Union Republics

Union Republics

 

The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) occupies the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. It borders Norway and Finland in the northwest, Poland in the west, and China, the Mongolian People’s Republic, and the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea in the southeast. It also borders on the Arctic Ocean in the north (Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea), the Pacific Ocean in the east (Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan), and the Atlantic Ocean (the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Sea of Azov) and the Caspian Sea in the west and southwest.

The RSFSR ranks first among the Union republics of the USSR in area, population, and the number of nationalities. It covers an area of 17,075,400 sq km and has a population of 139,165,000 (Jan. 1, 1980). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 113,522,000 Russians, 5,011,000 Tatars, 3,658,000 Ukrainians, 1,690,000 Chuvash, 1,402,000 peoples of Dagestan, 1,291,000 Bashkirs, 1,111,000 Mordovians, 1,052,000 Byelorussians, 791,000 Germans, 712,000 Chechen, 701,000 Jews, 686,000 Udmurts, 600,000 Mari, and 518,000 Kazakhs. The average population density is 8.2 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981).

The capital of the RSFSR is the city of Moscow, with a population of 8,203,000 (Jan. 1, 1981; this figure includes the urban-type settlements under the jurisdiction of the city soviet). The percentage of urban population has risen considerably over the years, from 17 percent in 1913 to 71 percent in 1981. As of Jan. 1, 1981, cities with a population exceeding 1 million include Leningrad (4,676,000, including the urban-type settlements under the jurisdiction of the city soviet), Gorky (1,367,000), Novosibirsk (1,343,000), Sverdlovsk (1,239,000), Kuibyshev (1,238,000), Cheliabinsk (1,055,000), Omsk (1,044,000), Perm’ (1,018,000), Kazan (1,011,000), and Ufa (1,009,000). Cities with a population of more than 500,000 include Rostov-on-Don (957,000), Volgograd (948,000), Saratov (873,000), Krasnoiarsk (820,000), Voronezh (809,000), Yaroslavl (608,000), Krasnodar (581,000), Izhevsk (574,000), Irkutsk (568,000), Vladivostok (565,000), Novokuznetsk (551,000), Barnaul (549,000), Khabarovsk (545,000), Tol’iatti (533,000), Tula (521,000) and Penza (500,000). As of Jan. 1, 1981, the fastest growing new cities include Naberezhnye Chelny (346,000), Angarsk (245,000), Bratsk (222,000), Volzhskii (220,000), Nizhnekamsk (143,000), Salavat (142,000), Nakhodka (139,000), and Novokuibyshevsk (110,000).

The RSFSR includes (according to the 1978 Constitution of the RSFSR) 16 autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, six krais, 49 oblasts, and ten autonomous okrugs (formerly national okrugs). The autonomous republics are the Bashkir ASSR, Buriat ASSR, Chechen-Ingush ASSR, Chuvash ASSR, Dagestan ASSR, Kabarda-Balkar ASSR, Kalmyk ASSR, Karelian ASSR, Komi ASSR, Mari ASSR, Mordovian ASSR, Severnaia Osetiia ASSR, Tatar ASSR, Tuva ASSR, Udmurt ASSR, and Yakut ASSR. The autonomous oblasts are the Adygei AO, Gorno-Altai AO, Jewish AO, Karachai-Cherkess AO, and Khakass AO. The RSFSR is divided into ten large economic regions: Northwestern, Central, Volga-Viatka, Central Chernozem, Volga, Northern Caucasus, Ural, Western Siberian, Eastern Siberian, and Far Eastern. It has 1,813 raions, 1,014 cities, and 2,077 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The RSFSR is characterized by a great diversity of natural conditions. The western half of the republic is dominated by vast plains—the East European Plain and the Western Siberian Lowland—separated by the Ural Mountains. The eastern part is occupied by plateaus, including the Central (Middle) Siberian Plateau, and the mountainous regions of Southern and Northeastern Siberia and the Far East. The mountain ranges of the Greater Caucasus, with Mount El’brus (5,642 m), extend into the southern part of the European RSFSR.

The principal mineral resources are coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, manganese ore, ores of nonferrous and rare metals, potassium salts, common salt, apatites, phosphorites, and diamonds.

The RSFSR spans several climatic belts—from the arctic belt to the subtropical belt. The average temperature in January is below freezing throughout most of the republic, ranging from – 1°C to – 50°C; the only exception is the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Summer temperatures vary sharply from north to south; the average temperature in July ranges from 1° to 25°C. The annual precipitation varies between 150 and 1,000 mm. The Severnaia Dvina, Pechora, Ob’, Enisei, Lena, Indigirka, and Kolyma rivers, among others, empty into the Arctic Ocean; the Amur, Anadyr’, and the rivers of Kamchatka empty into the Pacific Ocean; and the Neva, Don, and Kuban’ empty into the Atlantic Ocean. The basin of the Caspian Sea includes the Volga and Ural rivers and the rivers of Dagestan. There are more than 200,000 lakes, the largest of which are the Caspain Sea, Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, and Lake Taimyr. There are also a number of large man-made reservoirs, including the Rybinsk, Kuibyshev, Volgograd, Kama, Tsimliansk, Novosibirsk, Bratsk, and Krasnoiarsk reservoirs.

The soil and flora zones of the RSFSR are, from north to south, the arctic desert, tundra, forest-tundra, forest, forest-steppe, steppe, and semidesert zones. Altitudinal (vertical) zonality is observed in the mountainous regions, particularly in the Caucasus and in the Altai Mountains. Forests cover 42.7 percent of the RSFSR.

Historical survey. A class-based society emerged in what is now the RSFSR in the first millennium B.C. In the second half of the ninth century A.D., the feudal state of Kievan Rus’ was formed, which became the nucleus of a single ancient Russian people, from which the three Eastern Slavic peoples subsequently developed—Russians, Ukrainians, and Byelorussians. In the tenth to 12th centuries, the peoples of Rus’ repulsed incursions by Pecheneg nomads and the Polovtsy, and in the 13th century, they fought off Swedish and German aggression (the Neva battle of 1240, the Battle on the Ice of 1242) and waged a struggle against the Mongol-Tatar invasion.

In the 12th century, the Vladimir-Suzdal’ and Galician-Volynian principalities arose, as did the Novgorod feudal republic. In the 14th century, Moscow became the focus for the unification of the Russian lands. During the 15th and 16th centuries, in the course of the centralization of the Russian state, Novgorod, Tver’, Pskov, Smolensk, and Riazan’ were annexed and the process of the formation of the Russian nationality was basically completed. The Kazan and Astrakhan khanates and Western and Eastern Siberia were annexed in the 16th and 17th centuries. The firm establishment of serfdom led to a number of peasant wars, in 1670–71 under the leadership of S. Razin and in 1773–75 under the leadership of E. Pugachev. In the 17th century the Russian state warded off aggression by Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish feudal lords, and in the early 19th century it turned back Napoleon’s forces (Patriotic War of 1812). The Decembrist Uprising occurred on Dec. 14, 1825.

The Peasant Reform of 1861 accelerated the development of capitalism. The first Social Democratic organizations appeared in the late 19th century. The workers of Russia carried out the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution. From 1914 to 1918, Russia fought in World War I.

