. P.) Bazhan (born 1904), P. M. Usenko (1902–75), Ostap Vishnia (P. M. Gubenko, 1889–1956), A. I. Kopylenko (1900–58), Iu. I. Ianovskii (1902–54), Iu. K. Smolich (1900–76), Ivan Le (born 1895), A. E. Korneichuk (1905–72), I. K. Mikitenko (1897–1937), S. D. Skliarenko (1901–62), and the playwrights N. G. Kulish (1892–1942) and I. A. Kocherga (1881–1952).

From 1922, writers who had renounced the errors of the Pro-letkul’t movement and who wanted to place their talent at the service of socialist construction began forming various associations. The most important such organizations were Plug (the Plow, 1922–33), Gart (The Tempering, 1923–25), the All-Ukrainian Association of Proletarian Writers (1927–32), Molod-niak (Youth, 1926–32), an association of Komsomol writers, and Zakhidna Ukraina (Western Ukraine, 1925–33), founded by writers from the western Ukraine. In the ideological and artistic struggle of those years various positions on art were taken by Aspanfut (Association of Panfuturists, 1922); Novaia Generatsiia (New Generation, 1927–31); Avangard (The Vanguard, 1926–29), organized by Ukrainian constructivists; Vaplite (Free Academy of Proletarian Literature, 1925–28), which was headed by the nationalist deviationist M. Khvylev (1893–1933); the group of writers around the “nonaligned” miscellany Literaturnyi iarmarok (Literary Fair, 1928–29), which to some extent followed Vaplite’s line; and the organization Prolitfront (Proletarian Literary Front, 1930–31). In the course of the ideological struggle many Ukrainian writers became staunch adherents of socialist realism.

Ukrainian writers marked the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution with important works. Golovko’s novel Tall Weeds, about the formation of the new man in the Soviet Ukrainian countryside, appeared in 1927, Panch’s cycle of novellas The Sky-blue Echelons was published in 1928, and Sosiura’s narrative poem The Answer came out in 1927. Ia. A. Mamontov (1888–1940) wrote the popular comedy A Republic on Wheels (1928). These works by no means exhausted the achievements of Ukrainian literature in the 1920’s. A number of outstanding poetry collections appeared, among them Tychina’s Wind From the Ukraine (1924), Usenko’s Komsomol (1927), Aim and Limit (1927) by N. I. Tereshchenko (1898–1966), Encircled (1927) by I. Iu. Kulik (1897–1941), Bazhan’s Constructions (1929), and Ryl’skii’s Where the Roads Converge (1929). The younger poets V. A. Mysik (born 1907), T. G. Masenko (1903–70), and L. S. Pervomaiskii (1908–73) published their first poems and collections. In prose, besides small genres, several fine novels and novellas were produced, among them Kopylenko’s Wild Hops (1925), Mikitenko’s Brother (1927), Ianovskii’s The Ship Builder (1928), Le’s Intermontane Novel (book 1, 1929), and Smolich’s adventure novel The Last Edgewood (1926). Writers inveighed against the naturalistic and nationalist tendencies found in the works of V. P. Pidmogil’nyi (1901–41) and certain other authors.

In the 1920’s Ukrainian dramaturgy was enriched by psychological drama, tragedy, and comedy, as playwrights turned their attention to such themes as the restoration of the national economy and the international revolutionary movement. Among the most popular plays of the decade were Irchan’s Family of Brushmakers (1923) and Poison (1927), Kulish’s The 97 (1924) and Commune in the Steppes (1925), and Mikitenko’s Dictatorship (1929).

After the Central Committee of the ACP(B) issued the decree On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations (Apr. 23, 1932), the principles of narodnost’ (close ties with the people) and partiinost’ (party spirit), as well as socialist realism, became more firmly rooted in Ukrainian literature.

The period of the prewar five-year plans was a new phase in the development of Soviet Ukrainian literature. As writers became more involved in the life of the republic, the best works of socialist realism came to reflect major social processes and the development of the new man. The vestiges of national exclusiveness gradually disappeared. The heightened interest in contemporary events, however, did not mean that history, including revolutionary history, was neglected. Another recurrent theme was the country’s defense. The best plays of this period were Kornei-chuk’s The Destruction of the Squadron (1933), Platon Krechet (1934), Truth (1937), Bogdan Khmel’nitskii (1939), and In the Steppes of the Ukraine (1941), Kocherga’s Song About Svechka (1931) and The Watchmaker and the Hen (1934), Mikitenko’s Light Our Way, Stars! (1930), The Girls of Our Country (1933), and The Flute Solo (1933–36), Kulish’s Sonata Pathétique (1931) and Maklena Grasa (1932), Pervomaiskii’s Wagram Night (1934), and Ianovskii’s Poem About Britanka (1938).

Scenes from socialist construction and the epic grandeur of the great building projects of the first five-year plan—the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant, the Kharkov Tractor Plant, and the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine—are evoked in the novels On the Banks of the Slavuta (1941) by la. V. Bash (born 1908), A City Is Born (1932) by Kopylenko, The Engineers (1934–37) by Iu. Iu. Shovkoplias (born 1903), and Stellar Fortress (1933) by O. Donchenko (1902–54). The successes and difficulties of the kolkhoz movement are re-created in the novels First Spring(1931) by G. D. Epik (1901–42), Outposts (1933) by I. U. Kiri-lenko (1902–39), Tale About a Commune (1930) and Skvar and His Son (1935) by K. A. Gordienko (born 1899), Story of Joy (1938) by Le, and Udai River (1938) by O. Desniak (1909–42).

Episodes from the history of the revolution were depicted in Ianovskii’s The Horsemen (1935), Golovko’s Mother (1932), Panch’s Night Siege (1935), Skliarenko’s trilogy The Road to Kiev (1937–40), and Smolich’s Eighteen-year-olds (1938). Two fine novels were devoted to the liberation wars of the 17th and 18th centuries: The Man Hunters (vols. 1–2, 1934–37) by Z. P. Tulub (1890–1964) and Le’s Nalivaiko (1940). Historical biography reached a high point in the novellas The Heart Waits (1939; second version entitled Petersburg Autumn, 1941) by A. E. II’-chenko (born 1909), Mikhail Kotsiubinskii (1940) by L. I. Smi-lianskii (1904–66), and Honoré de Balzac’s Mistake (1940) by N. S. Rybak (born 1913).

Poetry flourished during the 1930’s. Soviet patriotism and the friendship of peoples found powerful expression in such poems as Tychina’s “The Party Leads” (1933) and “The Sense of a United Family” (1936) and Ryl’skii’s “My Motherland” (1936). Bazhan produced two outstanding narrative poems: Immortality (1937), devoted to S. M. Kirov, and Fathers and Sons (1936). Sosiura wrote a cycle of poems about Lenin. The poets A. S. Malyshko (1912–70), I. L. Muratov (1912–73), I. A. Vyrgan (1908–75), and Mikola (N. L.) Nagnibeda (born 1911) perfected their craft. A number of talented writers also wrote for children and adolescents, notably Zabila, Donchenko, N. P. Trublaini (1907–41), who wrote adventure stories, V. N. Vladko (1900–74), O. D. Iva-nenko (born 1906), known for his works on the history of the revolution, and the poets M. A. Prigara (born 1908), I. I. Nekhoda (1910–63), and V. V. Bychko (born 1912). Several Russian writers living in the Ukraine produced important works. They included N. N. Ushakov (1899–1973), P. G. Besposhchadnyi (1895–1968), L. N. Vysheslavskii (born 1914), and the prose writer N. M. Strokovskii (1900–73).

In the late 1930’s the ranks of Soviet Ukrainian writers were reinforced by writers from the western Ukraine, notably S. I. Tudor (1892–1941), A. A. Gavriliuk (1911–41), Ia. A. Galan (1902–49), P. S. Kozlaniuk (1904–65), O. Iu. Kobylianskaia (1863–1942), Iu. S. Mel’nichuk (1921–63), and I. Vil’de (born 1907).

From the very first days of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) Ukrainian writers called on the people to defend the socialist homeland. The call to struggle resounds through Tychina’s Song of Zoia Kosmodem’ianskaia and Funeral of a Friend, Sosiura’s Oleg Koshevoi, Bazhan’s Oath and Daniil Galitskii, Pervomaiskii’s Kurgan, Ryl’skii’s A Word About the Motherland, and The Heart of the Brave by L. D. Dmiterko (born 1911). The literary gift of Malyshko, S. S. Golovanivskii (born 1910), N. S. Sher-emet (born 1906), P. O. Doroshko (born 1910), M. A. Stel’makh (born 1912), N. A. Upenik (born 1914), 1.1. Goncharenko (born 1908), and Ia. I. Shporta (1922–56) matured under the influence of frontline service. M. I. Shpak (1909–42) and P. N. Voron’ko (born 1913) served in partisan detachments.

The leading prose genres were the short story, the sketch, and the publicist article. The first novels and novellas about the war appeared: The Rainbow (1942) by V. L. Vasilevskaia (1905–64), The Blood of the Ukraine (1943) by V. N. Sobko (born 1912), and Smolich’s They Didn’t Get Through (1946). Korneichuk’s play The Front (1942) and Kocherga’s historical drama Iaroslav the Wise (1946) were widely acclaimed. A number of promising writers perished on the battlefield or in the Gestapo’s torture chambers, among them Desniak, Trublaini, K. M. Gerasimenko (1907–42), M. I. Khashchevatskii (1897–1943), Shpak, and Ia. D. Kachura (1897–1943).

The war theme continued to dominate Ukrainian literature in the immediate postwar years. Poetic achievements included Bazhan’s In Days of War (1945), Malyshko’s Four Summers (1946), Pervomaiskii’s Soldiers’ Songs, 1941–1945 (1946), Voron’ko’s Spring Thunder (1947), Mountains and Valleys (1946) by S. A. Kryzhanovskii (born 1911), and Doroshko’s The Sandomierz Bridgehead (1948). The most famous prose work of the period was The Standard Bearers (books 1–3, 1947–48) by O. Gonchar (born 1918), an epic trilogy about the liberation campaign of the Soviet Army. Several fine novellas sought to give meaning to the experience of the war years: Sailors of the Black Sea Fleet by V. S. Kucher (1911–67), The Diploma (1945) by V. P. Koza-chenko (born 1913), The Secret of Falcon Forest (1948–49) by Iu. O. Zbanatskii (born 1914), and Bash’s Professor Buiko (1945). Various aspects of the war were dramatized in Galan’s Under the Golden Eagle (1947), Sobko’s Life Begins Anew (1950), and Dmiterko’s General Vatutin (1947).

In subsequent years literary works tended to depict the spiritual side of Soviet man, his heroic labor in restoring the national economy, and his struggle for peace. Literature reflected the strengthening of internationalism and friendship among peoples. Among the major novels of the postwar decades were Stel’-makh’s A Big Family (vols. 1–2, 1949–51) and Ianovskii’s Peace (1956). Historical fiction was enriched by Panch’s The Ukraine in Ferment (1954), Rybak’s The Pereiaslav Rada (vols. 1–2, 1948–53), and A. Khizhniak’s Daniil Galitskii (1951). The history of the revolution received epic treatment in Golovko’s Artem Garmash (1951–60), Kozlaniuk’s lurko Kruk (1946–50), Smolich’s The Year of Birth Is 1917 (1958–60), Gonchar’s Tavriia (1952) and Perekop (1957), and Youth (1945–48) by A. Boichen-ko (1903–50). Short stories and sketches were written by I. E. Senchenko (1901–75), S. M. Zhurakhovich (born 1907), M. I. Chabanivskii (1910–73), A. I. Shiian (born 1906), and D. I. Bed-zik (born 1898).

Noteworthy plays of the late 1940’s included Korneichuk’s Makar Dubrava (1948) and Galan’s Love at Dawn (1949, published 1951), dealing with the establishment of kolkhozes and the class struggle in the western Ukrainian countryside. Moral issues were explored in such plays as Without Naming Names (1953) by V. P. Minko, Ianovskii’s The Prosecutor’s Daughter (1954), and Korneichuk’s Wings (1954) and Why the Stars Smiled (1957). Humor and satire flourished in the writings of Ostap Vishnia (the collection The Antiaircraft Gun, 1947), S. I. Oleinik (born 1908), and S. I. Voskrekasenko (born 1906). Humoresques were written by A. I. Kovin’ka (born 1900), V. G. Bol’shak (born 1922), and F. Iu. Makivchuk (born 1912). N. P. Godovants (1893–1974) became famous as a writer of fables.

Ukrainian literature has matured ideologically and aesthetically and has reached a high level of artistic achievement. The humanistic ideas inherent in Soviet literature have developed steadily with Soviet society’s entry into the period of developed socialism. All the genres of Ukrainian literature are developing intensively. A large number of literary reviews are published. The magazines Vitchizna (Fatherland, founded 1941), Dnipro (Dnieper, 1944), Raduha (Rainbow, 1951), Zhovten’ (October, 1951), Prapor (Banner, 1956), and Donbas (Donets Basin, 1923) and the newspaper Literaturna Ukraina (founded in Kiev in 1927) regularly print new works by Soviet writers. The newest literary periodicals are the magazine Vsesvit (All the World, 1958) and the newspaper Druh chytacha (Reader’s Friend, 1960). The collection Suzir’ia (Constellation), published annually since 1967, contains translations of works by writers from the fraternal republics.

Contemporary Ukrainian literature treats a great variety of themes and problems. A central theme is the formation of character in the epoch of developed socialism—the development of a collectivism internationalist, and dedicated worker. A. P. Dov-zhenko (1894–1956) did much to broaden the ideological, moral, and aesthetic horizons of Ukrainian literature. His short stories and plays and his screenplays Poem About the Sea (1956) and The Bewitched Desna (1955) to a great extent set the tone of contemporary Ukrainian prose and dramaturgy.

Writers continue to give much attentiorfto the social and spiritual changes in the countryside, the subject of such novels as The Native Land (1956) by V. S. Zemliak (born 1923), Stel’makh’s Truth and Falsehood (1961), The Cherry Orchard (1958–62) by V. S. Babliak (1916–70), In the Wide World (1967) and Uranium (1970) by N. Ia. Zarudnyi (born 1921), and The Current (1974) by N. G. Ishchenko (born 1926). The working class and the intelligentsia are portrayed in Shovkoplias’ trilogy Man Lives Twice (1962–64), Zagrebel’nyi’s Day for the Future (1964), From the Point of View of Eternity (1970), and Gaining Momentum (1975), Sobko’s Fighter Against Evil (1973), and Azure (1973) by Iu. D. Bedzik (born 1925). Among the best of the many new works about the Patriotic War are Gonchar’s Man and Arms (1960), Pervomaiskii’s Wild Honey (1963), Kozachenko’s cycle of novellas Letters From a Cartridge (1960–70), Dmiterko’s The Last Kilometers (1972), and Cruel Mercy (1972) by Iu. M. Mushketik (born 1929). A noteworthy contribution to Ukrainian Leniniana is the novel The Ul’ianov’s by V. V. Kanivets (born 1923). Historical novels include Skliarenko’s Sviatoslav (1959) and Vladimir (1962), Ivan Le’s trilogy Khmel’nitskii (1957–65), and Zagrebel’-nyi’s Marvel (1968), Death in Kiev (1972), and The First Bridge (1972).

Many works give a broad picture of urban and rural life, depicting industrial workers, kolkhoz members, and the intelligentsia and frequently weaving together the past, the present, and the future. Among such works are Gonchar’s Tronka (1963) and The Cyclone (1970), Stel’makh’s trilogy Bread and Salt (1959), Blood Is Thicker Than Water (1957) and A Big Family (1949–51), The Whirlpool (1959–62) by G. M. Tiutiunnik (1920–61), Bab-liak’s Zhvanchik (1969), Vil’de’s The Richinskii Sisters (1955–60), Panch’s On the Cranberry-tree Bridge (1965), and Zemliak’s Flock of Swans (1971). An unusual blend of history and folklore distinguishes Il’chenko’s novel No End to Cossack Stock (1958). The past is also vividly evoked in Smilianskii’s novel about Shevchenko, Poet’s Youth (books 1–2,1960–63), and in D. Bedzik’s Underground Thunder (1971). E. F. Gutsalo (born 1937), V. G. Drozd (born 1939), and R. N. Fedoriv (born 1930) are known for their fine short stories and novellas.

Positive trends may be observed in poetry. D. V. Pavlychko (born 1929), B. I. Oleinik (born 1935), E. F. Drach (born 1936), and V. A. Korotich (born 1936) are producing highly polished verse on socially significant themes. Other well-known poets include N. F. Syngaevskii (born 1936), V. V. Kochevskii (born 1923), R. S. Tret’iakov (born 1936), V. R. Kolomiets (born 1935), V. Ia. Brovchenko (born 1931), and B. P. Stepaniuk (born 1923).