The RSFSR was formed on Oct. 25 (Nov. 7), 1917; it was formally established by the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets, held Jan. 10–18 (23–31), 1918. During the Civil War of 1918–20, the workers of the RSFSR routed the forces of the White Guards and the interventionists. On Dec. 30, 1922, the First Congress of Soviets of the USSR proclaimed the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which initially included the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. As a result of the industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution carried out under the guidance of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a primarily socialist society emerged in the republic.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (RSFSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............30.8470805
Petroleum, including gas condensate (million tons) ...............7.0285547
Natural gas (billion cu m) ...............0.283.3254
Coal (million tons) ...............72.8345391
Steel (million tons) ...............9.363.984.4
Rolled ferrous metals (million tons) ...............5.743.259.7
Iron ore (million tons) ...............9.766.592.4
Sulfuric acid (monohydrate, million tons) ...............1.16.310.2
Soda ash (thousand tons) ...............972,6133,702
Caustic soda (thousand tons) ...............951,4002,087
Mineral fertilizers (in terms of 100-percent nutrients, million tons) ...............0.56.311.8
Synthetic resins and plastics (million tons) ...............1.72.3
Chemical fibers and yarns (thousand tons) ...............7.0432624
Turbines (million kW) ...............1.011.713.2
Turbine generators (million kW) ...............0.57.813.9
Main-line electric locomotives (units) ...............9232296
Main-line railroad freight cars (thousand units) ...............20.628.631.4
Main-line railroad passenger cars (thousand units) ...............1.11.31.3
Motor vehicles (thousand units) ...............1457371,884
Tractors (thousand units) ...............21.2194249
Grain-harvesting combines (thousand units) ...............5.499.2117
Roundwood removals (million cu m) ...............216354328
Sawn wood (million cu m) ...............28.891.880.3
Pulp (million tons) ...............0.44.76.8
Paper (million tons) ...............0.73.54.5
Paperboard (thousand tons) ...............1131,9732,536
Fabrics (billion sq m) ...............6.97.5
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............141350351
Television sets (thousand units) ...............0.33,7494,002
Radio broadcast receivers (thousand units) ...............1444,8115,304
Refrigerators (thousand units) ...............3.22,7733,656
Clocks and watches (million units) ...............2.834.654.4
Motorcycles and motor scooters (thousand units) ...............6.7632788
Granulated sugar (million tons) ...............0.42.93.0
Meat (million tons) ...............0.93.74.5
Butter (thousand tons) ...............141486611

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, part of the RSFSR was occupied by fascist German troops. A mass partisan movement developed in the occupied areas. The Urals, Western Siberia, and the Volga Region became the center of military production for the front. In the struggle with the fascist aggressors, the Russian people, together with all the fraternal peoples of the USSR, succeeded in protecting the great conquests of socialism.

In the postwar decades, the Russian people and all the peoples of the RSFSR achieved new successes in the building of communism. The RSFSR was awarded the Order of Lenin twice, in 1954 and 1958, the Order of the October Revolution in 1967, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. In the years of socialist construction, the RSFSR has become a major industrial and agricultural republic.

The RSFSR is linked economically with all the Union republics: it helps them develop their industry and agriculture and, in turn, receives from them the raw materials it lacks, such as cotton and silk, as well as industrial goods.

In 1980 the industrial output was 19 times greater than in 1940 and 161 times greater than in 1913.

The chemical and petrochemical industries, machine building, and metalworking are of particular importance. The output of the machine-building and metalworking industries increased by a factor of 66 in the period 1940–80, while the output of the chemical and petrochemical industries increased by a factor of 51.

See Table 1 for the output of the most important industrial products.

The fuel industry is represented by the extraction of all types of mineral fuels, particularly petroleum and natural gas. Western Siberia has become the country’s principal base for petroleum and natural-gas production. Other important regions include the Volga-Ural Oil-Gas Region, the Northern Caucasus, and the Timan-Pechora Oil-Gas Basin. The most important coal basins are the Kuznetsk and Pechora basins; a coal basin is now taking shape in South Yakutia, and the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin is growing in importance. The extraction of peat is also important.

Most of the electric power plants in the RSFSR are thermal steam-turbine power plants. The largest are the Reftinskii, Kostroma, Surgut, Troitsk, Novocherkassk, and Zai state regional power plants. Nuclear power plants include the Leningrad, Novo voronezhskii, Kursk, Kola, Beloiarsk, and Bilibino plants; construction is under way (1982) on the Smolensk, Kalinin, Rostov-on-Don, and Balakovo nuclear plants. The country’s largest hydroelectric power plants are the Krasnoiarsk 50th Anniversary of the USSR, the Saian-Shushenskaia, Bratsk, Ust’-Ilimsk, Volga Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU, and V. I. Lenin Volga plants.

Ferrous metallurgy is centered in the Urals, the Central Economic Region, and Western Siberia. Nonferrous metallurgy is also developed.

The RSFSR is the country’s leading machine-building center. The production of transport, power industry, heavy, and agricultural machinery is highly developed, as is the production of electrical equipment and instruments. Machine building has reached particular prominence in the Central, Volga, Northwestern, and Ural regions. The principal products of the chemical industry are petrochemicals, mineral fertilizers, synthetic resins, plastics, chemical fibers, and soda ash. The RSFSR is the country’s most important center of the lumber industry. There are large logging and timber distribution establishments in the Komi ASSR, Krasnoiarsk Krai, and Arkhangel’sk, Irkutsk, and Amur oblasts. Light industry, particularly the manufacture of textiles, centered primarily in the Central and Volga regions, is of great importance. The microbiological industry is being developed in the republic.

In 1980 the gross agricultural output was 2.4 times greater than in 1940. Agriculture has a strong material and technological base. At the end of 1980 the RSFSR had 11,800 sovkhozes and 12,000 kolkhozes (exclusive of fishing kolkhozes); it also had more than 1,300,000 tractors (342,000 in 1940), 448,000 grain-harvesting combines (130,000 in 1940), and 800,700 trucks (132,200 in 1940). In 1980 farmland totaled 219 million hectares (ha), or approximately 13 percent of the republic’s total area, including 133.9 million ha of plowland, 24.5 million ha of hayfields, and 59.3 million ha of pastureland. In 1980 crop production and stock raising accounted for 39 percent and 61 percent, respectively, of the gross agricultural output. See Table 2 for data on sown area and gross yields.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (RSFSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (million hectares) ...............92.1121.9124.8
Grain crops ...............70.272.775.5
wheat ...............25.538.934.0
Industrial crops ...............6.26.56.2
sugar beets ...............0.31.41.6
fiber flax ...............1.50.70.6
sunflowers ...............2.52.72.4
Potatoes, melons, and other vegetables ...............5.35.34.7
Feed crops ...............10.437.438.4
Gross yield (million tons) Grain crops ...............55.6113.5105.1
wheat ...............19.362.953.8
Sugar beets ...............3.223.924.1
Flax fiber (thousand tons) ...............239248120
Potatoes ...............36.453.937.0

In the RSFSR, fruit and berry plantings and vineyards occupy 1.3 million ha (1980), of which 200,000 ha are given over to grapes. The gross yield of fruits and berries is 2 million tons, and that of grapes, 900,000 tons. In the period 1954–60, more than 16 million ha of virgin and barren lands were brought into agricultural use. Special attention has been given to improving the soil through the use of chemicals and extensive reclamation work. The RSFSR has 5 million ha of irrigated land and 5.9 million ha of drained land (1980).

The rich hayfields and pasturelands, in addition to the large areas cultivated with feed crops, have been conducive to the development of stock raising (see Table 3).

See Table 4 for data on the growth of the output of animal products.

Agriculture in the RSFSR is being developed with the goal of increasing crop yields through chemical fertilization, the complex mechanization of farming and stock raising, and extensive land improvement.

In 1974 the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued the decree On Measures for the Further Development of Agriculture in the Nonchernozem Zone of the RSFSR, according to which the improvement of all agricultural lands of the Nonchernozem Zone is to be completed by 1990 and irrigated areas for raising vegetables and large complexes for industrial-scale production of animal products are to be created around major cities and industrial centers.

The RSFSR has 82,630 km of railroad in use (1980) and 690,000 km of automobile roads (1980), of which 428,500 km are hard-surfaced. Internal waterways total 123,000 km (1980). The length of trunk pipelines for petroleum and petroleum products totals 53,600 km (1980). Ninety-nine point three percent of the

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (RSFSR)
 194111971119611
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............28,85551,60258,095
COWS ...............14,25020,59522,172
Swine (thousands) ...............12,09133,22536,039
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............51,23566,96464,972
Poultry (millions) ...............135.2358.2563.7

entire railroad network has been converted to electric and diesel traction. Construction is under way (1982) on the Baikal-Amur Main Line (BAM), a railroad line that will eventually total 3,111 km and follow the route Ust’-Kut (Lena Station)-Nizhneangarsk-Chara-Tynda-Urgal-Komsomol’sk-na-Amure.

The RSFSR has the country’s largest waterways: the Volga River with the Kama River, the Ob’ River with the Irtysh River, and the Enisei, Lena, and Amur rivers. Important for the development of river transport were the opening of the Moscow White Sea-Baltic Canal and the V. I. Lenin Volga-Don Ship Canal, the reconstruction of the Volga-Baltic Waterway, and the construction of hydroelectric power plants. Marine transport handles a considerable part of the country’s foreign trade, as well as long-range (for example, along the Northern Sea Route) and short-range coastal shipping. The most important seaports are Novorossiisk, Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Arkhangel’sk, Vladivostok, and Nakhodka.

Motor-vehicle transport plays a prominent role, especially intraregional transport. Air transport developed largely in connection with the growth of passenger traffic, primarily over long and medium distances, and with the necessity of improving links with remote and inaccessible regions.

The importance of pipeline transport is growing rapidly. The chief petroleum pipelines are the Druzhba pipeline, which runs from Al’met’evsk through Unecha to the western border of the USSR, the Tuimazy-Novosibirsk-Angarsk pipeline, the Ust’-Balyk-Al’met’evsk pipeline, and the Al’met’evsk-Gorky-Kirishi pipeline. The chief gas pipelines are the pipeline linking Middle Asia and the Central Zone, the Siianie Severa Pipeline, which runs from Vuktyl to Torzhok, and the Sibir’-Moskva pipeline, which runs from Medvezh’e through Perm’ to Moscow. Territorial-production complexes (TPC’s) are being formed in the RSFSR. The major TPC’s of nationwide significance include the Timan-Pechora TPC, based on the petroleum, natural gas, and coal resources of the northern part of the European RSFSR; the TPC of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, utilizing the local iron-ore deposits; the Western Siberian oil and gas basin; the TPC utilizing the Kansk-Achinsk coal basin; the Saian TPC, based on the electricity generated by the Saian-Shushenskaia hydroelectric power plant; and the Southern Yakutian TPC, based on coking and fuel coal production.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (RSFSR)
 194019701980
Milk (million tons) ...............17.845.446.8
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons)2,3736,2137,427
Eggs (billion units) ...............6.623.639.5
Wool (thousand tons) ...............98.0209.1213.1

The standard of living of the republic’s population is steadily rising. In 1980 the national income was 1.6 times greater than in 1970. Retail trade in the state and cooperative systems, including the food-service industry, rose from 11.7 billion rubles in 1940 to 155 billion rubles in 1980. The per capita turnover increased by a factor of 7.5. The total amount of deposits in savings banks in 1980 reached 89.4 billion rubles (as compared to 0.5 billion rubles in 1940), with an average account of 1,075 rubles (47 rubles in 1940).

The urban dwelling space in 1980 was 1,299,700,000 sq m of total (usable) space, as compared to 911,200,000 sq m in 1970. In the period 1976 to 1980, state and cooperative enterprises and organizations, kolkhozes, and private individuals constructed 6.1 million apartments, with 295.1 million sq m of total (usable) space. In the same period, 29.3 million individuals improved their housing conditions.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 29.6 percent of the population between the ages of nine and 49 was literate: 44.4 percent of the male population and 15.4 percent of the female population. In the outlying regions inhabited by the various national groups, the literacy rate was much lower; for example, among the Yakuts, only 0.7 percent of the population could read. Many nationalities had no written language. During the 1914–15 academic year, there were 77,400 general-education schools of all types, with 5,684 students, 297 specialized secondary schools, with 35,400 students, and 72 higher educational institutions, with 86,500 students.

The October Revolution of 1917 opened the door to knowledge and culture for the working people of all nationalities. A number of decrees signed by V. I. Lenin served as the basis for the creation of a new system of public education that met the needs of socialist construction and the development of the national cultures. Illiteracy was quickly eradicated. According to the 1939 census, 89.7 percent of the population was literate: 96 percent of the male population and 83.9 percent of the female population. In 1970,99.7 percent of the population was literate.

In 1977 there were 7,305,000 children enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year, 21.3 million pupils were enrolled in 80,600 general-education schools of all types, 2,737,000 students were enrolled in 2,481 specialized secondary schools, and 2,954,000 students were enrolled in 485 higher educational institutions, including 39 universities, 33 of which have been founded since the October Revolution. In the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East there were 151 higher educational institutions, most of which had been founded after 1917. In 1977 the number of graduates from higher educational institutions was 31 per 10,000 population, and from specialized secondary schools, 50 per 10,000 population. Of every 1,000 employed persons in the RSFSR in 1976, 771 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

The RSFSR is the country’s leading center of scientific development. In 1925 the Russian Academy of Sciences became the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which in the 1930’s embarked on the creation of a system of branches and scientific centers. In 1957 the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded. In 1969 the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted the resolution On the Development of Scientific Institutions in the Individual Economic Regions of the RSFSR. This led to the creation of the Far East Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Urals Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and the Northern Caucasus Higher School Scientific Center. The RSFSR has the following specialized all-Union academies: the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences and its divisions in the Siberian (founded 1969) and Nonchernozem zones (1975), the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its Siberian branch (1971), the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, and the Academy of Arts of the USSR. A large network of scientific research institutes and their branches, laboratories, and research stations has been created in industrial and agricultural regions.

Cultural institutions play a prominent role in public education and the communist education of workers. At the end of 1977 the RSFSR had 317 drama, musical drama, children’s, and young people’s theaters, including 20 opera and ballet theaters, 198 drama, comedy, and musical theaters, and 99 children’s and young people’s theaters. Among Russia’s oldest theaters, which have come to be designated as academic, are the Bolshoi Theater of the USSR, the Malyi Theater, the Moscow Art Theater, the Vakhtangov Theater, the Mayakovsky Theater, and the Mossovet Theater, all in Moscow, and the Pushkin Drama Theater and the M. Gorky Bolshoi Drama Theater in Leningrad. The republic has 24 symphony orchestras, eight folk-instrument orchestras and brass bands, 34 chamber orchestras and instrumental ensembles, and 19 professional choral groups. There are 17 film studios. In 1977 there were about 90,000 motion-picture projection units, of which 62,000 were wide-screen units.

In 1977 there were 76,600 clubs, including 67,100 rural clubs and houses of culture.

The RSFSR has 61,800 public libraries, with 9,006,400 books, pamphlets, and journals, as compared to 9,300 libraries, with 6.7 million volumes, in 1913. The largest general-purpose libraries are the V. I. Lenin State Library of the USSR, the All-Union State Library of Foreign Literature, and the State Public Historical Library of the RSFSR, all in Moscow, and the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library in Leningrad (the methodological center of the public libraries of the RSFSR).

There are 661 museums in the RSFSR, including 92 museums of history and the revolution, 312 museums of local lore, 115 memorial museums, and 91 art museums. The largest museums are the Central Lenin Museum, the Museum of K. Marx and F. Engels, the Central Museum of the Revolution of the USSR, the Tret’iakov Gallery, the A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the State Historical Museum, the State Library Museum, the Polytechnical Museum, the Central Museum of the Armed Forces of the USSR, the A. A. Bakhrushin State Central Theatrical Museum, and the M. I. Glinka State Central Museum of Musical Culture, all in Moscow, and the State Russian Museum, the State Hermitage, the All-Union A. S. Pushkin Museum, the State Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism, the Central Naval Museum, and the State Museum of the Etdnography of the Peoples of the USSR, all in Leningrad.