Among popular plays of the 1960’s and 1970’s are Kornei-chuk’s A Page From A Diary (1964) and The Heart’s Remembrance (1969), Levada’s Faust and Death (1960), Kolomiets’ comedy Pharaohs (1961) and his drama Blue Deer (1973), and Zarudnyi’s Blue Dew (1966). Noteworthy plays have also been written by Minko, A. A. Kornienko (born 1919), and I. D. Rachada (born 1909).

In contemporary Ukrainian literature the hero is clearly a person who shares the aspirations of the whole Soviet people and who solves important moral and ethical problems. Criticism is playing a vital role in fostering partiinost’ and narodnost’ in Soviet Ukrainian literature, in promoting artistic excellence, and in stimulating innovations in the art of socialist realism.

The ties that were formed with other literatures long before the October Revolution are expanding and becoming stronger in the Soviet period, thanks to large-scale translation projects. Both classic and contemporary Ukrainian works have been translated into many foreign languages and most of the national languages of the USSR. World classics, contemporary foreign works, and books by writers in the other Soviet republics continue to be translated into Ukrainian.

Founded in 1934 and numbering about 1,000 members in 1975, the Ukrainian Writers’ Union deserves high praise for its work in organizing the republic’s literary forces. Writers’ congresses were held in 1934,1948,1954,1959,1966,1971, and 1976.

Literary scholarship. Guided by Marxist-Leninist methodological principles in their study of literary history, Ukrainian literary critics have helped modern Ukrainian writers to assimilate and develop the revolutionary cultural traditions of the past and to strengthen and perfect the method of socialist realism. Shevchenko studies have become a distinct branch of literary scholarship in the Soviet period. Important work in this field has been done by E. P. Kiriliuk (born 1902), E. S. Shabliovskii (born 1906), A. I. Beletskii (1884–1961), and Ryl’skii. Problems of literary theory and various aspects of pre-October and Soviet literature have been studied by N. Z. Shamota (born 1916), L. N. No-vichenko (born 1914), G. A. Viazovskii (born 1919), S. A. Kryzhanovskii (born 1911), S. M. Shakhovskoi (born 1909), I. I. Stepun (born 1911), V. M. Lesin (born 1914), V. V. Fashchenko (born 1929), and O. V. Kilimnik (born 1913).

Studies in Russian literature, other Slavic literatures, and European and American literature have been done by N. E. Krutikova (born 1913), A. V. Chicherin (born 1899), G. D. Verves (born 1920), and D. V. Zatonskii (born 1922).

The republic’s leading center for the study of literary theory is the T. G. Shevchenko Institute of Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The journal Radians’ke literatu-roznavstvo (Soviet Literary Scholarship) has been published in Kiev since 1957. Ukrainian literary scholars have produced such basic works as the eight-volume History of Ukrainian Literature (1967–71) and the five-volume biobibliographical dictionary Ukrainian Writers (1960–65).



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The highly distinctive art of the Ukraine has absorbed the traditions of the numerous artistic cultures that succeeded each other in the area. In the history of the Ukraine, which for more than six centuries was an object of conquest and partition by various states, art served as a means of self-assertion in the people’s struggle for national independence, liberation, and the unification of the Ukrainian lands. Among the highest achievements of Ukrainian art are numerous masterpieces of medieval architecture and painting, the national schools of engraving and portraiture that arose in the 17th and 18th centuries, and an original variant of baroque architecture. The democratic artistic traditions of the 19th century developed through close interaction with Russian art. Inspired by these traditions, the artists of the Soviet Ukraine have created one of the great schools of multinational Soviet art and have made a major contribution to the development of socialist realism. (The art of the Crimea is discussed separately in CRIMEA.)

Ancient art. The Upper Paleolithic remains found in the Ukraine reveal that the inhabitants lived in round or oval dwellings having tent-shaped frames made of poles and covered with animal hides. Paleolithic sites have yielded bone and stone pendants and human and animal figurines. The Neolithic peoples of the Ukraine lived in semipit dwellings with conical tent roofs made of poles. Their hand-modeled pottery, with a tapered, round, or flat bottom, was decorated with impressed or modeled ornamentation. The Neolithic tribes carved figurines and reliefs of animals. Remains of the Tripol’e, Pit-grave, and Chernoles cultures attest to the high level of Aeneolithic and early Iron Age art in the Ukraine. An indigenous variant of classical art developed along the Black Sea coast between the second half of the seventh century B.C. and the fourth century A.D. (seeANCIENT CITIES OF THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA COAST and BOSPORAN STATE). Scythian art evolved through complex interaction with the indigenous classical styles. Traces of the Scythian animal style are discernible in the Slavic artistic remains that have been unearthed in the Ukraine.

Tenth to the first half of the 17th century. Medieval Ukrainian art evolved out of the art of Kievan Rus’. The Old Russian state borrowed from Byzantium and developed the techniques of stone architecture, the style of the Christian cruciform domed church, and the various forms and methods of medieval painting—the fresco, mosaic, icon, and miniature. In adapting Byzantine forms, the art of Kievan Rus’ revitalized artistic traditions. Between the tenth and 12th centuries huge cathedrals were erected, stone defensive structures and palaces were built, and numerous works of fine and decorative applied art were created. Among the most famous cathedrals of Kievan Rus’ were the Desiatinnaia Church (Church of Tithes) in Kiev (989–996), which has not survived, the Cathedral of St. Sophia and the Spaso-Preobrazhenskii Cathedral in Chernigov, both built between 1036 and the mid-11th century, and the Uspenskii Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersk-aia Laura (1073–78), which was destroyed in 1941.

Ukrainian art proper began to develop in the late 13th century, initially in Galicia and Volyn’, which had suffered less than other areas from the Mongol-Tatar invasion. From that time on the posady (artisans’ and merchants’ quarters) of the old cities revived and expanded, and many new cities were founded. In the new cities the castles of the feudal magnates and viceroys, which dominated the landscape, did not adjoin the posad, as did the old Russian detinets (fortress), and the cleavage between castle and posad widened as cities gained self-government. Separated from the castle hill by a wall, the city developed around its own center, usually a marketplace with a town hall. The tower of the town hall, the spires of the Catholic churches and the domes of the Orthodox churches, and the gates and towers of the fortifications gave the skyline a picturesque freedom that contrasted sharply with the solid monolithic bulk of the castle. The western Ukrainian cities generally had narrow streets lined with two- or three-story houses, usually built of wood in the 14th and 15th centuries and often of stone in the 16th and 17th centuries. The houses stood in long rows facing the street. In the Left-bank Ukraine one-story wooden houses were grouped together on large tracts that included orchards and vegetable gardens. In the 16th and 17th centuries a few cities, among them Zholkva (now Nesterov) and Brody, were built according to a regular general plan.

In view of the continuing feudal fragmentation and the threat of Tatar and Turkish raids, defensive structures dominated Ukrainian architecture down to the 17th century. With rare exceptions, such as the castles in Ostrog and Chartoryisk, Ukrainian castles did not have donjons and resembled Old Russian fortified farmsteads. As artillery developed, the walls and towers were made thicker and higher and eventually came to conceal all the other structures. From the late 13th century many fortifications were rebuilt with stone, although they preserved features of wood architecture. Examples include the castles at Belgorod-Dnestrovskii, Kamenets-Podol’skii, Kremenets, Lutsk, L’vov, Mukachevo, and Khotin. The 16th century saw the construction of privately owned castles, such as the one in Toki in Ternopol’ Oblast, which were compact and simple in form. In the first half of the 17th century and especially in the western Ukraine, the castles on feudal estates were replaced by imposing palaces. An outstanding example is the palace of Podgortsy in L’vov Oblast, built between 1635 and 1640.

Medieval Ukrainian monasteries were virtually indistinguishable from castles, although they tended to show greater regularity in their layout and structure. The compositional center of the monastery complex was the cathedral (monastery at Mezher-ech’e, Rovno Oblast, 15th—17th centuries). In some cases the cathedral and cells were incorporated into the system of fortifications, as in the monastery at Zimno in Volyn’ Oblast (1465–95). Occasionally, the tower above the narthex (monastery at Podgo-riany, Ternopol’ Oblast, 16th and 17th centuries) or a particular church (Pokrovskaia Church in Sutkovtsy) were used for defensive purposes.

By the 16th century the major types of wooden churches had evolved in the western Ukraine. In Volyn’ Oblast the churches were generally low and consisted of three frames of different height usually covered with a gable or tent roof. The simplest type was the “cottage” church. The churches of L’vov and Khmel’nitskii, with three or five frames, were higher and more graceful. The Lemkian type of church that developed in Transcarpathia was remarkable for its numerous horizontal divisions and the dynamism of its masses, as illustrated by the Church of St. Michael in Mukachevo, built in 1777.

Prior to the 15th century most of the stone churches built in monasteries and cities conformed to Russian or Armenian prototypes. They were cruciform domed edifices with four piers and three apses (Armenian Cathedral in L’vov, 1363–70). Concurrently, there appeared single-aisled or round churches combining elements of Old Russian and Gothic architecture (Church of the Nativity in Galich, late 14th and early 15th centuries). Beginning in the 15th century single-aisled tripartite churches were built-, sometimes without domes (Uspenskaia Church at Luzhany, Chernovtsy Oblast, 1453–58). Also popular were churches with three conchae (St. Nicholas Church in Buchach, Ternopol’ Oblast, 1610). In this period architects began to crown each segment of the plan with a dome, as exemplified by the Troitskaia Church of the monastery at Zimno (1465–75). Free-standing bell towers consisting of several tiers were erected. An outstanding example is the Korniact Bell Tower, built in L’vov between 1572 and 1578 by the architect P. Barbon. The influence of wood architecture on stone buildings is clearly apparent in the churches modeled on three-frame wood churches (Chapel of the Three Prelates in L’vov, 1578–91) and in the stone churches corresponding to the wooden “cottage” churches (Church of St. Elias in Subbotovo, Cherkassy Oblast, 1653).

The Catholic Church built many stone churches, monasteries, and collegia in the Ukraine. In the 14th and 15th centuries the buildings were purely Gothic in appearance and structure (L’vov cathedral, 1360–1493; principal architects, P. Stecher and M. Grom). Later, Renaissance and baroque buildings were erected. An outstanding example of baroque architecture is the Bernardine Church in L’vov, built between 1600 and 1630 by the architects Pawiel Rimlanin and A. Prihylny.

The two-dimensional figures and decorative coloration of many Ukrainian wall paintings of the 14th to the 16th century reflect the artists’ fidelity to Old Russian traditions. Some works, however, notably the frescoes in the 15th-century St. Onofrius Church at Lavrov in L’vov Oblast, show greater emotional intensity than the frescoes of the Kievan period. Elements of the Italian proto-Renaissance may be seen in the frescoes of the Goriany Rotunda in Uzhgorod (1630–70). Many motifs in the wall paintings of the Church of the Holy Spirit at Potelichy in L’vov Oblast (c. 1620) have an immediacy and a joy of life reminiscent of folk art. The same quality distinguishes the stylistically similar paintings of the Church of St. Paraskeva in Radruzh (now in the Polish People’s Republic, 1582) and of the Vozdvizhenie Church in Drogobych (before 1636).

The icons of the 15th to the 17th centuries reveal a considerable democratization of imagery, ideologically motivated by the intensification of the Ukrainian people’s liberation struggle and by the need for religious paintings familiar and comprehensible to the popular masses. The severe hieratic quality that was typical of the art of Kievan Rus’ had already been softened in earlier Ukrainian icons. From the 16th century many icons incorporated motifs from daily life and reflected pressing contemporary issues. The tendency toward sumptuousness became more pronounced: ornate nimbuses and patterned frames became common, backgrounds were decorated with geometric and floral designs and later with landscapes, and elements of perspective were introduced. Contrasting color schemes gave way to more picturesque and delicate combinations. The icons of this period often bore national traits, and canonical saints were replaced by Ukrainian historical figures in several compositions. The desire for individualization gave impetus to the development of portraiture as a separate genre.

Book illumination held an important place in medieval Ukrainian painting. In the 14th century geometric and floral miniatures were superseded by animal figures and interlace patterns. In the mid-16th century the latter motifs were in turn replaced by floral designs, and ornamentation became polychromatic. With the introduction of printing, wood engraving began to develop. The traditions of miniature painting are reflected in the woodcuts of the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura press (founded in 1616), whose artists, notably the engraver H’ia, devoted special attention to local historical subjects.

The few works of Ukrainian religious sculpture that have survived from the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries are remarkable for their harmonious and laconic forms, in some cases genetically linked with pre-Christian art. Sculpture in the round was well developed in the western Ukraine, where the Catholic Church encouraged its use. In the second half of the 16th and the early 17th centuries stone sculpture (limestone) was widely employed in the western Ukraine for embellishing facades, including the attics of residential houses, window frames, and spaces between tiers. In the interior of churches stone sculpture adorned iconostases and tombs. Especially noteworthy is the sculptural ornamentation of the Boim Chapel and the Chapel of the Three Prelates in L’vov. The Dutch, German, and Polish carvers who brought Renaissance techniques to the western Ukraine modified them in working with native western Ukrainian artists.

From the 13th century to the first half of the 17th century the leading forms of decorative applied art were the production of ceramics (household pottery and, from the 14th century, decorative tiles), wood carving, artistic metalwork (liturgical vessels, household utensils, weapons, harness), jewelry-making, and embroidery.

The second half of the 17th and the 18th centuries. Ukrainian artistic culture entered a new phase in the latter half of the 17th century, marked by an intensive development of both religious and secular architecture. After the reunification with Russia in 1654, the old cities in the Left-bank Ukraine grew rapidly. The new cities that were founded in the Left-bank region were given geometric layouts—rectangular (Lebedin, Priluki), radial (Nezhin, Putivl’, Chuguev), or linear (Sumy), depending on the terrain. Urban buildings, either directly facing the street or set on an angle to it, stood at varying but considerable distances from the street and were surrounded by greenery. From the second quarter of the 18th century urban architecture was dominated by monastery and palace complexes whose intricate and varied outlines introduced dynamic accents into the appearance of cities. The residential and public buildings of the 17th century, usually adaptations of rural structures with a simple ground plan, often retained defensive features that were purely decorative.

In religious stone architecture, each part of the ubiquitous tripartite three-domed church had acquired a separate plan by the late 17th century (Pokrovskii Cathedral in Kharkov, 1689). The elegance and great height of some churches were achieved through tier construction, a technique borrowed from Russian architecture, and sometimes through the use of podklety (seePODKLET). However, the interiors of churches remained open to the full height, and the transition from one geometric form to another was smooth and gradual (St. Nicholas Church in Glukhov, late 17th century). Still greater opportunities for creating well-defined interior spaces appeared in the cruciform pierless churches erected in honor of cossack victories throughout the Left-bank Ukraine (St. Nicholas Cathedral in Nezhin, 1668). A great diversity was achieved in the construction of rectangular six-pier churches, in which the solution of interior space was based on a contrast between the arched articulations of three-tier side aisles and the central elongated nave that led toward the ico-nostasis (cathedral of the Troitskii Monastery in Chernigov, 1679–95).

Russian-Ukrainian cultural ties became markedly stronger in the course of the 18th century. The architects A. V. Kvasov, V. I. Neelov and P. I. Neelov (brothers), I. F. Michurin, V. V. Ras-trelli, and I. G. Shedel’ came from St. Petersburg and Moscow to work in the Ukraine, and the Ukrainian I. P. Zarudnyi was placed in charge of construction projects in Moscow in 1701. Churches and secular structures were built in a striking and highly distinctive baroque style. The magnificent ornamental molding, the intricate configuration of volumes achieved by using serrated cornices and paired columns on the facade, and the vast scale of the plans combined to create an impression of grandeur. The new artistic tastes manifested themselves most clearly in the buildings of the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura and of Kiev, structures that had a decisive influence on Ukrainian architecture as a whole from the 1720’s through the 1750’s. Outstanding examples of Ukrainian baroque architecture in the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura are the Great Bell Tower (1731–45, architect Shedel’) and the buildings designed by S. D. Kovnir. In Kiev, the baroque style is best illustrated by the Zaborovskii Gate (1746–48; architect, She-del’), the Church of St. Andrew (1748–67; architects, Rastrelli and Michurin), the Mariinskii Palace (1752–55; principal architects, Rastrelli and Kvasov), and the Klovskii Palace (1754—58; architects, V. I. Neelov and Kovnir). The architect I. G. Grigo-rovich-Barskii developed a style of church architecture that anticipated classicism in the simplicity of its external decoration. A sense of unity between the church proper and the bell tower was achieved by the great height of the central volume of the church. Popular in the central Ukraine in the latter half of the 18th century, the style is best exemplified by the St. Nicholas Naberezhnyi Church in Kiev (1772–85).