The printing and book-publishing industries have grown rapidly in the republic. In 1977, 55,657 titles of books and pamphlets were published numbering 1,417,900,000 copies; also published were 3,480 journals and other periodicals numbering 2,331,300,000 copies.

In 1977, 4,311 newspapers were published in the RSFSR with a total circulation of 27,803,000,000 copies; of these 4,008 are Russian-language newspapers and 303 are published in the languages of other peoples of the USSR.

Central intra-Union and local radio broadcasting in the RSFSR computed on an average daily basis totals 558.6 hours. Moscow broadcasts eight programs, totaling 156.6 hours. Local broadcasts are in 46 languages and account for 402 hours, of which 252 hours are devoted to basic programming. Central and local television in the republic broadcast a total daily average of 990 hours, of which 785 are relayed from Moscow.

In 1977 the republic had 12,798 hospitals, with 1,712,700 beds, as compared to 8,477 hospitals, with 482,000 beds, in 1940. There were 505,900 physicians and 1,483,500 secondary medical personnel, as compared to 90,800 physicians and 290,400 secondary personnel in 1940. The republic has numerous popular health re-sorts of all the basic treatment groups, including climatic resorts (Sochi and others), balneological and pelotherapeutic resorts (Belokurikha, Piatigorsk, Kislovodsk, Essentuki), and climatic and koumiss therapy resorts (Aksakovo, Aksenovo, Shafranovo).

Autonomous republics

Bashkir ASSR. The Bashkir ASSR (Bashkiria) was formed on Mar. 23, 1919. Located in the Cis-Ural Region, it covers an area of 143,600 sq km and has a population of 3,865,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 936,000 Bashkirs, 1,548,000 Russians, 940,000 Tatars, 122,000 Chuvash, and 107,000 Mari. The average population density is 26.9 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Ufa, with a population of 1,009,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Mineral resources include petroleum, natural gas, brown coal, common salt, iron ore, and ores of nonferrous metals.

Bashkiria is a republic with a developed industry and considerable agricultural production. In 1980 the industrial output was 80 times greater than in 1940. The leading branches of industry are petroleum refining, the production of chemicals and petrochemicals, machine building, and metalworking. Other industries include ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, the food industry, light industry, woodworking, and the production of building materials.

Agriculture is dominated by grain production. In 1980, Bashkiria had 159 sovkhozes and 629 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 4,587,000 ha. The principal industrial crops are sunflowers and sugar beets. Fruit growing and vegetable growing are also developed. There is beef-and-dairy and mutton-and-wool farming. Poultry farming and beekeeping are widespread. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 2,326,000 head of cattle, 1,102,000 swine, and 2,890,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, 774,400 pupils were enrolled in 3,668 general-education schools, as compared to 132,500 pupils enrolled in 1,562 schools in 1914–15. There were 71,900 students enrolled in 67 specialized secondary schools and 51,900 students in nine higher educational institutions, the largest of which are the Bashkir University and the aviation, petroleum, agricultural, pedagogical, and medical institutes. Before the October Revolution there were no higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in 1976 in Bashkiria, 747 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

Scientific institutions include the Bashkir branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977, Bashkiria had seven professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 1,886 public libraries, seven museums, approximately 3,000 clubs, and 3,200 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977, there were 9,700 physicians in Bashkiria, or one physician per 398 inhabitants, as compared to 1,000 physicians, or one physician per 3,148 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 44,100 hospital beds, as compared to 8,400 in 1940.

The Bashkir ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin twice, in 1935 and 1957, the Order of the October Revolution in 1969, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Burial ASSR. The Buriat ASSR (Buriatia) was formed on May 30,1923. Located in Transbaikalia, it is bordered by the Mongolian People’s Republic on the south. It covers an area of 351,300 sq km and has a population of 929,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 207,000 Buriats, 648,000 Russians, 15,000 Ukrainians, and 10,000 Tatars. The average population density is 2.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Ulan-Ude, with a population of 310,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Mineral resources include ores of ferrous and nonferrous metals, asbestos, graphite, and coal. More than 62 percent of Buriatia is covered with forests. In 1980 the industrial output was 14 times greater than in 1940. The principal branches of industry are machine building, mining, the lumber, wood-products, and building materials industries, light industry, and the food industry.

In 1980, Buriatia had 105 sovkhozes and 61 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 838,000 ha. Stock raising is the leading branch of agriculture. Sheep raising is developed, as well as horse breeding and dairy farming. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 479,000 head of cattle, 1,721,000 sheep and goats, and 222,000 swine. Grain crops predominate.

During the 1977–78 academic year, 170,100 pupils were enrolled in 619 general-education schools, as compared to 13,500 pupils enrolled in 267 schools in 1914–15. There were 22,400 students enrolled in 21 specialized secondary schools and 22,000 students enrolled in four higher educational institutions—the technological, agricultural, pedagogical, and cultural institutes, all in Ulan-Ude. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary schools or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Buriatia in 1976,747 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Buriat Branch of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977, Buriatia had four professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 563 public libraries, four museums, 664 clubs, and 795 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 2,600 physicians in Buriatia, or one physician per 351 inhabitants, as compared to 440 physicians, or one physician per 1,308 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 11,300 hospital beds, as compared to 2,300 in 1940.

The Buriat ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1959, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1973.

Chechen-Ingush ASSR. The Chechen Autonomous Oblast was formed on Nov. 30, 1922, and the Ingush Autonomous Oblast, on July 7, 1924. On Jan. 15, 1934, the two were combined into the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast, which on Dec. 5,1936, became the Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Chechen-Ingushetia). Located in the Northern Caucasus, along both banks of the Terek River, Chechen-Ingushetia covers an area of 19,300 sq km and has a population of 1,170,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 611,000 Chechen, 135,000 Ingush, 336,000 Russians, 15,000 Armenians, 12,000 Ukrainians, 8,100 Kumyks, and 6,100 Nogai. The average population density is 60.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Groznyi, with a population of 379,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

The republic has reserves of petroleum, natural gas, and hydroelectric power. In 1980 the industrial output was 9.7 times greater than in 1940. Petroleum extraction and refining, which are centered in the Groznyi area, are the chief branches of industry. The machine-building industry primarily serves the petroleum industry. The food industry is developing.

In 1980, Chechen-Ingushetia had 122 sovkhozes and 39 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 452,000 ha. Grain crops are widespread on irrigated lands. Vegetables and melons are also grown, and there are numerous orchards and vineyards. Stock raising is expanding, especially the raising of fine-wooled sheep. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 313,000 head of cattle, 175,000 swine, and 764,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, more than 288,100 pupils were enrolled in 574 general-education schools, as compared to 12,800 pupils enrolled in 153 schools in 1914–15. There were 15,000 students in 29 vocational-technical schools and 14,800 students in 12 specialized secondary schools. A total of 12,000 students were enrolled in two higher educational institutions—the Chechen-Ingush University and a petroleum institute, both in Groznyi. During the 1914–15 academic year, there were no specialized secondary schools or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Chechen-Ingushetia in 1976, 637 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Chechen-Ingush Institute of History, Sociology, and Philology.

In 1977, Chechen-Ingushetia had three professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 475 public libraries, two museums, 403 clubs, and 358 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 2,800 physicians in Chechen-Ingushetia, or one physician per 415 inhabitants, as compared to 431 physicians, or one physician per 1,762 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 11,200 hospital beds, as compared to 2,300 in 1940.

The Chechen-Ingush ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965 and the Order of the October Revolution and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Chuvash ASSR. The Chuvash Autonomous Oblast was formed on June 24, 1920, and on Apr. 21, 1925, it became the Chuvash ASSR (Chuvashia). Located along the middle Volga, primarily on the right bank, it covers an area of 18,300 sq km and has a population of 1,311,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 888,000 Chuvash, 338,000 Russians, 38,000 Tatars, and 20,000 Mordovians. The average population density is 71.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Cheboksary, with a population of 340,000 (Jan. 1, 1981).