In the western Ukraine, 18th-century stone architecture was dominated by baroque forms, occasionally combined with elements of 17th-century classicism. A striking example is the Vish-nevetskii Palace in Vishnevets, Ivano-Frankovsk Oblast (1731–44), designed by the architect J. Hardouin-Mansart.

In the late 17th and the 18th centuries wood architecture in both the Left-bank and the Right-bank Ukraine reflected an extraordinary variety of local schools, among them the Volynian, Galician, Hutzul, and Podolia schools. The wooden churches that were commissioned by cossack and urban communities along the Dnieper and in the Sloboda Ukraine were remarkable for their monumentality and spatial compactness, for example, the Troitskaia Church in Novomoskovsk, erected in 1773 by the master builder Iakim Pogrebniak.

Among the highest achievements of Ukrainian monumental painting of the late 17th century were the wall paintings in the wooden churches of the western Ukraine (Vozdvizhenie Church and Church of St. George in Drogobych), often reflecting the struggle of the popular masses against the oppression of the Polish nobility. In the 1760’s and 1770’s wall painting was almost completely replaced by iconostasis painting.

The icons of the second half of the 17th century showed a greater striving for baroque expressiveness in the depiction of poses and gestures (Vishen’e school, headed by I. Brodlakovich) and a growing interest in plastic modeling and in flowing narration incorporating details from everyday life (I. Kondzelevich, I. Rutkovich, and other icon painters of the Zholkva school). In the course of the 18th century the tendency toward baroque dec-orativeness became increasingly pronounced in the icons produced at the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura. In the last quarter of the 18th century classicism became the leading style in Ukrainian icon painting.

In both easel and monumental painting, battles and historical events became popular subjects from the late 17th century. In the portraits executed by Master Samuil and other painters of the late 17th and 18th centuries, stiff representation and a two-dimensional decorative manner were somewhat mitigated by efforts to reveal man’s spiritual world. Especially popular was the “folk picture, ” in which Cossack Mamai, a cossack bandura player, was a stock figure.

By the late 17th century graphic art had almost entirely freed itself from iconographic influences. As the technique of engraving on copper spread in the 17th century, there appeared numerous portrait engravings, panegyric compositions, and “theses” incorporating high-flown inscriptions. The great Ukrainian engravers of this period were N. Zubritskii, A. Tarasevich, L. Tarasevich, and I. Shchirskii. Images from folk art were recreated in popular prints painted with watercolors and in engravings called kol’triny, which were used as wallpaper.

In adapting baroque techniques, Ukrainian sculptors of the late 17th and the 18th centuries strove for precision in depicting anatomical and psychological characteristics. The plastic art of the 18th-century masters S. Fesinger and A. Osinskii, both of whom worked in L’vov, adhered to the rococo style. In the late 17th and 18th centuries some of the finest decorative sculpture was found on iconostases, whose carving became highly refined by the middle of the 18th century.

The production of ceramics continued to flourish in the late 17th and the 18th centuries, when the towns of Kosov and Oposhnia became famous for their painted ware, solidly covered with ornamentation. Ukrainian craftsmen were also noted for their glasswork—vessels adorned with modeling or painting and figured ware. Other important minor arts were carving in wood, horn, and bone, embroidery, and the weaving of kilim rugs.

The late 18th to the early 20th century. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the Russian government undertook to reconstruct and develop Ukrainian cities in the classical style. Along with architects who worked mainly in Russia, notably A. D. Zakharov, C. Cameron, G. Quarenghi, A. I. Mel’nikov, I. E. Starov, V. P. Stasov, and Thomas de Thomon, many local masters participated in the construction, among them V. I. Beretti, A. V. Beretti, P. A. Dubrovskii, A. I. Melenskii, and P. A. Iaroslavskii. After Russia’s acquisition of the Black Sea region, new cities were built in the southern Ukraine, where a radial plan was used for Ekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk), a rectangular one for Nikolaev and Odessa, and a combination of the two for Simferopol’. In the cities of the Dnieper and Left-bank regions, including Kiev, a regular layout was generally adopted only for undeveloped areas. Ukrainian cities owed their new look partly to the apartment houses that were built according to “model” plans but mostly to the public and commercial buildings that came to dominate the squares of such cities as Belaia Tserkov’, Kiev, Odessa, Poltava, and Kharkov. Church building declined throughout the Ukraine. In many parts of the Ukraine the aristocracy built country palaces and manors in the classical style. The country houses of the middle and petty nobility blended classical and folk architecture.

After the abolition of serfdom, as industrial construction developed rapidly, city growth became more chaotic, and numerous poor workers’ settlements lacking basic conveniences sprang up on the outskirts of cities. Ukrainian architects made use of advanced construction technology (large-span frame structural components, initially of metal and, from the early 20th century, of reinforced concrete) and new materials (gypsum, Mettlach ceramic tiles, and majolica) in working out formal and compositional solutions in the neoclassical spirit (P. F. Aleshin, A. N. Beketov) and in various eclectic styles known as Russian-Byzantine, pseudo-Gothic, pseudo-Renaissance, and Moorish architecture. A national romantic school arose within the Ukrainian art nouveau movement in the early 20th century. Outstanding examples of this style are V. G. Krichevskii’s Poltava Zemstvo Building (now a museum of history and local lore, 1903–08) and I. I. Levinskii’s Dnestr Insurance Company Building in L’vov (1905, jointly with A. O. Lupshinskii).

Nineteenth-century rural architecture reflects the full diversity of Ukrainian folk dwellings. The old one-room cottages were replaced in this period by cottages with two or three rooms. Building materials varied from one region to another. Log houses were built in the north, in the Carpathians, and in parts of Podolia, Kiev and Poltava provinces, and the Sloboda Ukraine. In the forest-steppe zone, the common building materials were clay, straw, and boards or laths to which bundles of reeds were fastened. In the south clay and stone were used. Folk dwellings were characterized by laconic and symmetrical spatial solutions, and they were usually covered with straw roofs having a wide overhang.

The influence of classicism is clearly discernible in Ukrainian art of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Academy of Arts, founded in St. Petersburg in 1757, played a major role in the dissemination of the classical style. Several artists of Ukrainian origin who studied at the academy—V. L. Borovikovskii, G. D. Levitskii, A. P. Losenko, and I. P. Martos—made important contributions to Russian art. Classical ideas were also brought to the Ukraine by artists who had studied in Western European schools, notably L. Dolinskii. The strict norms of classicism were most fully transcended in portraiture, with its emphasis on the individual traits of the model. In addition to Borovikovskii and Levitskii, V. A. Tropinin, who worked in the Ukraine from 1804 to 1821, had a decisive influence on Ukrainian portrait painting. Tropinin’s paintings of peasants shaped the genre painting of the first half of the 19th century. Prominent Ukrainian portrait painters of the first half of the 19th century included G. A. Vas’ko and K. S. Pavlov. Ukrainian landscape painting, a blend of romanticism and realism, was founded by the Russian painters A. M. Kunavin, I. M. Soshenko, and V. I. Shternberg.

Creatively adapting romantic techniques, the great Ukrainian poet and artist T. G. Shevchenko produced the first and finest examples of critical realism in 19th-century Ukrainian art. His highly varied output included genre scenes, portraits, and landscapes in oil, watercolor, and sepia, as well as etchings and drawings. Shevchenko’s civic and artistic precepts were followed by the painters L. M. Zhemchuzhnikov, I. I. Sokolov, and K. A. Trutovskii and by several artists of the second half of the 19th and the early 20th centuries who were ideologically, and usually also organizationally, linked with the Russian peredvizhniki (seePEREDVIZHNIKI). The genre paintings of K. K. Kostandi, N. D. Kuznetsov, P. A. Nilus, and N. K. Pimonenko are imbued with a profound democratic spirit. A number of artists, among them S. I. Vasil’kovskii, turned to subjects from national history. The figural and formal techniques of portraiture were enriched in the painting and graphic art of P. G. Volokidin, M. I. Zhuk, and A. A. Murashko. The great master of Ukrainian battle painting, N. S. Samokish, was also an outstanding graphic artist.

In 19th-century Ukrainian landscape painting, the romanticized works of S. I. Vasil’kovskii and V. D. Orlovskii gave way to I. P. Pokhitonov’s compositions, influenced by the Barbizon school, which in turn were superseded by the landscapes of N. G. Burachek and S. I. Svetoslavskii, who assimilated some of the plein-air achievements of impressionism. In the western Ukraine, A. Kh. Novakovskii and 1.1. Trush developed realism in painting in the early 20th century. Ukrainian sculptors of the second half of the 19th century affirmed realist principles in their monuments to prominent historical personages, and in their treatment of scenes from peasant life. Particularly noteworthy is the sculpture of L. V. Pozen.

The leading Ukrainian graphic artists of the second half of the 19th and the early 20th centuries were M. D. Martynovich and A. G. Slastion. The upsurge of the revolutionary movement and the publication of the satirical magazines Zvon, Komar, and Shershen’ (1905–06) gave strong impetus to the development of Ukrainian political caricature. Some of the best political cartoons were produced by I. M. Buriachok, F. S. Krasitskii, and V. V. Reznichenko. National romanticism, often mingled with social motifs, marked the work of I. I. Izhakevich and of the western Ukrainian artists E. L. Kul’chitskaia and A. I. Manastyrskii.

The 19th and early 20th centuries saw a flowering of such traditional types of folk decorative applied art as wood carving, pottery, rug-making, embroidery, and textile printing. Decorative painting reached a high artistic level. Furniture and the exteriors of buildings, principally shutters and door and window casings, were adorned with painted designs. The most intricate compositions were reserved for the interiors of cottages. The folk art of Transcarpathia was renowned for its highly skilled ornamentation using geometric forms and age-old motifs. The wood carving of Iu. I. Shkribliak admirably reflects these traditions.

Soviet Ukraine. The Great October Socialist Revolution radically affected the evolution of Ukrainian art by creating the most favorable prerequisites for its development.

In the 1920’s general plans were drawn up for the reconstruction of Zaporozh’e, Kramatorsk, Kharkov, and many other cities (principal architects, A. M. Kas’ianov and 1.1. Malozemov), and several progressive proposals were submitted for laying out residential quarters and standardizing apartment houses and other buildings (A. N. Beketov, V. K. Trotsenko). Schools, clubs, palaces of culture, hospitals, and polyclinics were built on a large scale. The architecture of this period reflected the influence of folk architectural forms (settlement of the Kharkov Steam Locomotive Plant, 1924, architect Trotsenko), the Ukrainian baroque (Kiev Agricultural Academy, 1923–30, architect D. M. D’iachen-ko), and neoclassicism (House of Soviets in Pervomaisk, 1925–27, architect V. A. Esterovich). The ensemble of the F. E. Dzerzhinskii Square in Kharkov (1925–29, principal architect, S. S. Serafimov) was built in the new constructivist style. The constructivists strove for laconic forms and strict functionalism in planning (Zaporozh’e City Hospital, 1930–32, architect L. I. Iur-ovskii) and developed ways of organizing the new, socialist mode of life (workers’ settlement of the Kharkov Tractor Plant, 1930, architect Aleshin). A remarkable achievement in industrial construction, which reached unprecedented proportions, was the complex of the V. I. Lenin Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant (1927–30; architects, Vesnin brothers, N. Ia. Kolli, G. M. Orlov, and S. G. Andrievskii; engineer, I. G. Aleksandrov).

In the 1930’s urban planning developed on a grand scale, with the well-appointed and landscaped perimetric block becoming the basic unit of planning. Intensive reconstruction and new construction were undertaken in Donetsk, Vinnitsa, Zaporozh’e, Kiev, Poltava, and other cities. The appearance of cities was altered by splendid public buildings reflecting the classical architectural heritage. In Kiev, classical influences may be seen in the building of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR (1934–38, architects I. A. Fomin and P. B. Abrosimov) and the building of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR (1936–39, architect V. I. Zabolotnyi). Among other noteworthy public buildings of the period are the theater of opera and ballet in Donetsk (1935–40, architect L. I. Kotovskii), the main department store in Dnepropetrovsk (1935–37, architect A. L. Krasnosel’-skii), and the sanatorium of the central committee of the coal miners’ trade union in Zhdanov (1939, architect O. V. Luk’-ianov). Industrial construction continued to expand rapidly throughout the 1930’s, culminating in the completion of the second stage of the Kharkov Tractor Plant (1936–38, principal architect V. I. Bogomolov). The Architects’ Union of the Ukrainian SSR was founded in 1933.

After the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) the republic’s cities, many of them rebuilt from ruins, became still more pleasant and comfortable places to live in. In rebuilding Sevastopol’ (1945–54, principal architect V. M. Artiukhov), Ternopol’ (1945–54, principal architect V. I. Novikov), and other cities and in building such new cities as Novaia Kakhovka (1952–54, principal architect A. D. Matorin), architects strove for grandeur of form and used various kinds of architectural decoration, including the traditional facing ceramics. The same qualities distinguish the Kreshchatik in Kiev, rebuilt and expanded between 1947 and 1954 under the direction of architects A. V. Vlasov, A. V. Dobrovol’skii, V. D. Elizarov, A. I. Malinovskii, and B. I. Priimak.

With the development of prefabricated construction, Ukrainian architects made extensive use of standard designs in the late 1950’s and 1960’s and of standardized sectional units and structural components in the 1970’s. Among noteworthy achievements in town planning were the general plans of Kiev (1969, principal architect Priimak), Odessa (1966, principal architect B. I. Tandarin), and Kharkov (1963, principal architect V. L. Antonov). Large self-contained microdistricts became a dominant feature in new urban residential areas and new cities. Draft plans of city preserves were drawn up, providing for the protection of historically significant architecture (Lutsk, 1970, architect B. V. Kolosok). In the best of the new residential districts a greater diversity of spatial composition was achieved by combining buildings of different height and enhancing the plastic expressiveness of volumes. These principles were followed in the Kiev housing developments of Rusanovka (1965–72, architects V. E. Ladnyi and G. S. Kul’chitskii) and Berezniaki (1971, principal architects S. B. Shpil’t and V. M. Grechina), in the residential area along the Kal’mius River in Donetsk (1965–72, principal architect V. S. Buchek), and in the buildings along the Mandrykovsk-aia Esplanade in Dnepropetrovsk (1970–73, architect O. G. Khavkin).

The public buildings and transportation facilities of the 1960’s and 1970’s are characterized by a functionally precise layout, laconic forms, and monumental decorative compositions using mosaic panels, majolica, and anodized aluminum. Outstanding examples of this style include the Tarasova Gora Hotel in Kanev (1961, principal architects N. B. Chmutina, E. V. Guseva, and A. A. Zubok), the Ukraina Motion Picture and Concert Hall in Kharkov (1963, principal architect V. S. Vasil’ev), and, in Kiev, the Palace of Pioneers (1965, architects A. M. Miletskii and E. A. Bil’skii), the Borispol’ airport terminal (1966, principal architect A. V. Dobrovol’skii), and the Ukraina Palace of Culture (1970, architects E. A. Marinchenko, I. G. Vainer, and P. N. Zhilitskii). Other impressive achievements are the Odessa seaport terminal (1965–66, principal architect V. K. Golovin), the children’s sports school in Lutsk (1970, principal architect R. G. Metel’nitskii), the covered market in Cherkassy (1971, principal architect Chmutinà), the Zaporozh’e Hotel in Zaporozh’e (1972, architect S. A. Tul’chinskii), and the Opera Theater in Dnepropetrovsk (1974, architect B. P. Zhezherin). During this period industrial construction continued to expand.

The work of rebuilding and modernizing villages that began after 1945 was continued in the planning and construction of 15 experimental villages. Special attention was given to the zoning of residential and production areas, with due regard for the natural environment. Local construction materials were used as much as possible, and techniques of folk architecture were revived. These features are found in the village of Kodaki in Kiev Oblast (1966–70, principal architects B. A. Pritsker and M. M. Mel’ni-kov) and the central part of the village of Morintsy in Cherkassy Oblast (1964, principal architects V. M. Orekhov and Iu. S. Pan’-ko).

The art of visual propaganda flourished in the first years of Soviet rule, when Ukrainian artists produced posters, Okna UkROSTA and IugROSTA (“windows, ” or posters commissioned by the Russian Telegraph Agency [ROSTA]), and decorations for celebrations and propaganda trains and steamships. The Leninist plan for monument propaganda stimulated the creation of generalized heroic images in monumental sculpture (M.I. German, I. P. Kavaleridze). Led by M. L. Boichuk, Ukrainian monumental artists (I. I. Padalka, V. F. Sedliar) found inspiration in Old Russian and Italian Renaissance fresco painting, often giving their imagery a schematic abstract quality. In the 1920’s, both the painters who had begun their careers before the Revolution, notably Samokish, Volokidin, and F. G. Krichevskii, and the newcomers A. G. Petritskii and A. A. Shovkunenko depicted dramatic events of the Revolution and the Civil War, characteristic features of Soviet life, and the personality of the new man.

Several other art forms developed intensively in the Soviet Ukraine from the 1920’s: stage design, initially influenced by constructivism and cubism (M. I. Drak, Petritskii, V. G. Meller, A. V. Khvostenko-Khvostov), book illustration (Izhakevich, G. I. Narbut), print-making (V. Kh. Zauze, V. I. Kasiian), and poster design (A. I. Strakhov). An important organization of those years was the Association of Artists of the Red Ukraine (AKhChU), which made common cause with the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (AKhRR) and the Association of Revolutionary Art of the Ukraine (ARMU).

In the 1930’s Ukrainian art evolved amid a struggle against formalism and an intensified effort to heighten the social significance of art. In painting, the thematic picture predominated, reflecting the fervor of revolutionary battles and the socialist transformation of life (V. N. Kostetskii, Krichevskii, Samokish, K. D. Trok-himenko). A life-affirming and humanist outlook became more pronounced in portraiture (Volokidin), landscape painting (Bu-rachek and Shovkunenko), graphic art (A. M. Dovgal’, Kasiian), and sculpture (M. G. Lysenko). The Artists’ Union of the Ukrainian SSR was founded in 1938. After the unification of the western lands and the northern Bucovina (and of Transcarpathia at the end of the Great Patriotic War) with the Soviet Ukraine, progressive western Ukrainian artists such as I. I. Bokshai, Kul’-chitskaia, Manastyrskii, and A. M. Erdeli joined the ranks of Soviet Ukrainian artists.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), Ukrainian artists worked in the army in the field and in the rear, producing combat posters (Kasiian, V. G. Litvinenko), agitational “windows, ” and caricatures and drawings for frontline newspapers. War heroes were immortalized in G. L. Petrashevich’s sculptural portraits, Shovkunenko’s portrait paintings, A. S. Pashchenko’s linocuts, and M. G. Deregus’ etchings, all of which appeared in the last years of the war.

The heroic struggle of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War has been a major theme in Ukrainian painting since the 1950’s. Some of the best paintings on the subject have been done by V. G. Puzyr’kov. The revolutionary-historical and historical canvases of M. M. Bozhii, A. M. Lopukhov, G. S. Melikhov, M. I. Khmel’ko, and V. V. Shatalin are imbued with romantic fervor. The portraits of Bozhii, A. A. Kotskii, and Shovkunenko and the dynamic landscapes of N. P. Glushchenko, A. M. Ka-shai, and S. F. Shishko are marked by subtle observation. Various aspects of contemporary Soviet life are poetically rendered in the paintings of S. A. Grigor’ev, Kostetskii, and A. G. Safarga-lin. The paintings of G. M. Gliuk and T. N. Iablonskaia are noteworthy for their optimistic lyrical imagery, combined in more recent works with a striking decorative coloration.

Ukrainian sculpture of the postwar decades treats a wide range of subjects. The rich inner world of contemporary man is revealed in the sculptural portraits of V. Z. Borodai, A. A. Kova-lev, and A. P. Oleinik and in V. I. Svida’s compositions. M. K. Vronskii, D. P. Krvavich, P. F. Movchun, and A. P. Skoblikov have produced large-scale sculpture on historical subjects. Among the outstanding achievements in monumental plastic art are the works of Borodai, V. I. Znoba, G. N. Kal’chenko, and Lysenko.

Stage design has been developing successfully since 1950 alongside easel painting and sculpture. The old masters Petritskii and Khvostenko-Khvostov have been joined by several gifted newcomers, notably P. A. Zlochevskii, E. N. Lysik, and F. F. Nirod. The motion-picture sets designed by V. I. Agranov reveal a profound understanding of the nature of cinematographic images. The many genres of contemporary Ukrainian graphic art deal with a wide range of subjects and emotions. Such masters of the older generation as Deregus, Kasiian, Kul’chitskaia, and L. I. Levitskii have shown new facets of their talent, and the younger graphic artists A. D. Bazilevich, A. G. Danchenko, V. S. Kut-kin, A. F. Fishchenko, and G. V. Iakutovich have done impressive work. The leading poster designers are T. A. Liashchuk and O. K. Terent’ev. In monumental decorative painting, an increasingly important genre in the 1960’s and 1970’s, new ways of combining painting and architecture were introduced by S. A. Kiri-chenko, V. V. Mel’nichenko, and A. F. Rybachuk.

The preconditions for a resurgence of Ukrainian folk art have been created by the Soviet government, which has organized exhibits, handicraft artels, and centers for the collection and study of folk art. The 1920’s saw the appearance of folk easel painting, a unique genre that developed out of the practice of painting ornamental compositions on paper (in the early 20th century such compositions began replacing wall paintings in cottages). The easel compositions of T. A. Pata, M. A. Primachenko, and F. G. Sobachko-Shostak are notable for their decorative expressiveness. The folk painter E. V. Belokur created a highly original style.

The leading masters of decorative applied art from the 1920’s to the 1950’s were P. P. Verna, Ia. R. Khalabudnyi (wood carving), D. F. Golovko, I. T. Gonchar, E. S. Zhelezniak, P. I. Tsvi-lyk (pottery), A. F. Saenko (incrustation using straw), P. I. Vasi-lenko, N. Iu. Vovk, and G. I. Veres (weaving, including kilims). Textile printing and embroidery also flourished in this period. In the late 1920’s many traditional folk crafts were revived, among them pottery (Kosov and Oposhnia) and artistic glasswork (L’vov). In the 1960’s and 1970’s the traditions of folk art, adapted to the new conditions of urban and rural life, continued to be the main stylistic source of Ukrainian decorative applied art.


Logvin, G. N. Ukrainskoe iskusstvo, X-XVIIIvv. Moscow, 1963.
Istoriia ukrains’koho mystetstva, vols. 1–6. Kiev, 1966–70.
Golovko, G. V. Arkhitektura Sovetskoi Ukrainy. Moscow, 1973.
Suchasna arkhitektura Radians’koi Ukrainy. Kiev, 1974.
G. N. LOGVIN (to the 18thcentury), V. A. AFANAS’EV (late 18th to the 20th century), and S. K. KILESSO (Soviet architecture)

Deeply rooted in the folk music of the East Slavs, Ukrainian music proper began to develop in the 14th century, chiefly in the form of indigenous folk songs reflecting the history and national liberation struggle of the Ukrainian people. Ukrainian folk music encompasses monophony, podgolosochnaia (supporting-voice) polyphony, and harmony, and it includes vocal, vocal-instrumental, and instrumental forms. Ukrainian songs are remarkably rich in melody and rhythm. An ornamental lyrical singing style (four to eight or more notes per syllable) is widely used in performing improvised solo songs and polyphonic songs. A syllabic recitative (one or two notes per syllable) is generally used in ancient ritual songs and epic songs. Duple meters (2/4, 4/4) predominate over triple meters (3/4, 3/8, 9/8), although mixed meters are often encountered in “drawn-out” (protiazhnye) songs.

Ukrainian music is distinguished by a great diversity of styles. Polyphonic singing akin to Russian and Byelorussian singing is highly developed in the central and southeastern regions. The songs of western Podolia and the Carpathians, generally mono-phonic, contain many archaic elements and traces of Polish, Slovak, Czech, Rumanian, and Hungarian influences. The tonal-modal structure of Ukrainian music, also highly varied, ranges from scales without semitones to major and minor scales. Also used are the Dorian mode, chiefly in the southwest, and the Mix-olydian and Lydian modes. Folk instruments include the violin and bass viol (bowed stringed); the kobza, bandura, and torban (plucked stringed); the dulcimer; the lira (a stringed instrument played by pressing on attached keys); the sopilka and trembita (wind instruments); the Jew’s harp (drymba); and the drum, tambourine, and tulumbas (percussion).

Ukrainian songs exist in a great variety of genres. Calendar ritual songs, dating from the time of the unity of the ancient Slavs, include koliadki, shchedrivki, vesnianki (spring songs), gaivki, Kupala-Day songs (called sobitka in the western regions), and harvest songs. Ritual songs associated with family life have a distinctive tonal idiom. The most interesting of them are wedding songs, called ladkannia in some regions, which are improvised recitative songs with a narrow melodic range. A broad melodic line and a complex stanzaic structure are characteristic of lyric songs (love songs and women’s songs) and songs originating in a particular social milieu (cossacks, landless peasants, carters, recruits).

The Ukrainian national liberation movement, which lasted from the late 15th century to the 17th century, gave impetus to the creation of national epics and to the rise of professional folk musicians. Historical dumy, songs, and chronicles recounted the heroic struggle against Mongol-Tatar and Turkish invasions and the oppression of Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords. Among the most popular dumy were those about the three Ozivs’ki brothers, Marusia Boguslavka, Samoila Koshka, Khmel’nitskii and Bara-bash, and Nechai. The dumy, long solemn works, were performed by professional folk singers, both kobzari (kobza players) and lirniki (lira players), who recited them in an improvised recitative to instrumental accompaniment. Some kobzari became famous throughout the land, among them Bandurka (Rikhlievskii) in the 17th century, G. Liubistok in the 18th century, A. Shut and O. Veresai in the 19th century, and M. Kravchenko and G. Goncharenko in the 20th century. The best-known lirniki of the 19th and 20th centuries were A. Skoba and I. Skubii. The leading Soviet kobzari are F. Kushnerik and E. Movchan.

The 18th and 19th centuries saw the development of social antifeudal songs, including farmhands’ songs and new historical songs, such as those devoted to the exploits of Maksim Zhelezniak and Ustim Karmaliuk. Various forms of instrumental music-making flourished. Solo pieces were performed on the sopilka, kobza, bandura, and violin. A favorite instrumental combination was the trio of violin, dulcimer, and tambourine. Folk ensembles played dance tunes (kazachok, gopak, kolomy-ika, gutsulka) and march music.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries workers’ and revolutionary songs spread widely, and émigré songs appeared (“This Has Not Become a Habit, ” “Oh Canada, Dear Canada”). Among popular revolutionary songs by known authors were “Rage, Rage, You Senseless Hangmen” (text by A. Kolessa, music by A. K. Vakhnianin) and “Testament” (text by T. G. Shevchenko, music by G. Gladkii). After the October Revolution of 1917 songs were composed about the people’s heroism in the Civil War, about the socialist transformation of life, and about the new relations between people. Outstanding examples include “Hey Boys, We’re All in the Komsomol” (lyrics by I. Shevchenko) and “Ring Out, Mighty Song” (lyrics by D. Zagul, music by V. N. Verkovinets). During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) songs were written about fascist slavery and about victory over the enemy, the themes of “A Poplar Swaying in the Wind” (about the partisan leader Kovpak) and “In the Green Forest.”

The first efforts to write down folk music date from the 17th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries collections of folk music were published by N. V. Lysenko, A. Konoshchenko, O. Raz-dol’skii, and S. Liudkevich. Ethnomusicology was founded in the Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Lysenko, P. P. Sokal’skii, P. Demutskii, F. M. Kolessa, and K. V. Kvitka. Besides serving as the basis for Ukrainian professional music, Ukrainian folk songs have attracted the attention of Russian and foreign composers. P. I. Tchaikovsky included Ukrainian folk songs in his Second Symphony, in his First Piano Concerto, and in his opera The Little Shoes, and M. P. Mussorgsky used folk songs in his Sorochintsy Fair. Beethoven made an arrangement of “Cossack Riding to the Land Beyond the Danube” for voice and piano. F. Liszt wrote two pianoforte works based on Ukrainian folk songs: Ukrainian Ballad on the theme of “Oh Don’t Go, Hrits” and Lament on the theme of “The Winds Blow.” D. D. Shostakovich used the revolutionary song “Rage, Tyrants” in his Eleventh Symphony.

Professional Ukrainian music has its origin in the music of Kievan Rus’. Several singers of this period are known by name: the court singers Boian, Mitusa, and Or and the church singers Stefan and G. Pecherskii of Kiev, Luka of Vladimir-Volynskii, and Dmitro of Peremyshl’. After the adoption of Christianity in 988, monodic church music developed under the influence of Byzantine and Bulgarian singing. In the 11th and 12th centuries these church melodies were written down by musicians at the Kiev-Pecherskaia Laura in a notation using neumes called kriuki (hooks) or znamena (signs).

In the 16th century the monophonic style of church singing gave way to an unaccompanied polyphonic style called partesnoe penie (part-song), and a five-line notation popularly known as Kiev notation was introduced. The oldest examples of this notation may be found in the Suprasl’skii iromologion, published in 1593. The principles of partesnoe penie were developed and expounded by the music theorist, composer, and teacher N. P. Di-letskii, the author of The Musical Grammar (1675). Choral singing reached a high level, with many singers receiving training in the Brotherhood schools in Kiev, L’vov, and other cities.

After the unification of the Ukraine with Russia in 1654, the Kiev-Mogila Academy became a major center of choral music. The academy fostered the development of the school theater, the vertep puppet theater, and the kant, a type of multivoice song, initially religious but later also secular. Many kanty were composed by L. Baranovich, P. Mogila, and D. Tuptalo (Dm. Rostovskii). As secular music developed, musicians’ guilds were formed in the cities. Orchestras, called kapelly, were maintained by town halls (the Kiev kapella even had its own music school). Founded in 1738, the Glukhovo music school played a major role in music education, training singers for the St. Petersburg Choir and giving instruction in such instruments as the gusli, violin, and bandura. From the late 17th century feudal lords maintained on their own estates orchestras, choirs, and opera and ballet troupes composed of serfs. Touring musicians performed in the Ukraine from the 18th century.

In the 17th and 18th centuries many Ukrainian composers and performers worked in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The Ukrainians G. Rachinskii, V. Trutkovskii, and A. Vedel’ made a noteworthy contribution to the development of Russian music. The composers M. S. Berezovskii and D. S. Bortnianskii played a prominent role in the development of both Russian and Ukrainian musical culture. Numerous urban art songs were written in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Among the most popular were “Liberty and Rights to Every City” (text by G. S. Skovoroda), “Cossack Riding to the Land Beyond the Danube” (text and music by S. Klimovskii), and “The High Hill” (text by L. L. Gli-bov). The first symphonies, by anonymous authors, appeared. One of them, the Ukrainian Symphony (late 18th century), was based on Ukrainian song and dance melodies, including the kozachok. In the first half of the 19th century symphonies and instrumental chamber works were composed by I. Vitkovskii, A. Galenkovskii, A. Danilevskii, G. Rachinskii, and P. Seletskii. An Italian company performed at the opera theater that was founded in Odessa in 1810. In 1819 the Poltava Theater staged the first musical adaptation of I. P. Kotliarevskii’s Natalka Polta-vaka.

A general democratization of musical life and a weakening of church influences contributed to the emergence of a national school of professional music in the latter half of the 19th century. The universities of Kiev, Kharkov, and L’vov became the major centers of musical life. A Russian opera house opened in Kiev in 1867 with a production of Verstovskii’s Askold’s Tomb. A second Russian opera house was founded in Kharkov in 1880, and a third one was established in Odessa in the 1880’s. The resurgence of Ukrainian music was closely associated with the growing opposition to serfdom. The first national musical works for the stage were composed: S. S. Gulak-Artemovskii’s opera The Zaporozh’e Cossack Beyond the Danube (staged in 1863 in St. Petersburg), P. P. Sokal’skii’s operas May Night (1863) and The Siege ofDubno (1884), and P. I. Nishchinskii’s “ethnographic picture” Village Evenings (1875). The leading composers in the western Ukraine were M. M. Verbitskii, best known for his operetta People of the Foothills, I. A. Lavrovskii, A. K. Vakhnianin, I. I. Vorobkevich, V. G. Matiuk, and O. I. Nizhankovskii. The Ukrainian theater founded by the Rus’ka Besida Society in L’vov in 1864 did much to promote musical culture in the western Ukraine.

The development of Ukrainian music was greatly influenced by the work of Russian classical composers and by the contacts between Ukrainian musicians and such eminent Russian musicians as P. I. Tchaikovsky, A. K. Glazunov, and N. A. Rimsky-Korsa-kov, and singers F. I. Chaliapin and L. V. Sobinov. The Russian Society of Music founded branches in Kiev (1863), Kharkov (1871), and Odessa (1884). The Kiev Music School, founded by the Russian Society of Music in 1868, eventually became the first Ukrainian conservatory (1913). Ukrainian musicians in turn contributed to the development of Russian musical life.