Mineral resources include building materials and phosphorites. Forests cover 30.4 percent of the republic. In 1980 the industrial output was 53 times greater than in 1940. Industries include the production of various machines and chemicals. Also developed are the lumber and wood-products industry and light industry. Electric power is generated by the Cheboksary Hydroelectric Power Plant.

In 1980, Chuvashia had 104 sovkhozes and 179 kolkhozes. Agriculture specializes in beef-and-dairy farming and the raising of grain crops (rye, oats, wheat), industrial crops (hemp, makhorka, hops), and potatoes. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 507,000 head of cattle, 516,000 swine, and 406,000 sheep and goats. In 1980 the total sown area was 819,000 ha.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 267,700 pupils enrolled in 783 general-education schools, as compared to 29,900 pupils enrolled in 463 schools in 1914–15. There were 13,600 students enrolled in 27 vocational-technical schools and 23,000 students enrolled in 23 specialized secondary schools. A total of 15,700 students were enrolled in three higher educational institutions—the Chuvash University and the agricultural and pedagogical institutes, all in Cheboksary. Before the October Revolution there were only two specialized secondary schools, with 140 students, and no higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Chuvashia in 1976, 794 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

In 1977, Chuvashia had five professional theaters, 722 public libraries, three museums, 1,112 clubs, and 1,220 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 3,100 physicians in Chuvashia, or one physician per 421 inhabitants, as compared to 351 physicians, or one physician per 3,055 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 14,300 hospital beds, as compared to 3,000 in 1940.

The Chuvash ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1935, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Dagestan ASSR. The Dagestan ASSR (Dagestan) was formed on Jan. 20, 1921. Located in the eastern part of the Northern Caucasus, it is bordered by the Caspian Sea in the east. It covers an area of 50,300 sq km and has a population of 1,672,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 419,000 Avars, 247,000 Darghins, 202,000 Kumyks, 189,000 Lezghians, 189,000 Russians, and 83,000 Laks. The average population density is 33.2 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Makhachkala, with a population of 269,000 (Jan. 1, 1981).

Mineral resources of industrial significance include petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Hydroelectric resources are considerable. In 1980 the industrial output was 18 times greater than in 1940. Petroleum and gas production is the main branch of industry. Other industries include the food industry and machine building. Folk crafts, such as carpet weaving and jewelry-making, are developed in the mountainous regions. Electric power is generated by the Chirkei and Chir”iurt hydroelectric power plants.

In 1980, Dagestan had 262 sovkhozes and 249 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 434,000 ha. Crops planted on the plains are irrigated. Grain crops, vegetables, and melons are wide-spread. There is also fruit growing and viticulture. Sheep are raised in the mountainous regions. As of Jan. 1,1981, there were 3,371,000 sheep and goats, 728,000 head of cattle, and 38,000 swine. The republic’s major seaport is located in the city of Makhachkala.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 1,584 general-education schools, with 476,000 students, as compared to 191 schools, with 13,200 pupils, before the October Revolution. There were 10,500 students enrolled in 24 vocational-technical schools and 24,100 students in five higher educational institutions—the University of Dagestan and the poly technical, agricultural, medical, and pedagogical institutes. Before the October Revolution there were no higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Dagestan in 1976,632 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Dagestan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977, Dagestan had seven professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 972 public libraries, eight museums, 1,179 clubs, and 1,067 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 4,800 physicians in Dagestan, or one physician per 336 inhabitants, as compared to 592 physicians, or one physician per 1,766 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 15,900 hospital beds, as compared to 3,300 in 1940.

The Dagestan ASSR was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor of the RSFSR in 1922, the Order of Lenin in 1965, the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Kabarda-Balkar ASSR. The Kabarda Autonomous Oblast was formed on Sept. 1, 1921. In 1922 it became the Kabarda-Balkar Autonomous Oblast, and on Dec. 5, 1936, the Kabarda-Balkar ASSR (Kabarda-Balkaria). It occupies the central part of the northern slopes and the foothills of the Caucasus and the adjacent plain. It covers an area of 12,500 sq km and has a population of 688,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 304,000 Kabardins, 60,000 Balkars, and 234,000 Russians. The average population density is 55 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Nal’chik, with a population of 213,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

The republic has reserves of ores of nonferrous metals. In 1980 the industrial output was 28 times greater than in 1940. Machine building, metalworking, nonferrous metallurgy, and woodworking are developed. Other industries include light industry, the production of chemicals and building materials, and the food industry.

In 1980, Kabarda-Balkaria had 59 sovkhozes and 66 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 331,000 ha. Land cultivation, dominated by grain crops, is concentrated in the level areas of the republic. Fruits, vegetables, and melons are also grown. Stock raising is centered in the mountainous areas. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 312,000 head of cattle, 123,000 swine, and 384,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, 140,300 students were enrolled in 278 general-education schools, as compared to 6,700 pupils enrolled in 112 schools in 1914–15. There were 9,900 students enrolled in 21 vocational-technical schools and 12,000 students enrolled in 11 specialized secondary schools. A total of 8,500 students were enrolled in the Kabarda-Balkar University (in Nal’chik). Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Kabarda-Balkaria in 1976, 780 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Kabarda-Balkar Research Institute of History, Language, and Economics.

In 1977, Kabarda-Balkaria had three professional theaters, 236 public libraries, two museums, 266 clubs, and 223 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 2,400 physicians in Kabarda-Balkaria, or one physician per 278 inhabitants, as compared to 246 physicians, or one physician per 1,493 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 7,600 hospital beds, as compared to 1,400 in 1940.

The Kabarda-Balkar ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin twice, in 1934 and 1957, the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Kalmyk ASSR. The Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was formed on Nov. 4, 1920, and on Oct. 20, 1935, it became the Kalmyk ASSR (Kalmykia). Located in the extreme southeastern part of the European USSR, it is bordered on the southeast by the Caspian Sea. It covers an area of 75,900 sq km and has a population of 301,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 122,000 Kalmyks and 126,000 Russians. The average population density is 4 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Elista, with a population of 74,000 (Jan. 1, 1981).

In 1980 the industrial output was 12 times greater than in 1940. The principal branches of industry are machine building, metal-working, and the production of building materials. The food industry is developed.

The economy is dominated by agriculture. In 1980, Kalmykia had 79 sovkhozes and 23 kolkhozes. Transhumant stock raising, primarily of sheep, is the most highly developed branch of agriculture. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 360,000 head of cattle, 3,043,000 sheep and goats, and 80,000 swine. Pasturelands account for 77 percent of all farmland, and hayfields for 7 percent. In 1980 the total sown area was 859,000 ha, most of which was planted with grain and feed crops. A network of irrigation canals has been constructed.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 65,000 pupils enrolled in 275 general-education schools, as compared to 4,000 pupils enrolled in 78 schools in 1914–15. There were 6,300 students enrolled in six specialized secondary schools and 4,600 students enrolled in the Kalmyk University (in Elista). Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Kalmykia in 1976,670 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Research Institute of Language, Literature, and History and the Kalmyk Research Institute on Live-stock Raising for Meat.

In 1977, Kalmykia had one professional theater, a philharmonic society, 174 public libraries, 256 clubs, and 364 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 832 physicians in Kalmykia, or one physician per 335 inhabitants, as compared to 60 physicians, or one physician per 3,130 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 4,200 hospital beds, as compared to 400 in 1940.

The Kalmyk ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1959, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Karelian ASSR. The Karelian Workers’ Commune was formed on June 8, 1920, and on July 25, 1923, it became the Karelian ASSR (Karelia; from Mar. 31, 1940, to July 16, 1956, the Karelian-Finnish SSR). Located in the northwestern part of the European USSR, Karelia is bordered by Finland in the west and the White Sea in the east. It covers an area of 172,400 sq km and has a population of 746,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 81,000 Karelians, 522,000 Russians, 59,000 Byelorussians, 34,000 Ukrainians, 20,000 Finns, and 6,000 Veps. The average population density is 4.3 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Petrozavodsk, with a population of 241,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

The republic is rich in forests, which cover 49.1 percent of its area, and in hydroelectric resources. Mineral resources include high-quality building stone, pegmatites, iron ores, and mica. In 1980 the industrial output was 9.5 times greater than in 1940. The lumber, wood-products, and pulp and paper industries play a prominent role in the economy. There are also machine-building, metalworking, and metallurgical enterprises. The production of building materials and food is also developed. The Kostomuk-Sha Ore-dressing Combine was under construction in 1982.