The diversified activity of N. V. Lysenko—composer, conductor, pianist, teacher, and collector and student of folklore—was of paramount importance for the development of Ukrainian music. Lysenko produced classics of the national style in various genres, including operas, cantatas, romances, vocal ensembles, piano and instrumental pieces, children’s music, and arrangements of folk songs. His opera Taras Bul’ba (1890) and his cycle Music to T. G. Shevchenko’s “Kobzar’” are of great ideological and artistic significance. The school of music and drama that Lysenko founded in Kiev in 1904 trained the composers K. G. Stet-senko, V. N. Verkhovinets, and L. N. Revutskii, the choral conductor A. A. Koshits, the singer M. V. Mikisha, the violinist M. B. Poliakin, and the musicologist A. K. Butskoi.

A number of outstanding works were composed by Lysenko’s contemporaries and followers N. N. Arkas (opera Catherine, 1891), B. V. Podgoretskii (opera Kupala Spark, 1901), M. N. Kalachevskii {Ukrainian Symphony, 1876), V. I. Sokal’skii (symphony, 1892), P. I. Senitsa (two symphonies [1905,1911] and the unfinished operas Life Is a Dream and The Woman Farm Laborer), I. I. Rachinskii (symphonies and instrumental chamber music), K. G. Stetsenko, Ia. S. Stepovoi, and N. D. Leontovich. Ukrainian musical drama theaters, notably N. K. Sadov-skii’s theater, played an important role in the development of Ukrainian music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In the late 19th century, amid intensified social and political struggle, several new cultural organizations were founded in the western Ukraine: the Torban and Boian choral societies (1891), the N. V. Lysenko Musical Society (1907), the T. G. Shevchenko Learned Society (1893, L’vov), and the Lysenko Higher Institute of Music (1907). Among the outstanding musicians who began their careers at this time were the singers M. E. Mentsinskii, A. F. Myshuga, and S. A. Krushel’nitskaia, the folklorist and musicologist F. M. Kolessa, the composer D. V. Sichinskii, who wrote cantatas, romances, and songs, and the musicologist and composer S. F. Liudkevich, who dedicated his cantata-symphony Caucasus (1913) to the Russian revolutionaries. The events of the first Russian Revolution (1905–07) inspired such works as Lysen-ko’s hymn “The Eternal Revolutionary” (text by I. Ia. Franko) and his satirical opera Aeneid, Stetsenko’s choral works Sodom and Prometheus and his satirical art song “King Pea” (text by J. P. Béranger), Stepovoi’s art song “The Steppe, ” and Leontovich’s arrangements of revolutionary songs.

After the October Revolution of 1917, a new Ukrainian musical culture began to evolve as early as the period of the Civil War and military intervention. Choral singing developed on a large scale, and numerous orchestral groups were founded. The Dumka Chorus (1920) and the Ukrainian Workers’ Chorus were founded in Kiev; the Ukrainian State Chorus, in Kharkov; and the Zoria Chorus, in Dnepropetrovsk. The first Ukrainian symphony orchestra was established in 1919 under the direction of R. M. Glière and F. M. Blumenfel’d. The N. V. Lysenko Symphony Orchestra and the Vil’iom, N. D. Leontovich, and L. van Beethoven quartets were founded in 1923. The conservatories in Kiev, Odessa, and Kharkov were reopened, and a new music school, the Lysenko Higher Musical Drama Institute, was founded in Kiev in 1918. A philharmonic society was organized in Kharkov in 1927 and was transferred to Kiev in 1934.

The first new musical theater to be founded after the Revolution was the Ukrainian Musical Drama Theater, opened in Kiev in 1919. The first Ukrainian opera and ballet theater was founded in Kharkov in 1925, and the next year Kiev and Odessa each acquired a new theater. The Touring Opera of the Left Bank Region was organized in Poltava in 1928, and the following year another touring opera was formed in Vinnitsa. Theaters were also founded in Dnepropetrovsk (1931), L’vov (1939), and Donetsk (1941). The Kiev-based Leontovich All-Ukrainian Musical Society, uniting composers and performers, was active from 1922 to 1929. The society had branches in several cities, and from 1923 it published the journal Muzyka. The Association of Proletarian Musicians of the Ukraine (APMU) functioned from 1928 to 1932. The Composers’ Union of the Ukraine, uniting all the republic’s composers, was founded in 1932 in response to the Apr. 23,1932, resolution of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations. The event marked the beginning of a new, prolific period in the development of Soviet Ukrainian music.

The composers Stetsenko, Leontovich, and Stepovoi, all followers of Lysenko, played an important role in the 1920’s. Through their public musical activity and their work as teachers, performers, and composers they forged a strong link between the achievements of prerevolutionary and Soviet Ukrainian music. Mass songs and choral works were the first genres to treat themes engendered by the heroism of the Revolution and the new Soviet reality. A new tonal system, based on a synthesis of Ukrainian folk music and proletarian revolutionary songs, was developed by F. E. Kozitskii, K. E. Boguslavskii, G. G. Verevka, M. I. Veri-kovskii, Verkhovinets, F. M. Popadich, Revutskii, F. N. Nade-nenko, and V. T. Borisov. Leontovich’s choral works Ice Breakup and Summer Tones incorporated postrevolutionary themes. Leontovich, Stetsenko, and Stepovoi made choral arrangements of revolutionary songs.

In the second half of the 1920’s two symphonic works appeared that subsequently became classics: Revutskii’s Symphony No. 2 (1927), written for the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution, and B. N. Liatoshinskii’s Overture on Four Ukrainian Themes (1926). V. A. Femelidi’s Jubilee Symphony (1927) was one of the first attempts to introduce revolutionary songs into symphonic music. The same period saw the composition of fine works of Soviet national operatic art, notably B. K. Ianovskii’s Black Sea Song (1929) and Liatoshinskii’s The Golden Ring (1929). Revolutionary themes were treated in O. S. Chisko’s opera Prisoner by the Apple Trees (1931) and Femelidi’s Break (1928), based on B. A. Lavrenev’s play. Kozitskii, Liatoshiriskii, V. S. Kosenko, and Borisov wrote instrumental chamber music, and Borisov, F. F. Bogdanov, Liatoshinskii, and Kosenko composed art songs.

In the 1930’s Soviet themes pervaded all the musical genres. The new tonality of heroic lyric songs was best exemplified in Verevka’s “Oh Land, Why Are You So Young?” and “How Green Everything Is” and Kosenko’s “Friendship.” In writing choral works composers frequently turned to Soviet poetry. The range of ideas and images expressed in choral and symphonic music broadened. Various aspects of Soviet life were evoked in Kosenko’s Heroic Overture (1932), K. F. Dan’kevich’s Symphony No. 1 (1937, composed for the 20th anniversary of the October Revolution), and L. S. Gurov’s Symphony No. 1 (1938). Liatoshinskii’s Symphony No. 2 (1936) was a mature work of symphonic dramaturgy. Symphonic poems, a new genre in Ukrainian music, were composed by Borisov, G. I. Maiboroda, Dan’kevich, and V. A. Barabashov. The first concerti, written for various solo instruments, were produced by Revutskii, Kosenko, P. T. Glush-kov, D. L. Klebanov, and G. P. Taranov.

Two of the best operas of the 1930’s were devoted to Soviet themes: Tragic Night by Dan’kevich (1934, based on Bezymen-skii’s narrative poem) and Perekop (1938) by Iu. S. Meitus, V. P. Rybal’chenko, and M. D. Tits. Verikovskii’s The Woman Farm Laborer, based on Shevchenko’s poem, was the first Soviet Ukrainian lyrical psychological opera; it was staged in Irkutsk in 1943. Liatoshinskii’s fine opera Shchors (1938) portrayed revolutionary heroism. The best Soviet Ukrainian operettas of the 1930’s were A. P. Riabov’s Sorochintsy Fair (1936), based on Gogol’s story, and his Wedding in Malinovka (1937), set against the background of the Civil War (1918–20). A. D. Filippenko, Klebanov, and N. F. Kolessa wrote chamber music. A new kind of art song, the ballad, appeared in Soviet Ukrainian music. Ballads were composed by Nadenenko, Liatoshinskii, S. S. Zhdanov, Dan’kevich, M. D. Tits, Meitus, and A. Ia. Shtogarenko.

With the appearance of sound films in the 1930’s, such composers as I. F. Bel’za, A. F. Znosko-Borovskii, Kosenko, Liatoshinskii, and Revutskii turned to writing screen music. When the western Ukraine was united with the Soviet Ukraine in 1939, a number of the region’s composers joined the Composers’ Union of the Ukrainian SSR, among them Liudkevich, V. Barvinskii, E. T. Kozak, Kolessa, A. O. Kos-Anatol’skii, R. A. Simovich, and A. M. Soltys.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) some of the composers, performers, and teachers died on the battlefield defending their homeland. Many musicians worked in frontline brigades and ensembles, and some were evacuated to other Soviet republics. The main theme of Ukrainian music became the Soviet people’s heroic struggle against the aggressors, and the leading genre was the mass song. The solidarity of the peoples of the USSR in the fight against fascism was expressed in vocal-symphonic and choral works, notably Shtogarenko’s cantata-symphony My Ukraine (1943). Chamber music reached a high level in Liatoshinskii’s Ukrainian Quintet for piano (1942) and A. D. Filippen-ko’s Piano Quartet No. 2 (1948), dedicated to S. A. Kovpak. Noteworthy symphonic works of the wartime years were Bori-sov’s Dagestan Suite (1942) and Poem About the Homeland (1943) and M. A. Skorul’skii’s Steppe Poem (1944), dedicated to AmangeFdy Imanov. Operatic achievements included Kozitskii’s For the Homeland (staged 1942 in Ufa) and Meitus’ Turkmen operas Abadan (1943, jointly with A. Kuliev) and Leili and Medzhnun (1946, jointly with D. Ovezov).

After the expulsion of the fascist German invaders, Ukrainian musical life revived and musical institutions resumed their work. The Ukrainian People’s Chorus, founded in 1943 and later named in honor of G. G. Verevka, began giving performances. In the late 1940’s and in the 1950’s Ukrainian composers showed a predilection for patriotic and heroic themes and for operatic and symphonic works. Notable operas of this period include Meitus’ The Young Guard (1947, revised 1950), based on A. A. Fa-deev’s novel, and his Dawn Over the Dvina (1955), G. I. Maibor-oda’s Milana (1957) and Arsenal (1960), Dan’kevich’s Bogdan Khmel’nitskii (1951, revised 1953), and Kos-Anatol’skii’s The Glow (1959). Composers turned to genres that had previously received little attention in the Ukraine. Meitus wrote the lyrical psychological drama Stolen Happiness (based on Franko’s work) in 1958, and V. D. Kireiko composed The Forest Song (based on Lesia Ukrainka’s drama) in 1957.

Major orchestral works included the symphonic poems and suites of Meitus, V. B. Gomoliaka, K. Ia. Dominchen, G. I. Maiboroda, A. G. Svechnikov, Liudkevich, Filippenko, Liatoshin-skii, Taranov, and V. N. Nakhabin. Symphonies were written by Shtogarenko (Symphony No. 1, called Symphonic Tales, 1946), Meitus (Turkmen Symphony, 1946), Taranov (Symphony No. 4, 1957), R. A. Simovich (first to fifth symphonies, 1945–55), N. F. Kolessa (Symphony No. 1, 1950), Klebanov (first, second, and third symphonies, 1945–58), Znosko-Borovskii (Dzhan Turkmenistan, 1960), and G. I. Maiboroda (Symphony No. 2, 1952). Liatoshinskii won renown for his Symphony No. 3 (1951, revised 1955). Nakhabin, Liatoshinskii, and Shtogarenko wrote concerti for various solo instruments. The traditions of Ukrainian large-scale choral compositions were continued in vocal-symphonic works.

A number of fine instrumental chamber works appeared: Tara-nov’s Sextet Pathétique (1945), dedicated to Zoia Kosmodem’-ianskaia, and his Quartet No. 2 (1945); Liatoshinskii’s Quartet No. 4 (1946); I. N. Shamo’s Friendship, a suite for string quartet (1955); S. D. Orfeev’s quartet Liberated Moldavia (1946); Kleba-nov’s piano quintet (1953); Tadeush Maerskii’s piano quintet, dedicated to M. Karlovich (1953); and Shtogarenko’s quartet Armenian Sketches (1960). Taranov was the first Ukrainian composer to write a quintet for woodwind instruments (1959). Civic themes were taken up in the art song. The genre was enriched by lyric-dramatic monologues, hymns, and lyrical, satirical, and humorous art songs, composed by Nadenenko, Verikovskii, Liatoshinskii, Meitus, Kos-Anatol’skii, Klebanov, G. I. Maiboroda, and Shamo. In the 1950’s many composers wrote music for motion pictures and the theater, among them P. I. Maiboroda, Zhukovskii, G. I. Maiboroda, A. I. Bilash, and Filippenko.

The 1960’s and 1970’s were marked by an efflorescence of Ukrainian music in all the creative and performing fields. New musical institutions were organized, including theaters, choral and orchestral groups, instrumental and vocal ensembles, and schools. This period saw a more intensive assimilation and use of folk music (including its most ancient forms) and the classical traditions of world music. Composers sought to revitalize the musical language and to master contemporary means of musical expression. Liatoshinskii’s Symphony No. 4 (1963) and his Symphony No. 5 (Slavic Symphony, 1966) convey a philosophical view of life through musical imagery. Shtogarenko’s Symphony No. 2 (In Memory of a Comrade, 1966) and his Symphony No. 3 (Kiev Symphony, 1972) are lyric-epic works, as is Shamo’s symphony for string orchestra (1964).

Taranov’s compositions are diverse in content and contain many innovations in musical form (such as his treatment of the symphonic cycle) and orchestration. His major works include the Symphony No. 5 (The Mayors of Glupov), based on Saltykov-Shchedrin’s novel History of a City (1964); the Symphony No. 6, dedicated to S. S. Prokofiev (1964); the Symphony No. 7 (Jubilee Symphony), commemorating the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution (1967); the Symphony No. 8 (Shushenskaia), dedicated to V. I. Lenin (1969), and the Symphony No. 9 (1975). Taranov’s symphonic poem Three Monuments (1971), dedicated to the memory of those who died in the Great Patriotic War, is rich in musical forms and orchestration and is innovative in the use of symphonic forms. Two other important works are devoted to this theme: Borisov’s Ode in Memory of the War Dead (1967) and Gomoliaka’s musical monument In the Park of Eternal Glory (1971). Of considerable merit are V. S. Gubarenko’s First (1962) and Second (1965) symphonies and L. N. Kolodub’s two Ukrainian Carpathian Rhapsodies (No. 1, 1960; No. 2, 1974), noteworthy for their vibrant folk quality and orchestral coloration.

Significant works have been written by composers who came to the fore in the 1960’s and 1970’s. They include L. A. Grabovskii’s Four Ukrainian Songs for chorus and symphony orchestra (1959) and his Symphonic Frescoes (1961), M. M. Skorik’s Hutzul Triptych (1965) and Carpathian Concerto for symphony orchestra (1972), Iu. Ia. Ishchenko’s three symphonies (1964–71), Gubarenko’s concerto-poem for cello and orchestra (1963), V. M. Zo-lotukhin’s symphony (1970), and E. F. Stankovich’s Symphony No. 2 (Heroic Symphony, 1974) and his symphony I Am Becoming Convinced (1976). Notable works have also been produced by I. F. Karabits, L. V. Dychko, and V. S. Bibik. Concerti for a large group of instruments and voice have been written by M. M. Zherbin, G. I. Maiboroda, Kos-Anatol’skii, and other composers.

The operas of the 1960’s and 1970’s attest to an abiding interest in revolutionary-historical and patriotic themes and to a strengthening of the lyrical and psychological element. A new genre, the mono-opera, has been created. Outstanding operas include Meitus’ The Ul’ianov Brothers (1967; second version 1970), Iaroslav the Wise (1975), and Richard Sorge (1974), Klebanov’s The Communist (1967), G. I. Maiboroda’s Taras Shevchenko (1964), V. D. Kireiko’s Digging Herbs Early on Sunday (1966), Gubarenko’s The Destruction of the Squadron (1967), The Mamais (1970), and Tenderness (Love Letters, 1972); Zhukovskii’s One Step Toward Love (1970); and M. V. Karminskii’s Ten Days That Shook the World (1910).