Agriculture specializes in beef-and-dairy farming. In 1980, Karelia had 59 sovkhozes and 9 kolkhozes. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 112,000 head of cattle, 64,000 swine, and 61,000 sheep and goats. In 1980 the total sown area was 75,000 ha, with more than 85 percent planted with feed crops. Vegetable growing is developed. Poultry farming and fur farming are widespread.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 121,200 pupils enrolled in 401 general-education schools, as compared to 16,000 pupils enrolled in 444 schools before the October Revolution. There were 10,800 students enrolled in 25 vocational-technical schools and 16,100 students enrolled in 16 specialized secondary schools. A total of 10,000 students were enrolled in the higher educational institutions—the University of Petrozavodsk, the pedagogical institute, and a branch of the Leningrad State Conservatory. Before the October Revolution there were no higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Karelia in 1976, 749 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Karelian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977, Karelia had three professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 531 public libraries, seven museums, 486 clubs, and 570 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 3,000 physicians in Karelia, or one physician per 247 inhabitants, as compared to 457 physicians, or one physician per 1,359 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 11,200 hospital beds, as compared to 3,400 in 1940.

The Karelian ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Komi ASSR. The Komi (Zyrian) Autonomous Oblast was formed Aug. 22,1921, and on Dec. 5, 1936, it became the Komi ASSR. Located in the northeastern part of the European USSR, the Komi ASSR covers an area of 415,900 sq km and has a population of 1,147,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 218,000 Komi, 630,000 Russians, 94,000 Ukrainians, and 25,000 Byelorussians. The average population density is 2.8 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Syktyvkar, with a population of 180,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

The republic is rich in coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Forests cover 71 percent of its area. In 1980 the industrial output was 28 times greater than in 1940. Mining is the main industry. Petroleum and gas are extracted in deposits of the Timan-Pechora Oil-Gas Basin, and coal is mined in deposits of the Pechora Coal Basin. The lumber, wood-products, and pulp and paper industries are developed. Other industries include the building materials and metalworking industries; there are also enterprises of light industry and the food industry. Electric power is generated by the Pechora Hydroelectric Power Plant.

In 1980 the republic had 56 sovkhozes. The main branch of agriculture is dairy farming; reindeer are raised in the northern regions. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 161,000 head of cattle, 98,000 swine, 45,000 sheep and goats, and 113,000 reindeer. In 1980 the total sown area was 94,000 ha. Land cultivation is developed in the south of the republic. The Timan-Pechora Territorial-production Complex is being formed in the Komi ASSR and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 198,000 pupils enrolled in 645 general-education schools, as compared to 15,100 pupils enrolled in 316 schools in 1914–15. There were 16,500 students enrolled in 42 vocational-technical schools and 17,200 students enrolled in 17 specialized secondary schools. A total of 12,400 students were enrolled in three higher educational institutions—the University of Syktyvkar, the pedagogical institute, and the Ukhta Industrial Institute—and two branch institutes—a branch of the Leningrad Academy of Timber Technology in Syktyvkar and a branch of the Leningrad Institute of Mines in Vorkuta. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary and higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in the Komi ASSR in 1976, 815 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Komi Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977 the Komi ASSR had four professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 494 public libraries, five museums, 568 clubs, and 682 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 3,700 physicians in the Komi ASSR, or one physician per 293 inhabitants, as compared to 264 physicians, or one physician per 1,239 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 15,500 hospital beds, as compared to 1,800 in 1940.

The Komi ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1966, the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Mari ASSR. The Mari Autonomous Oblast was formed on Nov. 4, 1920, and on Dec. 5, 1936, it became the Mari ASSR. Located along the middle Volga, primarily on the left bank, it covers an area of 23,200 sq km and has a population of 711,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 307,000 Mari, 335,000 Russians, and 41,000 Tatars. The average population density is 30.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Ioshkar-Ola, with a population of 213,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Forests are the republic’s principal natural resource, occupying 51.3 percent of its area. In 1980 the industrial output was 48 times greater than in 1940. Machine building occupies an important place in the republic’s industry. Other industries include the lumber, wood-products, and pulp and paper industries. Light industry, the food industry, and the production of building materials are developing.

In 1980 the Mari ASSR had 82 sovkhozes and 89 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 638,000 ha, most of which were planted with grains (rye, oats, barley, wheat, buckwheat). Fiber flax is the main industrial crop. Potatoes and feed crops are also grown. Stock raising is dominated by beef-and-dairy farming. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 310,000 head of cattle, 289,000 pigs, and 179,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 127,300 pupils enrolled in 530 general-education schools, as compared to 26,000 pupils enrolled in 507 schools in 1914–15. There were 14,300 students enrolled in 33 vocational-technical schools and 12,400 students enrolled in 13 specialized secondary schools. A total of 16,600 students were enrolled in three higher educational institutions—the Mari University, the Mari Polytechnical Institute, and the Mari Pedagogical Institute, all in Ioshkar-Ola. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in the Mari ASSR in 1976, 762 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Mari Branch of the All-Union Research Institute of the Pulp and Paper Industry.

In 1977 the republic had three professional theaters, a philharmonic society, 393 public libraries, four museums, 584 clubs, and 590 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 1,800 physicians in the Mari ASSR, or one physician per 392 inhabitants, as compared to 234 physicians, or one physician per 2,517 persons, in 1940. There were 8,600 hospital beds, as compared to 2,200 in 1940.

The Mari ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Mordovian ASSR. The Mordovian Autonomous Oblast was formed on Jan. 10, 1930, and on Dec. 20, 1934, it became the Mordovian ASSR (Mordovia). Located in the basin of the middle Moksha and Sura rivers, it covers an area of 26,200 sq km and has a population of 984,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 339,000 Mordovians, 591,000 Russians, and 46,000 Tatars. The average population density is 37.5 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Saransk, with a population of 280,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Approximately one-fourth of the republic is covered by forests, mainly of hardwood trees. In 1980 the industrial output was 28 times greater than in 1940. Machine building is developed. Light industry and the food industry are significant. The production of building materials is developing. There is also a wood-products industry.

In 1980, Mordovia had 78 sovkhozes and 273 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 1,224,000 ha, most of which were planted with grains, including rye, wheat, and barley. Industrial crops include hemp and sugar beets. Other crops include potatoes, vegetables, and feed crops. Stock raising is dominated by beef-and-dairy farming. As of Jan. 1,1981, there were 633,000 head of cattle, 318,000 pigs, and 429,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 192,800 pupils enrolled in 1,060 general-education schools, as compared to 58,000 pupils enrolled in 787 schools in 1914–15. There were 14,200 students enrolled in 38 vocational-technical schools and 17,300 students enrolled in 22 specialized secondary schools. A total of 20,300 students were enrolled in two higher educational institutions—the Mordovian University and the Pedagogical Institute in Saransk. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Mordovia in 1976, 741 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

In 1977, Mordovia had two professional theaters, 640 public libraries, ten museums, 872 clubs, and 879 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 2,600 physicians in Mordovia, or one physician per 376 inhabitants, as compared to 307 physicians, or one physician per 3,775 persons, in 1940. There were 12,900 hospital beds, as compared to 2,900 in 1940.

The Mordovian ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1980.