Contemporary themes predominate in the operetta, whose leading composers are A. D. Filippenko, la. S. Tsegliar, V. A. Lukashov, and O. A. Sandier. Vocal-symphonic works have drawn portraits of Lenin and have dealt with themes from the October Revolution and the history of the people. A number of fine cantatas have been written, among them Zhukovskii’s October Stories (1957), Miaskov’s Dawn Over Africa (1963), A. D. Filippenko’s On the Rejuvenated Land (1963), Skorik’s Man (1964), Shtogarenko’s In the Paths of October (musical novella, 1967), P. D. Gaidamaka’s Lenin Marches Across the Planet (1970), L. V. Dychko’s Lenin (1970), Red Cranberry Bush (1969), and Four Seasons (1974), and Kireiko’s Thank You, Soviet Soldier (1975). Karabits’ choral concerto Garden of Heavenly Songs (1971) is another major work.

The leading composers of instrumental chamber music are A. D. Filippenko, Orfeev, Dychko, Ishchenko, G. I. Liashenko, Karabits, Stankovich, and A. A. Krasotov. Popular art songs have been written by G. I. Maiboroda, Dan’kevich, Kos-Anatol’skii, Shamo, Nadenenko, Meitus, Klebanov, N. V. Dremliuga, Dychko, Ishchenko, and Bibik. Contemporary songs and choral works possess a strong lyric quality. Prominent song writers include Bilash, Gaidamaka, Dominchen, Zhukovskii, Kos-Anatol’skii, Kovach, E. T. Kozak, P. I. Maiboroda, A. D. Filippenko, and Shamo. Music for the variety stage is being composed by V. A. Filippenko, E. S. Khanok, I. N. Shamo, Iu. I. Shamo, and I. D. Poklad.

Musicological studies are being conducted by the musicology and criticism section of the Composers’ Union of the Ukrainian SSR, by the M. F. Ryl’skii Institute of Art, Folklore, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, by the Kharkov Arts Institute, and by the scholarly and performing departments of conservatories. Folk music is studied by the Ethnographic Commission, founded in 1920 under the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, and at the Center for Musical Ethnography (1921). Eminent musicologists include L. B. Arkhi-movich, T. P. Bulat, N. A. Gerasimova-Persidskaia, N. M. Gor-deichuk, N. A. Goriukhina, V. D. Dovzhenko, L. P. Efremova, M. P. Zagaikevich, I. F. Liashenko, Iu. V. Malyshev, T. V. Shef-fer, and A. Ia. Shreer-Tkachenko. A major contribution to Ukrainian musicology has been made by N. A. Grinchenko and by the composers Kozitskii, Klebanov, Liudkevich, and Tits.

The Ukraine has produced many great singers, among them People’s Artists of the USSR P. S. Bilinnik, Z. M. Gaidai, B. R. Gmyria, D. M. Gnatiuk, M. S. Grishko, P. P. Karmaliuk, M. I. Litvinenko-Vol’gemut, E. S. Miroshnichenko, I. S. Patorzhin-skii, D. I. Petrinenko, B. A. Rudenko, L. A. Rudenko, A. B. Solov’ianenko, E. I. Chavdar, and E. I. Chervoniuk and People’s Artists of the Ukrainian SSR M. I. Donets, M. E. Donets-Tes-seir, N. K. Kondratiuk, O. A. Petrusenko, R. A. Razumova, and Z. P. Khristich. Eminent conductors include People’s Artists of the USSR A. Z. Min’kovskii, N. G. Rakhlin, and K. A. Simeo-nov and People’s Artists of the Ukrainian SSR A. T. Avdievskii, G. G. Verevka, L. N. Venediktov, M. M. Krechko, N. F. Kolessa, P. I. Muravskii, A. N. Soroka, V. S. Tol’ba, and S. V. Tur-chak. Among well-known instrumentalists are the pianists K. N. Mikhailov, M. Krushel’nitskaia, A. O. Lysenko, and V. V. Sech-kin (the last three hold the title of Honored Artist of the Ukrainian SSR), the violinists A. N. Gorokhov, B. A. Kotorovich, and O. M. Parkhomenko (all Honored Artists of the Ukrainian SSR), and the cellists M. K. Chaikovskaia and V. S. Chervov.

The Ukraine has six opera theaters (1976), located in Kiev (founded 1867), L’vov (1939), Odessa (1810), Kharkov (1880), Donetsk (1941), and Dnepropetrovsk (1974). Moreover, opera studios are run by the Kiev, L’vov, and Odessa conservatories and the Kharkov Arts Institute. Among the republic’s largest musical theaters are the Kiev Operetta Theater (1934), the Kharkov Theater of Musical Comedy (1929), and the Odessa Theater of Musical Comedy, founded in L’vov in 1947 and transferred to Odessa in 1954. There are musical drama theaters and philharmonic societies in all of the republic’s oblast centers and major cities.

The republic’s leading orchestral groups are the Symphony Orchestra of the Ukrainian SSR (Kiev, 1937), the Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra (1929), the symphony orchestras of the Odessa, L’vov, Kharkov, Lugansk, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozh’e, Nikolaev (chamber orchestra), and Crimean philharmonic societies, the Kiev Chamber Orchestra (1964), the Kiev Orchestra of Ukrainian Folk Instruments (1970), and the Bandura Orchestra of the Ukrainian SSR (1918). The most famous choral groups are the Dumka Chorus (1920), the Radio and Television Chorus (1934), the Trembita Chorus (1939), the G. G. Verevka Ukrainian People’s Chorus (1943), the Transcarpathian People’s Chorus (1946), the Kiev Chamber Choir (1946), and the Kiev Men’s Choir. Chamber music is performed by the N. V. Lysenko Quartet. Two other important musical organizations are the Ukrkontsert (Ukrainian Concert, 1959) and the Musical Society of the Ukrainian SSR, founded in 1975 out of the Musical Choral Society (1959–74). The Composers’ Union of the Ukrainian SSR has been active since 1932.

Advanced musical training is offered at the conservatories of Kiev (1913), Odessa (1913), and L’vov (1939), at the Kharkov Arts Institute, organized out of a conservatory in 1917, and at the Donetsk Pedagogical Institute of Music (1968). The republic also has 33 music schools, 26 cultural-educational schools, and 939 children’s music and art schools. All the conservatories operate eleven-year music schools. The leading music journal is Muzyka.


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Ukrainian folk dances are ultimately derived from the work-related song-games and rituals of the ancient Eastern Slavs. Among the most ancient dances are the proso (millet dance), gusi (geese dance), perepelka (quail dance), and koza (goat dance). Ukrainian folk dances, especially the round dances, are closely connected with song and are usually accompanied by singing. The several hundred known folk dances and their numerous regional variants are remarkably diverse and rich in their thematic content, composition, choreographic idiom, and melodic and rhythmic base. They reflect various aspects of the people’s life— heroism, optimism, and humor. The dance movements include a great variety of leaps (tynki, golubtsy, iastruby, and raznozhki), turns, prisiadki (kicking out from a squatting position), glides, and steps (vykhiliastiki, verevochki, beguntsy, pleskachiki, dori-zhechki, vibivantsy, andpripadaniia).

Women’s dances are marked by lyricism, a hearty warmth, and a variety of small graceful steps. The spirit of the men’s dances is heroic, manly, and romantically elated. These dances have broad movements and feature numerous leaps, turns, prisiadki, and glides. Simple duple and triple meters prevail: the melodies of the gopak, kazachok, kolomyika, and polka are based on duple meters, and spring round dances, Kupala-Day round dances, and shchedrivki (New Year’s dances) are performed in triple time. The most popular dances are the gopak, kazachok, metelitsa, gor-litsa, arkan, tropotianka, podolianka, pleskach, polzunets, and shevchiki.

Ukrainian folk dances were performed professionally for the first time in 1819 in Poltava as part of the play Natalka Poltavka, staged by I. P. Kotliarevskii, with M. S. Shchepkin playing the leading role. From 1823 folk dances were included in operatic productions. Professional folk dance groups, however, did not exist before the Soviet period. Small groups directed by M. A. Sobol’ and V. N. Verkhovinets gave performances in the 1920’s. The Folk Dance Ensemble of the Ukrainian SSR, organized in 1937 by P. P. Virskii and N. M. Bolotov, has created stage versions of folk dances. The ensemble has done much to collect and preserve the traditions of Ukrainian dance. Folk dances are also performed by dance groups attached to such professional song and dance ensembles as the G. G. Verevka Ukrainian People’s Chorus and the Transcarpathian, Bucovina, and Cherkassy choruses, as well as by numerous amateur folk dance ensembles.

The origins of professional Ukrainian ballet may be traced to the dance interludes that enlivened the school drama of the 17th and 18th centuries. The first professional ballet performances were given in 1780 at the State Theater in Kharkov by a ballet company directed by the St. Petersburg dancer P. I. Ivanitskii. In the 1820’s divertissements and ballets were performed in Kharkov, Kiev, and Odessa by I. F. Shtein’s and L. I. Mlotkovskii’s companies. From the 1840’s Russian and foreign ballet companies often toured the Ukraine. The permanent Russian opera house that opened in Kiev in 1867 did not present ballets until 1893 because of the dearth of professional dancers. Ukrainian stage choreography flourished in the 1890’s in the musical plays and operas staged by M. L. Kropivnitskii in collaboration with the ballet master F. I. Nizhinskii. Among their most successful productions was the opera Catherine by N. N. Arkas. At the First Ukrainian Permanent Theater in Kiev (1906–19), the folklorist Verkhovinets organized several evenings of folk dancing and created dance scenes for N. V. Lysenko’s and K. G. Stetsenko’s operas and operettas.

After the October Revolution of 1917, the ballet company of the Kiev Opera Theater, named in honor of K. Liebknecht in 1919, came under the direction of M. M. Mordkin and M. P. Fro-man. An opera and ballet theater was organized in Kharkov in 1925 out of the Russian Opera, which had been founded in 1920. Under the direction of the choreographer R. I. Balanotti, the theater’s ballet company gave fine performances of Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake. From the outset, the Ukrainian ballet sought to master the Russian classical ballet style. An opera and ballet theater opened in Odessa in 1926. Ballet companies were organized by the choreographer P. K. Iorkin in 1928 and by the choreographers Iu. P. Kovalev and F. I. Pinno in 1929.

Ukrainian ballet companies strove for originality in their staging of contemporary ballets, as exemplified by M. F. Moiseev’s 1927 production of R. M. Glière’s Red Poppy. Working closely with Ukrainian composers, choreographers created two heroic-revolutionary ballets: B. K. Ianovskii’s Ferendzhi, staged in 1930 in Kharkov by P. K. Kretov and N. M. Foregger, and V. A. Fem-elidi’s The Carmagnole, staged in 1930 in Odessa by Moiseev. The next year, the first national heroic ballet, M. I. Verikovskii’s Pan Kanevskii (also called Bondarivna), was staged in Kharkov by the choreographer V. K. Litvinenko. Blending classical and folk dance forms, the ballet laid the foundation for the dance idiom, acting style, and choreographic art of the professional Ukrainian ballet. The same year the choreographer Iorkin staged Pan Kanevskii in Kiev. Both productions stimulated the development of professional folk dancing and the creation of elaborate dance scenes for V. N. Liatoshinskii’s opera The Golden Ring, N. V. Lysenko’s operas Taras Bul’ba and Natalka Poltavka, and S. S. Gulak-Artemovskii’s opera The Zaporozhian Cossack Beyond the Danube.

In 1934, L. A. Zhukov was appointed director of the ballet company of the Kiev Theater of Opera and Ballet. The intensive development of professional Ukrainian folk choreography enabled the theater to stage in 1940 K. F. Dan’kevich’s heroic-romantic ballet Lileia (choreographer G. A. Berezova), based on motifs from T. G. Shevchenko’s work. In 1941 the choreographer Iorkin staged D. L. Klebanov’s contemporary heroic ballet Svetlana in Kharkov. While creating a national repertoire, Ukrainian choreographers and dancers were also mastering the Russian choreographic heritage. The ballet masters of Moscow and Leningrad helped train Ukrainian companies. The first Ukrainian ballerinas, V. S. Dulenko and A. V. Iarygina, studied in Leningrad, and the dancer A. M. Sobol’ received training in Moscow. The classical ballet was firmly established on the Ukrainian stage by the productions of Zhukov (Kiev, 1926 and 1934), V. A. Riabtsev and A. M. Messerer (Kharkov, 1926), K. Ia. Goleizovskii (Kharkov, 1935), and F. V. Lopukhov (Dnepropetrovsk, 1936).

Throughout the 1930’s Ukrainian theaters staged ballets by Soviet composers. B. V. Asaf’ev’s Flames of Paris was staged in Dnepropetrovsk in 1933 and in Kharkov in 1935, and his Fountain of Bakhchisarai was performed in Kiev in 1937, in Kharkov in 1938, and in Odessa, Lugansk, and Dnepropetrovsk in 1939. A. M. Balanchivadze’s Heart of the Hills was presented in Kiev and Kharkov in 1940, and M. E. Kroshner’s The Nightingale was staged in Odessa in 1939. Virskii and Bolotov choreographed V. N. Nakhabin’s comic ballet The Burgher From Tuscany, presented in Dnepropetrovsk in 1935 and in Kiev in 1936. During the Great Patriotic War the opera theaters of Kiev and Kharkov were evacuated to Irkutsk, where they were merged and their ballet companies were placed under the direction of S. N. Sergeev. In 1943, Sergeev staged the Ukrainian comic ballet Devil’s Night by V. Ia. Iorish. The theaters of Odessa and Dnepropetrovsk were evacuated to Krasnoiarsk, where V. I. Vronskii was appointed director of the merged ballet company.

In the immediate postwar years Ukrainian theaters focused on contemporary heroic themes. E. M. Rusinov’s Olesia, a ballet about the partisans, was staged in 1945 in Odessa by the choreographer Vronskii. A new version of Klebanov’s Svetlana was staged in 1946 in Kharkov by the choreographer A. R. Tomskii and in 1948 in L’vov by the choreographer M. D. Zeitlin. Now occupying a permanent place in the repertoire, Dan’kevich’s Lileia was staged in 1945 in Kiev and in 1946 in Kharkov by the choreographer Berezova, in 1946 in Odessa and L’vov by the choreographer Vronskii, and in 1945 in Donetsk by the choreographer A. A. Girman. In these performances the established masters A. I. Vasil’eva, A. B. Ryndina, N. N. Vinogradova, Iarygina, and O. N. Stalinskii were joined by the gifted young dancers N. V. Slobodian, E. N. Ershova, L. P. Gerasimchuk, E. N. Potapova, N, A. Apukhtin, and A. A. Belov. Theaters began staging ballets by composers from the other republics: A. I. Kha-chaturian’s Gaiane, M. I. Chulaki’s Youth, A. Liepins” Laima, V. Grivickas’ On the Seashore, K. A. Karaev’s Seven Beauties, and F. Z. Iarullin’s Shurale.

Working closely with Ukrainian composers, ballet companies created a national repertoire that was based on a synthesis of folk and classical dance and marked by superb acting and choreography. Outstanding national ballets include M. A. Skorul’skii’s Forest Song, based on Lesia Ukrainka’s dramatic poem (1946, Kiev, choreographer Sergeev), A. O. Kos-Anatol’skii’s Dov-bush’s Shawl (1951, L’vov, choreographer N. I. Tregubov), A. G. Svechnikov’s Marusia Boguslavka (1951, Kiev, choreographer Sergeev), Rusinov’s On the Blue Sea (1955, Odessa, choreographers S. A. Pavlov and Z. A. Vasil’eva), V. B. Gomoliaka’s Sorochintsy Fair, based on Gogol’s story (1956, Donetsk, choreographer Tregubov), Kos-Anatol’skii’s The Jay’s Wing, based on Franko’s story (1956, L’vov, choreographer Tregubov), V. D. Kireiko’s Ghosts of Forgotten Ancestors, based on Kotsiubinskii’s novella (1960, L’vov, choreographer T. E. Romanova; second version, 1963, Kiev, choreographer N. M. Skorul’skaia), and V. B. Gomoliaka’s Oksana, based on Shevchenko’s work (1964, Donetsk, choreographer R. A. Kliavin).

A number of ballets featured elaborate dance forms: Skorul’skii’s Forest Song (1958, Kiev, choreographer Vronskii), the trilogy Predawn Fires by Kireiko, L. V. Dychko, and M. M. Skorik (1967, L’vov, choreographers M. S. Zaslavskii and A. F. Shekera), and V. S. Gubarenko’s Stone Master, based on Lesia Ukrainka’s dramatic poem (1970, Kiev, choreographer Shekera). Contemporary themes were developed in Virskii’s production of Gomoliaka’s Black Gold (1960, Kiev), I. K. Kovtunov’s staging of Iu. S. Shchurovskii’s Song About Friendship (1961, Kharkov), Zaslavskii’s production of Kos-Anatol’skii’s Orysia (1964, L’vov), Vronskii’s presentation of B. L. Iarovinskii’s Poem About Marina (1968, Kiev), and Sheker’s staging of Liatoshinskii’s The Return (1975, Kiev).

The leading Ukrainian ballet dancers are People’s Artists of the USSR V. F. Kalinovskaia and E. M. Potapova and People’s Artists of the Ukrainian SSR A. V. Gavrilenko, S. I. Kolyvano-va, A. V. Lagoda, G. N. Isupov, and V. I. Kruglov. They have given brilliant performances in S. S. Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet (Kiev), Karaev’s Path of Thunder (Odessa), and Khachaturian’s Spartacus (L’vov and Kharkov). When the Dnepropetrovsk Theater of Opera and Ballet was opened in 1974, L. N. Voskresen-skaia was appointed director of its ballet troupe. Voskresenskaia has staged fine productions of Swan Lake, The Fountain of Bakhchisarai, and Khachaturian’s Spartacus.

Four-year ballet schools are run by the Kharkov, Odessa, Donetsk, and L’vov theaters of opera and ballet. The Republic School of Choreography was founded in Kiev in 1944 out of the choreography section of a theater technicum. The school’s first artistic director was Berezova; G. N. Kirillova has held the post since 1972. The history of the Ukrainian ballet theater is studied at the theater department of the M. F. Ryl’skii Institute of Art, Folklore, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The journal Muzyka includes articles about the ballet.


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Stanishevs’kyi, Iu. O. Ukrains’kyi radians’kyi baletnyi teatr. Kiev, 1975.


The beginnings of the Ukrainian theater may be found in the art of the skomorokhi (itinerant performers), in the culture of Kievan Rus’, and in the theatrical intermedia of the school theater. In addition to didactic and religious plays, the school theaters of the 17th and 18th centuries staged plays on historical subjects, of which the most popular were Feofan Prokopovich’s tragicomedy Vladimir (1705) and the anonymous God’s Mercy (1728), which was about the Ukrainian people’s struggle against gentry Poland under the leadership of B. Khmel’nitskii. The folk puppet theater (vertep) flourished in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Its comic performances satirized the oppressors, priests, and serf owners.

The staging of I. P. Kotliarevskii’s Natalka Poltavka (1819), whose cast included the great actor M. S. Shchepkin, heralded the birth of a professional Ukrainian theater, a syncretistic theater that assimilated the achievements of Russian stage art. Shchepkin paved the way for the development of a democratic and realistic style of acting, which was continued by K. T. Solenik and I. Kh. Dreisig. In the first half of the 19th century Russo-Ukrainian theater companies frequently performed Kotliarev-skii’s Natalka Poltavka and The Magician Soldier, G. F. Kvitka-Osnov’ianenko’s Shel’menko, the Orderly, Shel’menko, the Clerk of a Small Rural District, and Courtship at Goncharovka, and such Russian plays as N. V. Gogol’s The Inspector-General and The Wedding, D. I. Fonvizin’s The Minor, and A. S. Griboedov’s Woe From Wit. The works of T. G. Shevchenko, as well as guest performances by prominent Russian actors, influenced the development of progressive ideological and aesthetic principles in the Ukrainian theater.

The first Ukrainian theater company was organized in 1882 by M. L. Kropivnitskii. The next year Kropivnitskii and M. P. Star-itskii formed a musical drama group that staged both plays and national operas and operettas. The Ukrainian Theater companies that were founded in the early 1880’s developed various styles of stage directing and created their own repertoires, attesting to the diverse aspirations of Kropivnitskii, Staritskii, N. K. Sadovskii, and P. K. Saksaganskii. The plays of Kropivnitskii, Staritskii, I. K. Karpenko-Karyi, and P. Mirnyi inveighed against social inequality, the oppression and disfranchisement of the peasantry, and the cruelty of the rural bourgeoisie, and they extolled the spiritual depth and wisdom of the working people. In the productions of these plays brilliant performances were given by M. K. Zan’kovetskaia, A. I. Borisoglebskaia, L. P. Linitskaia, A. P. Zatyrkevich-Karpinskaia, E. F. Zarnitskaia, I. A. Mar’ianenko, F. V. Levitskii, Kropivnitskii, Sadovskii, Saksaganskii, and Karpenko-Karyi.

Although the reactionary policies of Russian tsarism hindered the development of a national theater and repertoire, Ukrainian theater art was enthusiastically supported by progressive Russian cultural figures, who maintained creative ties with Ukrainian actors and stage directors. Ukrainian companies toured Ukrainian and Russian cities and gave highly acclaimed performances in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, and Paris.

In the western Ukrainian lands, which had been annexed by Austria-Hungary, a Ukrainian professional theater called Rus’ka Besida was founded in 1864. Its company included the gifted actors T. O. Bachinskaia, I. D. Stadnik, E. A. Rubchakova, and I. D. Rubchak. Through the work of I. Ia. Franko, Zan’kovetskaia, and Sadovskii (who headed the Rus’ka Besida in 1905–06), the principles of narodnost’ (close ties with the people) and realism were firmly established at the theater. In 1891 the Russian stage director and impresario N. N. Solovtsov founded the Association of Dramatic Actors in Kiev. From 1910 the stage director N. N. Sinel’nikov headed a private theatrical concern in Kharkov and also worked in Kiev.

In 1906, Sadovskii founded the First Ukrainian Permanent Theater, which performed in the People’s House in Kiev. The theater upheld the realistic traditions of Kropivnitskii and Staritskii and assimilated the achievements of the Russian stage. Having brought together a company of talented actors headed by Zan’kovetskaia, Sadovskii proceeded to broaden the theater’s repertoire. In addition to staging such Ukrainian plays as Kar-penko-Karyi’s Vanity, Franko’s Stolen Happiness, and Lesia Ukrainka’s Stone Master, he presented Russian plays, among them A. N. Ostrovskii’s A Profitable Post and Gogol’s The Inspector-General, and operas by N. V. Lysenko, S. S. Gulak-Artemovskii, S. Moniuszko, B. Smetana, and P. Mascagni. Sa-dovskii’s troupe included I. A. Mar’ianenko, Borisoglebskaia, Linitskaia, V. S. Vasil’ko, and L. S. Kurbas, all highly gifted performers who established some of the finest traditions of the Ukrainian theater.

The Great October Socialist Revolution opened up new avenues for the development of the republic’s theater art and stimulated the intensive growth of a national theater. Drama groups sponsored by the People’s Commissariat for Education gave free performances before audiences of workers and Red Army soldiers, sought to create a repertoire that was more accessible to the broad masses, and organized amateur drama groups in Red Army units, at the front during the Civil War, and in workers’ clubs. They staged mass agitational performances, conducted large-scale artistic political work in special propaganda trains, and enlivened revolutionary celebrations with theatrical performances in public squares. Traveling workers’ and peasants’ theaters were founded, and the new theatrical groups that had been engendered by the revolution broadened their activity. Highly innovative staging enhanced the revolutionary and heroic spirit of Lope de Vega’s Fuente Ovejuna (1919, Kiev, directed by K. A. Mardzhanov) and Shevchenko’s Haidamaks (1920, Kiev, directed by Kurbas).

One of the first major theaters to be established after the Revolution was the Franko New Democratic Theater, founded in January 1920 in Vinnitsa and in 1926 moved to Kiev, where it was renamed the I. Ia. Franko Ukrainian Dramatic Theater. The Shevchenko First Theater of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, formed in March 1919 in Kiev, was moved to Dnepropetrovsk in 1927. The Berezil’ Theater, founded in March 1922 in Kiev and placed under the direction of Kurbas, was transferred to Kharkov in 1926 and renamed the T. G. Shevchenko Ukrainian Theater in 1935. The M. K. Zan’kovetskaia Kiev Ukrainian People’s Theater opened in September 1922; in 1944 it was moved to L’vov, where it was renamed the M. K. Zan’kovetskaia Ukrainian Theater. Founded in 1925, the Odessa Ukrainian State Drama was renamed the October Revolution Ukrainian Theater in 1946. A large number of young people’s theaters were established after 1924.

Drawing on the achievements of Russian and Soviet stage art, Ukrainian theaters staged some of the best Soviet plays produced in other republics. In the middle of the 1920’s theaters throughout the Ukraine performed works by A. V. Lunacharskii, B. S. Romashov, L. N. Seifuliina, K. A. Trenev, Vs. Ivanov, and B. A. Lavrenev. In their quest for new theatrical forms they staged impressive productions of plays by the founders of Soviet Ukrainian dramaturgy—I. A. Kocherga, A. V. Golovko, Ia. A. Mamontov, E. M. Krotevich, D. I. Bedzik, M. Irchan, M. G. Kulish, I. D. Dneprovskii, and I. K. Mikitenko. In the course of a sharp struggle against formalism and bourgeois nationalism, the socialist realist method triumphed in the Ukrainian theater, the principles of ideinost’ (ideological commitment), partiinost’ (party spirit), and narodnost’ (close ties with the people) were firmly established in directing and acting, and a contemporary repertoire was successfully introduced.

A number of distinguished stage directors emerged in the 1920’s and 1930’s: G. P. Iura, Kurbas, Vasil’ko, K. P. Koshev-skii, B. F. Tiagno, L. F. Dubovik, V. M. Skliarenko, and M. M. Krushel’nitskii. Among the most stylistically original of the younger actors were Mar’ianenko, A. M. Buchma, Iu. V. Shum-skii, D. E. Miliutenko, D. I. Antonovich, Iura, V. S. Iaremenko, N. M. Uzhvii, A. I. Serdiuk, V. N. Dobrovol’skii, L. M. Gakke-bush, D. I. Kozachkovskii, and V. N. Chistiakova. The stage designers A. G. Petritskii, A. A. Khvostenko-Khvostov, M. I. Drak, and V. G. Meller made a valuable contribution to the development of the Ukrainian theater. Realism in directing and acting was strengthened by the mastery of K. S. Stanislavskii’s system and the artistic experience of the Moscow Art Theater. The realistic style was also promoted by such actors of the older generation as Saksaganskii, Zan’kovetskaia, Borisoglebskaia, and I. E. Zamychkovskii. Russian theaters, primarily the Lesia Ukrainka Kiev Theater (founded 1926) and the A. S. Pushkin Kharkov Theater (1933), played a major role in the development of dramatic art in the Ukraine.

Ideologically and artistically mature productions of Soviet plays were staged from the 1920’s to the early 1940’s. The Franko Theater gave fine performances of Kulish’s The 97 (1924), Luna-charskii’s The Instigators (1924), Romashov’s The Meringue (1925), The Uprising, based on Furmanov’s novel (1928), and Mikitenko’s Dictatorship (1929), The Flute Solo (1935), and Days of Youth (1936). The Berezil’ Theater staged Dneprovskii’s Apple Tree Captivity (1927), Vs. Ivanov’s Armored Train 14–69 (1928), Pervomaiskii’s Unknown Soldiers (1931), and Dadiani’s Tetnul’d (1932). Among the most successful productions of the Zan’kovetskaia Theater were Kocherga’s The Fairy of the Bitter Almond (1926), Pogodin’s My Friend (1934) and The Aristocrats (1936), and Trenev’s Liubov’ Iarovaia (1936). The Shvechenko Dnepropetrovsk Theater gave memorable performances of Ma-montov’s When the People Free Themselves (1929), Trenev’s Liubov’ Iarovaia (1927), Slavin’s The Intervention (1933), and Vishnevskii’s Optimistic Tragedy (1934).

In their fine productions of national and world classics, Ukrainian theaters continued to develop the realistic traditions in directing and acting. The Franko Theater staged Beaumarchais’s The Marriage of Figaro (1920), Schiller’s Don Carlos (1936), Gorky’s The Last Ones (1937), Pushkin’s Boris Godunov (1937), Ostrovskii’s The Ultimate Sacrifice (1939), and L. N. Tolstoy’s The Living Corpse (1940). In the theater’s innovative staging of Fran-ko’s drama Stolen Happiness (1940) brilliant performances were given by Buchma, Uzhvii, and Dobrovol’skii. The repertoire of the Shevchenko Kharkov Theater included Gorky’s Vassa Zheleznova (1936), Kropivnitskii’s Giving the Heart Freedom Leads to Enslavement (1936), Ostrovskii’s The Thunderstorm (1938) and The Forest (1940), and Staritskii’s Luck (1941). The Russian Theater in Kharkov presented a dramatization of L. N. Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina (1938).

Korneichuk’s plays The Destruction of the Squadron (1933), Platon Krechet (1934), The Truth (1937), Bogdan Khmel’nitskii (1939), and On the Steppes of the Ukraine (1940) were of great importance for the development of the Ukrainian theater, strengthening its ties with the dramatic art of the fraternal peoples of the USSR. The plays were performed throughout the Ukraine, as well as in Moscow and Leningrad and in many theaters of the other Union republics.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), Ukrainian actors and directors joined the national struggle against the invaders and performed at the various fronts and in hospitals. The evacuated theater companies staged rousing plays about the heroic struggle of the Soviet people, including Korneichuk’s The Front.

Returning to the Ukraine after the war, Ukrainian theaters performed plays portraying the heroism of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War, the selfless labor of workers and kolkhoz members and the miners of the Donbas, and the struggle for peace. A. A. Fadeev’s The Young Guard (1947), Korneichuk’s Makar Dubrava (1948) and The Snowball Grove (1950), and la. V. Bash’s Professor Buiko (1949) were staged at the Franko Theater. L. D. Dmiterko’s General Vatutin (1947) and V. N. Sobko’s Behind the Second Front (1949) and Life Begins Anew (1950) were presented at the Shevchenko Kharkov Theater. La-vrenev’s To Those in the Sea! (1947), A. F. Khizniak’s Toward the Great Land (1949), and Ia. A. Galan’s Under the Golden Eagle (1951) were performed at the Zan’kovetskaia Theater.

The postwar repertoire included grand heroic productions on revolutionary-historical and historical subjects. Among the most successful plays of this type were Sukhodol’skii’s The Arsenal (1946, Franko Theater), Kocherga’s Iaroslav the Wise (1946, Shevchenko Kharkov Theater), and Dmiterko’s Together Forever (1950, Shevchenko Dnepropetrovsk Theater). Concurrently, Ukrainian theaters gave splendid performances of classic plays. The Franko Theater staged Chekhov’s The Cherry Orchard (1946), Ostrovskii’s Guilty Though Guiltless, and Kar-penko-Karyi’s The Sea of Life (1948) and Martyn Borulia (1950). The Shevchenko Kharkov Theater presented Shevchenko’s Nazar Stodolia (1953) and Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1956), and the O. Kobylianskaia Chernovtsy Theater staged Land, based on Kobylianskaia’s novel (1947). The Zan’kovetskaia Theater staged Gorky’s Smug Citizens (1950), Lesia Ukrainka’s Forest Song (1952), and Franko’s Prince Sviatoslav’s Dream (1954). The actors and directors who worked in the republic’s Russian theaters also made an important contribution to dramatic art. The title of People’s Artist of the USSR was conferred on M. F. Romanov, A. G. Kramov, K. P. Khokhlov, A. P. Voronovich, and Iu. S. Lavrov.

As it strengthened its ties with the theatrical cultures of the other Soviet peoples, the Ukrainian theater enriched its means of expression, evolved new theatrical forms and imagery, and broadened its repertoire. These achievements were reflected in the Franko Theater’s outstanding productions of Iu. I. Ianov-skii’s Song About Britanka (1957), Kocherga’s Svichka’s Marriage (1960), A. F. Kolomiets’ The Pharaohs (1961), and Vs. Vishnevskii’s Optimistic Tragedy (1961). The Shevchenko Kharkov Theater won acclaim for its productions of Korneichuk’s Why the Stars Smiled (1957), M. A. Stel’makh’s Blood Is Thicker Than Water (1959), and N. Ia. Zarudnyi’s Antei (1961). The Zan’kovetskaia Theater gave memorable performances of A. S. Levada’s Faust and Death (1960), Galan’s Under the Golden Eagle (1962), and Korneichuk’s My Friends (1967). Other noteworthy achievements were the Franko Ivano-Frankovsk Theater’s dramatization of V. Stefanik’s My Land (1971) and the Kharkov Russian Theater’s production of Iu. Shcherbak’s The Discovery (1975).