Severnaia Osetiia ASSR. The Severnaia Osetiia Autonomous Oblast was formed on July 7, 1924, and on Dec. 5, 1936, it became the Severnaia Osetiia ASSR (Severnaia Osetiia). Located in the Northern Caucasus, Severnaia Osetiia covers an area of 8,000 sq km and has a population of 601,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 299,000 Ossets (Ossetians), 201,000 Russians, and 24,000 Ingush. The average population density is 75.2 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Ordzhonikidze, with a population of 287,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Mineral resources include complex ores. In 1980 the industrial output was 14 times greater than in 1940. The principal branches of industry are nonferrous metallurgy, machine building, and metal working. The wood-products and food industries are also important, as are light industry and the lumber industry.

In 1980, Severnaia Osetiia had 38 sovkhozes and 45 kolkhozes. The principal crops are grain crops. In 1980 the total sown area was 203,000 ha, planted with corn, wheat, barley, hemp, and potatoes and other vegetables. Fruit growing is also developed. Stock raising is dominated by beef-and-dairy farming. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 188,000 head of cattle, 161,000 swine, and 176,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 109,400 pupils enrolled in 243 general-education schools as compared to 17,100 pupils enrolled in 165 schools before the October Revolution. There were 9,400 students enrolled in 18 vocational-technical schools, 15,000 students enrolled in 13 specialized secondary schools, and 18,300 students enrolled in four higher educational institutions—the Severnaia Osetiia University, the Gorsk Agricultural Institute, the Severnaia Osetiia Medical Institute, and the Northern Caucasus Mining and Metallurgical Institute, all in Ordzhonikidze. Before the October Revolution there were 116,000 students enrolled in two specialized secondary schools, and there were no higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Severnaia Osetiia in 1976, 795 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

In 1977, Severnaia Osetiia had four professional theaters, 205 public libraries, eight museums (with branches), 173 clubs, and 172 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 3,200 physicians in the autonomous republic, or one physician per 192 inhabitants, as compared to 404 physicians, or one physician per 1,025 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 7,000 hospital beds, as compared to 1,700 in 1940.

The Severnaia Osetiia ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1964, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Tatar ASSR. The Tatar ASSR (Tataria) was formed on May 27, 1920. Located in the northern part of the Middle Volga Region, it covers an area of 68,000 sq km and has a population of 3,453,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 1,642,000 Tatars, 1,516,000 Russians, 147,000 Chuvash, and 30,000 Mordovians. The average population density is 50.8 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Kazan, with a population of 1,011,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Mineral resources include petroleum, natural gas, peat, gypsum, and gravel. In 1980 the industrial output was 60 times greater than in 1940. The principal branches of industry are petroleum extraction and the chemical and petrochemical industries. Machine building and metalworking specialize in the production of KamAZ trucks. Light industry and the food and wood-products industries are also important.

Agriculture is dominated by stock raising and the cultivation of grain. In 1980, Tataria had 250 sovkhozes and 557 kolkhozes. The total sown area was 3,595,000 ha. The chief grain crops are rye, barley, and wheat. Sugar beets and potatoes are also grown. Fruit growing and vegetable growing are developed. Stock raising is dominated by beef-and-dairy and mutton-and-wool farming. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 1,611,000 head of cattle, 1,147,000 swine, and 1,842,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 626,500 pupils enrolled in 2,519 general-education schools, as compared to 117,200 pupils enrolled in 1,835 schools in 1914–15. There were 51,800 students enrolled in 98 vocational-technical schools and 60,100 students enrolled in 55 specialized secondary schools, as compared to 1,700 students enrolled in nine specialized secondary schools in 1914–15. A total of 70,000 students were enrolled in 12 higher educational institutions, the largest of which are the University of Kazan and the aviation, chemical-technological, civil engineering, pedagogical, and medical institutes, all in Kazan. During the 1914–15 academic year, there were only three higher educational institutions, with a total enrollment of 3,500 students.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Tataria in 1976, 796 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Kazan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977, Tataria had nine professional theaters, a conservatory, a philharmonic society, 1,745 public libraries, ten museums, more than 2,500 clubs, and more than 2,400 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 9,800 physicians in the autonomous republic, or one physician per 343 inhabitants, as compared to 1,800 physicians, or one physician per 1,610 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 38,900 hospital beds, as compared to 10,500 in 1940.

The Tatar ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1934, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Tuva ASSR. The People’s Republic of Tannu-Tuva was proclaimed on Aug. 14, 1921. In 1926 it became the Tuvinian People’s Republic, and on Oct. 13, 1944, it voluntarily became part of the RSFSR as an autonomous oblast. On Oct. 10, 1961, it became the Tuva ASSR (Tuva). Located in the extreme south of Siberia, in the region of the upper reaches of the Enisei River, it is bordered on the south and east by the Mongolian People’s Republic. It covers an area of 170,500 sq km and has a population of 269,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 162,000 Tuvinians and 97,000 Russians. The average population density is 1.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Kyzyl, with a population of 69,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

The Tuva ASSR has large reserves of iron ore, ores of nonferrous metals, rock salt, asbestos, and coal. In 1980 the industrial output was 62 times greater than in 1945. Mining is the main branch of industry. Other industries include the lumber, building-materials, leather, and food industries.

In 1980, Tuva had 64 sovkhozes. The chief branch of agriculture is stock raising, especially sheep raising. As of Jan. 1,1981, there were 161,000 head of cattle and 1,118,000 sheep and goats. Land cultivation is developing, dominated by grain crops. In 1980 the total sown area was 371,000 ha.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 66,900 pupils enrolled in 180 general-education schools, 2,700 students enrolled in six vocational-technical schools, and 4,400 students enrolled in five specialized secondary schools. A total of 2,500 students were enrolled in the pedagogical institute and the branch of the Krasnoiarsk Polytechnical Institute in Kyzyl.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Tuva in 1976, 660 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Tuva Scientific Research Institute of Language, Literature, and History.

In 1977, Tuva had a professional theater, 160 public libraries, 202 clubs, and 218 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 793 physicians in the autonomous republic, or one physician per 327 inhabitants, as compared to 138 physicians, or one physician per 943 inhabitants, in 1950. There were 4,000 hospital beds, as compared to 600 in 1950.

The Tuva ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1964 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Udmurt ASSR. The Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed on Nov. 4, 1920. In 1932 it was renamed the Udmurt Autonomous Oblast, and on Dec. 28,1934, it became the Udmurt ASSR (Udmurtia). Located in the Cis-Ural Region, between the Kama and Viatka rivers, it covers an area of 42,100 sq km and has a population of 1,516,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 480,000 Udmurts, 870,000 Russians, and 99,000 Tatars. The average population density is 36 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Izhevsk, with a population of 574,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Forests are Tuva’s chief natural resource. There are also de-posits of peat, petroleum, and building materials. Industry plays a major role in the economy. In 1980 the industrial output was 53 times greater than in 1940. The main branches of industry are the production of various machines, which is highly developed, metalworking, and ferrous metallurgy. Also developed are the extraction of petroleum and the lumber and wood-products industries.

Agriculture combines grain cultivation with beef-and-dairy farming. In 1980, Udmurtia had 96 sovkhozes and 244 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 1,441,000 ha. Wheat, rye, buck-wheat, and fiber flax are widely grown; potatoes and other vegetables are also grown. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 620,000 head of cattle, 413,000 swine, and 321,000 sheep and goats. Beekeeping has economic significance.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 268,200 pupils enrolled in 997 general-education schools, as compared to 58,600 pupils enrolled in 883 schools before the October Revolution. There were 16,400 students in 36 vocational-technical schools and 22,900 students in 25 specialized secondary schools, as compared to more than 300 students enrolled in three specialized secondary schools before the October Revolution. There were 24,600 students enrolled in five higher educational institutions, including Udmurt University and the mechanical engineering, medical, and agricultural institutes, all in Izhevsk, and the pedagogical institute in Glazov. Before the October Revolution there were no higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Udmurtia in 1976, 759 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Udmurt Scientific Research Institute of History, Language, Literature, and Economics.