Most of the Ukraine’s roughly 30 dramatic theaters are called musical drama theaters. Above all, these theaters seek to carry on the traditions of the Ukrainian classical theater, essentially syncretistic in nature. Their remarkably diverse repertoire includes Soviet plays, Russian, Ukrainian, and foreign classics, operettas, and musicals. Faithful to the traditions of the national performing art, the members of the musical drama companies are equally proficient in acting, singing, and rhythmic movement. Among the most talented and original stage directors are People’s Artists of the Ukrainian SSR F. G. Vereshchagin, Ia. T. Gelias, and N. P. Ravitskii and Honored Art Workers of the Ukrainian SSR A. S. Barsegian, B. V. Meshkis, and B. M. Prokopovich.

During the 1960’s and 1970’s the musical drama theaters staged fine productions of Bokarev’s The Steelworkers and Kolomiets’ The Blue Deer (both at the Shchors Zaporozh’e Theater), Brecht’s The Caucasian Chalk Circle (Sadovskii Vinnitsa Theater), Stel’makh’s Song About Love (Kobylianskaia Chernovtsy Theater), Unforgettable, based on A. P. Dovzhenko’s work (Shevchenko Ternopol’ Theater), M. A. Sholokhov’s The Quiet Don (Shchepkin Sumy Theater), and Popov’s The Family (Gogol Poltava Theater).

The achievements of the dramatic theaters in the 1960’s and 1970’s culminated in the ideologically and artistically outstanding productions of The Standard-bearers, based on Gonchar’s trilogy, Lesia Ukrainka’s The Stone Master (both at the Zan’kovetskaia Theater), Zarudnyi’s Time of Yellow Leaves and Such a Long, Long Summer (Franko Theater), Karim’s On the Night of the Lunar Eclipse (Franko Theater), Simonov’s The Russian People, and Valeev’s / Give You the Gift of Life (both at the Shevchenko Kharkov Theater). The innovative productions of Kocherga’s laroslav the Wise by the Shchors Zaporozh’e Theater and of Korneichuk’s The Heart’s Remembrance by the Franko Theater have heightened the international content of the Soviet Ukrainian theater.

The modern Ukrainian theater owes much of its success to the joint efforts of artists of different generations. Gifted young performers are working alongside such distinguished veterans as People’s Artists of the USSR Uzhvii, B. V. Romanitskii, A. I. Serdiuk, V. M. Dal’skii, V. N. Dobrovol’skii, P. V. Kumanchen-ko, E. P. Ponomarenko, O. Ia. Kusenko, N. P. Dotsenko, A. E. Gashinskii, and L. S. Tarabarinov.

Actors and directors are trained at the Karpenko-Karyi Kiev Institute of Theater Art, founded in 1918 and called the Lysenko Musical Drama Institute until 1934, and at the Kotliarevskii Kharkov Arts Institute, established in 1923 and called the Kharkov Theater Institute until 1963. Research on the history and theory of the Ukrainian theater is conducted at the theater department (founded 1947) of the M. F. Ryl’skii Institute of Art, Folklore, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The leading theoreticians and historians of the theater are Iu. N. Boboshko, N. K. Iosipenko, Iu. G. Kostiuk, R. Ia. Pilipchuk, and Iu. A. Stanishevskii. The Ukrainian Theater Society was organized in 1945. The scholarly yearbook Teatral’naia kul’tura has appeared since 1966.


Ukrains’kyi dramatychnyi teatr, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1959–67.
Shliakhy i problemy rozvytku ukrains’koho radians’koho teatru. Kiev, 1970.
Istoriia sovetskogo dramaticheskogo teatra, vols. 1–6. Moscow, 1966–71.


Circus. Originating in the Kievan Rus’ period, the Ukrainian circus absorbed elements common to the public performances of the Eastern Slavs. The frescoes of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev (1967) depict boxers, musicians, and tightrope walkers with poles performing in an amphitheater; they also show contests on horseback and fights with wild animals. From the skomorokhi (itinerant performers) the Ukrainian circus inherited such forms of entertainment as wrestling, musical clowning, tumbling, and trained animal acts. The development of democratic circus art was influenced by balagán shows (seeBALAGAN), a stock feature of public festivities. In the 17th and 18th centuries a mixed type of performance developed known as the theater-balagan; moreover, some intermedia of the Ukrainian school theater included circus performances.

Permanent circus buildings were erected in Kiev in the late 1880’s. Among famous prerevolutionary circus performers who began their careers in the Ukraine were the wrestler I. M. Pod-dubnyi and the clown V. E. Lazarenko. The Ukrainian circus developed rapidly in the Soviet period. The famous theater directors G. P. Iura, B. A. Balaban, M. M. Krushel’nitskii, and V. M. Skliarenko and the composers P. I. Maiboroda, A. Ia. Shtogar-enko, and V. N. Vermenich took part in staging circus programs.

The first thematic productions were created in the 1930’s. They included the water pantomine The Rebel Karmeliuk (1930) and the pantomimes The Makhno Movement (1930), The Year 1905 (1930), and Be Ready (1932). The Ukrainian Circus Group, founded in Kharkov in 1956, made its debut with the program Birthday, performed later that year at the Kiev Circus. In 1960 the Kharkov group prepared the show Greetings, Moscow! for the ten-day festival of Ukrainian literature and art in Moscow.

Since 1960 the Ukrainian circus has staged numerous artistic productions, including such numbers and attractions as E. E. Kio’s illusions; The Trained Chimpanzees, directed by V. Ivanov and V. Ivanov; the acrobatic act Cheremosh, directed by V. Maksimov; and the pantomine The Feat.

The Ukrainian circus produced such outstanding performers as the clown and animal trainer M. M. Zoilo and P. N. Maiatskii’s motorcycle racers. Today, the leading circus performers are Mik-itiuk’s antipodists, Filippenko’s jugglers, the rider and animal trainer B. P. Manzhelli, the Ialov strength acrobats, and the tightrope dancer E. G. Kosiachenko.

In 1975 there were 11 permanent circuses in the Ukraine, in addition to the Circus on the Stage. A school of estrada (variety stage) and circus art was founded in Kiev in 1956.


The first films to be made in the Ukraine were shown in 1896. The Ukrainian film scholars G. V. Zhurov, I. S. Kornienko, and A. A. Shimon have established that as early as 1893 an engineer at the University of Odessa named I. Timchenko had designed apparatus capable of taking and projecting motion pictures. Timchenko was assisted by Professor M. Liubimov. After improving the existing motion-picture apparatus the Kharkov photographer A. K. Fedetskii made and showed newsreels from 1896 to 1902. One of the pioneers in the development of motion picture equipment was the engineer D. Sakhnenko, who later became a cameraman. From 1911 to 1914, Sakhnenko collaborated with the well-known Ukrainian theater actor and director N. K. Sadovskii in filming theater productions, including I. P. Kotliarevskii’s Natalka Poltavka, whose cast included M. K. Zan’kovetskaia and I. A. Mar’ianenko. Between 1917 and 1919 private film studios in Yalta and Odessa, notably those owned by A. A. Khanzhonkov and Drapkov, produced The Devil’s Scherzo, To Heaven’s Ball, and other films.

The Great October Socialist Revolution inaugurated Soviet Ukrainian cinematography. On Aug. 27, 1919, the motion-picture industry was nationalized by a decree of the Council of People’s Commissars; most of the studios were placed under the jurisdiction of public education agencies. The All-Ukrainian Motion-picture Committee, formed on Jan. 27, 1919, under the People’s Commissariat of Education of the Ukrainian SSR, was transformed in 1922 into the All-Ukrainian Photography and Motion-picture Department. A relatively large number of news-reels and agitation films were made, chiefly for propaganda purposes. Between 1919 and 1921 more than 30 propaganda feature films were released, including Everything for the Front, Peace for the Huts, War on the Palaces, Before and Now, Keep in Revolutionary Step, The Fraternal Alliance of City and Countryside, Red Guards Soldier, Who Is Your Enemy?, Two Worlds, We Shall Win, Under the Red Star, and This Is the Final and Decisive Battle. The political organs of the Red Army played a major role in film-making by helping produce newsreels and such topical documentary films as The Capture of Odessa by Red Troops. The first educational films were made at this time, among them agricultural and public health films. From the outset, state film agencies produced feature films.

The Odessa and Yalta motion-picture factories were reorganized. A large motion-picture factory was built in Kiev in the mid-1920’s; it opened in 1928 and was subsequently named the A. P. Dovzhenko Film Studio. Artists from related fields were attracted to film-making, among them the graphic artist A. P. Dovzhenko, the painter F. G. Krichevskii, the sculptor I. P. Kavaler-idze, the stage directors L. S. Kurbas and M. I. Tereshchenko, the writers M. Bazhan and Iu. I. Ianovskii, and the stage actors A. M. Buchma, N. M. Uzhvii, N. Z. Nademskii, and D. L. Kap-ka. Ukrainian film-makers were given considerable assistance by members of the Moscow and Leningrad studios and by prerevolutionary and Soviet film directors, notably V. R. Gardin, P. I. Chardynin, and A. D. Anoshchenko.

One of the first Ukrainian feature films was the History of May Day (1922), which sought to evoke the revolutionary past and to portray K. Marx. Another noteworthy early film was a screen adaptation of Chekhov’s story The Safety Match (1922, directed by Kurbas). It was not easy to revitalize cinematography: the influence of hacks and timeservers could be overcome only through the accumulation of creative experience. A number of films made in the 1920’s tried to convey current themes and the new ideological perspective on history, but they employed outworn and imitative forms. Among these films were A Spectre Is Haunting Europe (1923), The Locksmith and the Chancellor, Ataman Khmel’, and Ostap Bandura, all made in 1924 by Gardin; The Forest Beast (1925), directed by A. F. Lundin; Ukraziia (1925), directed by Chardynin; and The Tripol’e Tragedy (1926), directed by Anoshchenko.

The psychological changes wrought in people by the revolutionary events are truthfully and sensitively revealed in the films Two Days (1927, directed by G. M. Stabovoi and starring I. E. Zamychkovskii) and The Night Coachman (1929, directed by G. N. Tasin, with Buchma in the title role). The two films attest to the high aspirations of Ukrainian film-makers in the 1920’s. The decade ended with the appearance of three magnificent films directed by Dovzhenko, whose fusion of poetic imagery with revolutionary civic feeling became the hallmark of Soviet films. The three films are Zvenigora (1928), Arsenal (1929), and the world famous Earth (1930), which was judged to be one of the 12 best films of all time at the World’s Fair in Brussels in 1958. Dovzhen-ko’s works, like those of S. M. Eisenstein and V. I. Pudovkin, are generally considered as classics of Soviet and world cinematography.

Socialist realism, with its diversity of styles and themes, was firmly established in Ukrainian cinematography in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Among noteworthy films of this period are A. V. Kordi-um’s Mirabeau (1930) and The Last Port (1934), I. P. Kavaleri-dze’s The Downpour (1929), Koliivshchina (1933), about the Ukrainian uprising of 1768, and Prometheus (1935), Dz. Vertov’s Donbass Symphony (1930), L. D. Lukov’s A Great Life (part 1, 1940), I. A. Savchenko’s The Horsemen (1939) and Bogdan Khmel’nitskii (1940), and I. A. Pyr’ev’s musical comedies The Rich Bride (1938) and The Tractor Drivers (1939). Film-makers from the other republics contributed to the development of Ukrainian cinematography. Dovzhenko’s films Ivan (1932) and Shchors (1939) continued the heroic-romantic style.

Ukrainian films owed much of their success to the fine work of the cameramen D. P. Demutskii, Iu. I. Ekel’chik, V. G. Voiten-ko, A. A. Pankrat’ev, N. P. Topchii, M. K. Chernyi, A. A. Mishurin, and N. L. Kul’chitskii and the set designers M. B. Umanskii, S. M. Zaritskii, and V. I. Agranov.

The Great Patriotic War did not put a stop to the work of Ukrainian film-makers, even though the studios were evacuated far to the rear and some of their actors, directors, and technicians went to the front. The most famous films of the war years were the documentaries The Battle for Our Soviet Ukraine (1943) and Victory in the Right-bank Ukraine (1945), produced by Dovzhenko and Iu. I. Solntseva and the feature films Two Soldiers(1942, directed by Lukov), The Partisans in the Steppes of the Ukraine (1943, directed by Savchenko), and The Unvanquished (1945, directed by M. S. Donskoi).

After the war Ukrainian cinematography quickly recovered from the losses it had suffered, and destroyed studios were rebuilt. The most significant films of the 1940’s and 1950’s were B. V. Barnet’s Exploits of the Reconnaissance Soldier (1947) and Savchenko’s The Third Blow (also known as Southern Junction, 1948) and Taras Shevchenko (1951). Many films of the 1950’s and 1960’s were screen adaptations of literary works, chiefly Ukrainian classics. Outstanding films were made of I. Ia. Franko’s Stolen Happiness, M. M. Kotsiubinskii’s Bloody Dawn, At a High Price, and The Horses Are Not to Blame, M. P. Staritskii’s Chasing Two Hares, and M. Gorky’s The Mother and The Mallow. Screen adaptations were also made of such Soviet works as A. A. Korneichuk’s The Destruction of the Squadron. T. V. Levchuk’s trilogy The Woman From Kiev (parts 1 and 2, 1958 and 1959; part 3, The Heirs, 1960) portrays the history of a worker’s family at the legendary Arsenal Plant.

A considerable number of talented young directors and performers joined the Ukrainian film studios in the late 1950’s. Since then heroic adventure films, comedies, and historical-revolutionary films have been released. There has been an emphasis on contemporary themes. Notable achievements include Spring on Za-rechnaia Street (1956, directed by F. M. Mironer and M. M. Khutsiev); V. I: Ivchenko’s Extraordinary Happening (1959), Ivanna (1960), and The Viper (1966); and E. I. Tashkova’s Thirst (1960) and Come Tomorrow (1963). Other fine films include Among Kind People (1962, directed by A. S. Bukovskii and E. V. Briunchugin), Weeds (1966, directed by Bukovskii), Three Days After Immortality (1963, directed by V. Z. Dovgan’), V. T. Denisenko’s The Dream (1964) and Story of a Woman (1973), Our Honest Bread (1965, directed by A. I. Muratov and K. G. Muratov), Keys to Heaven (1965, directed by V. M. Ivanov), and Loyalty (1965, directed by P. E. Todorovskii). In the latter half of the 1960’s Ukrainian film studios released Attention Citizens and Organizations (1966, directed by A. I. Voitetskii), They Were Known Only by Sight (1967, directed by A. G. Timonish-in), The Commissars (1969, directed by N. P. Mashchenko), and Annychka (1969, directed by B. Ivchenko).

Among the best feature films of the 1970’s are White Bird With a Black Mark (1970, directed by Iu. G. Il’enko), Zakhar Berkut (1971, directed by L. M. Osyka), Your Address (1972, directed by E. M. Khriniuk), For Your Fate (1972, directed by T. A. Zo-loev), Only Old Men Go Into Battle (1974, directed by L. F. By-kov), To the Last Minute (1974, directed by V. T. Isakov), and Levchuk’s trilogy Song About Kovpak (1973,1975,1976).

Outstanding documentaries of the 1960’s and 1970’s include Men at the Wheel (1965, directed by I. Grabovskii), Five Songs About Communists (1975, directed by A. A. Slesarenko), Road to the Tunnel (1975, directed by A. I. Koval’ and M. N. Mame-dov), and Fires of the Dnieper Region (1967, directed by V. G. Shkurin). The Kiev Studio of Popular-Science Films has made such fine educational films as The Language of Animals (1967) and Do Animals Think? (1970), both directed by F. M. Sobolev. Animated cartoons are also produced.

Ukrainian studios have collaborated with film-makers from other countries and Soviet republics. The films We Have Checked, There Are No Mines (1965), Despite Everything (1973), and The Wedding (1975) were made jointly with Yugoslav filmmakers. Several television films have been made, including the highly popular serial How the Steel Was Tempered (1973), based on N. A. Ostrovskii’s novel and directed by N. P. Mashchenko. The newsreel Soviet Ukraine is issued periodically. All-Union film festivals are held in Ukrainian cities. An international film festival devoted to sea themes was held in Odessa in 1973.

A motion-picture institute was founded in Kiev in the early 1930’s. The film department of the Karpenko-Karyi Institute of Theater Art trains film directors, actors, cameramen, and motion-picture and television specialists. Scholarly work in cinematography is conducted at the film department of the M. F. Ryl’-skii Institute of Art, Folklore, and Ethnography. The leading specialists in the study of film art are A. E. Zhukova, G. V. Zhu-rov, I. S. Kornienko, V. A. Kudin, and N. M. Kapel’gorodskaia. The Cinematographers’ Union of the Ukraine was founded in 1957. There were about 28,000 motion-picture projection units in the Ukraine in 1976. Questions relating to cinematography are elucidated in the monthly Novyny kinoekranu and the weekly bulletin Na ekranakh Ukrainy.


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