In 1977, Udmurtia had four professional theaters, a circus, a philharmonic society, 691 public libraries, five museums, 1,000 clubs, and 1,000 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 4,700 physicians in Udmurtia, or one physician per 315 inhabitants, as compared to 552 physicians, or one physician per 2,267 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 15,800 hospital beds, as compared to 4,600 in 1940.

The Udmurt ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1958, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Yakut ASSR. The Yakut ASSR (Yakutia) was formed on Apr. 27, 1922. Located in northeastern Siberia, in the basin of the Lena, lana, and Indigirka rivers and in the region of the lower Kolyma River, it is bounded by the Laptev and East Siberian seas in the north. It covers an area of 3,103,200 sq km and has a population of 883,000 (Jan. 1,1981). According to the 1979 census, its population includes 314,000 Yakuts, 430,000 Russians, 46,000 Ukrainians, 11,600 Evenki, and 5,800 Evens. The average population density is 0.3 person per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital is the city of Yakutsk, with a population of 159,000 (Jan. 1, 1981).

Mineral resources include diamonds, gold, tin, mica, coal, and gas. Yakutia also has extensive hydroelectric power and timber resources (45 percent of the autonomous republic is covered with forests). Industrial development is directed at utilizing the mineral resources. In 1980 the industrial output was 32 times greater than in 1940. Mining is the leading branch of industry. The lumber and wood-products industries are developing, as is the production of building materials. Construction has been completed on a railroad line from BAM (Baikal-Amur Mainline) to Berkakit in southern Yakutia. A territorial-production complex, based on the explored deposits of local natural resources, is being formed in southern Yakutia. Construction is under way (1981) on the Neriungri Coal Opencut Mine, a washing plant, and a state regional electric power plant.

Agriculture specializes in beef-and-dairy farming. In 1980, Yakutia had 88 sovkhozes and one kolkhoz. Of the total agricultural lands, 8 percent are plowlands, and the rest are hayfields and pasturelands. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 394,000 head of cattle, 161,000 horses, 53,000 swine, and 380,000 reindeer. In 1980 the total sown area was 99,000 ha. The main crops are various grains and annual grasses; potatoes and other vegetables are also grown. The fur trade and fur farming are developed.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 175,200 pupils enrolled in 672 general-education schools, as compared to 4,700 pupils enrolled in 172 schools before the October Revolution. There were 6,500 students enrolled in 24 vocational-technical schools, 10,700 students enrolled in 18 specialized secondary schools, and 6,600 students enrolled in the University of Yakutsk. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary schools or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in Yakutia in 1976,787 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education. Scientific institutions include the Yakut Branch of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

In 1977, Yakutia had two professional theaters, 289 public libraries, eight museums, 687 clubs, and 829 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were about 3,000 physicians in Yakutia, or one physician per 281 inhabitants, as compared to 311 physicians, or one physician per 1,358 inhabitants, in 1940. There were 12,700 hospital beds, as compared to 1,900 in 1940.

The Yakut ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1957 and the Order of the October Revolution and the Order of Friend-ship of Peoples in 1972.

Autonomous oblasts

Adygei Autonomous Oblast. The Adygei AO (Adygeia) was formed on July 27, 1922. Part of Krasnodar Krai, it is located in the western part of the Caucasus. It covers an area of 7,600 sq km and has a population of 410,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 54 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Maikop, with a population of 132,000.

In 1980 the industrial output was 5.9 times greater than in 1940. The leading branches of industry are the food, lumber, and wood-products industries and machine building.

In 1980, Adygeia had 33 sovkhozes and 38 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 273,000 ha, planted with grains and various industrial crops, including sunflowers, sugar beets, tobacco, and essential-oil plants. Fruits, vegetables, and melons are also grown; there is also viticulture. Stock raising is dominated by cattle raising. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 193,000 head of cattle, 106,000 swine, and 125,000 sheep and goats. There is also poultry farming and beekeeping.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 72,900 pupils enrolled in 207 general-education schools, 7,300 students enrolled in six specialized secondary schools, and 3,900 students enrolled in the Adygei Pedagogical Institute in Maikop.

In 1977, Adygeia had a professional theater, a philharmonic society, 161 public libraries, a museum, 172 clubs, and 271 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 1,100 physicians in Adygeia, or one physician per 378 inhabitants. There were 4,900 hospital beds.

The Adygei AO was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1957 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast. The Gorno-Altai AO was formed on July 1,1922; until Jan. 7,1948, it was known as the Oirot AO. Part of Altai Krai, it is located primarily in the Altai Mountains. It covers an area of 92,600 sq km and has a population of 174,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 1.9 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Gorno-Altaisk.

In 1980 the industrial output was 12 times greater than in 1940. Industries include the food industry and light industry; logging is also important.

In 1980 the Gorno-Altai AO had 37 sovkhozes and 20 kolkhozes. Stock raising is the chief branch of agriculture. Sheep and goats (1,147,000 animals as of Jan. 1, 1981), cattle (176,000 head), horses, and yaks are raised, as well as Caspian red deer and Japanese deer. There is also beekeeping and hunting. The principal crops are feed crops.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 34,400 pupils enrolled in 189 general-education schools, 1,030 students enrolled in three vocational-technical schools, 4,400 students enrolled in five specialized secondary schools, and 3,600 students enrolled in the pedagogical institute. The Scientific Research Institute of History and Altaic Language and Literature is located in Gorno-Altaisk.

In 1977 the Gorno-Altai AO had a philharmonic society, 142 public libraries, a museum, 252 clubs, and 244 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 454 physicians in the Gorno-Altai AO, or one physician per 376 inhabitants. There were 2,600 hospital beds.

The Gorno-Altai AO was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast. The Jewish AO was formed on May 7,1934. Part of Khabarovsk Krai, it is located along the left bank of the Amur River and is bordered by China in the south. It covers an area of 36,000 sq km and has a population of 195,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 5.4 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Birobidzhan, with a population of 72,000.

In 1980 the industrial output was 20 times greater than in 1940. Machine building and light industry are the chief branches of industry. The processing of mineral raw materials and wood is also developed, as is the processing of agricultural products. Building materials are also produced.

In 1980 the Jewish AO had 36 sovkhozes and two kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 156,000 ha. The principal crops are wheat, soybeans, oats, and barley. Potatoes, vegetables, and feed crops are also grown. Cattle are raised (90,000 head as of Jan. 1, 1981), as are swine (45,000) and sheep. There is also beekeeping, fishing, and hunting.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 31,600 pupils enrolled in 128 general-education schools and 5,700 students enrolled in six specialized secondary schools.

In 1977 the Jewish AO had 114 public libraries, two museums, 120 clubs, and 159 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 486 physicians in the oblast, or one physician per 408 inhabitants. There were 2,500 hospital beds.

The Jewish AO was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast. The Karachai-Cherkess AO (Karachai-Cherkessia) was formed on Jan. 12, 1922. Part of Stavropol’ Krai, it is located on the northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus. It covers an area of 14,100 sq km and has a population of 371,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 26.3 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Cherkessk, with a population of 94,000.

In 1980 the industrial output was 36 times greater than in 1940. The chief branches of industry are the chemical and petrochemical industries, light industry, and the food industry. Coal and nonferrous metal ores are mined. Machine building and metal-working are developing, as is the production of building materials.

In 1980, Karachai-Cherkessia had 37 sovkhozes and 15 kolkhozes, and the total sown area was 196,000 ha. Grains (wheat, corn) and industrial crops (sugar beets, sunflowers) are grown, as well as fruits and vegetables. There is sheep raising and beef-and-dairy farming. As of Jan. 1,1981, there were 264,000 head of cattle, 26,000 swine, and 749,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 76,400 pupils enrolled in 203 general-education schools, 6,600 students enrolled in six specialized secondary schools, 2,600 students enrolled in five vocational-technical schools, and 1,800 students enrolled in the pedagogical institute in Karachaevsk. In 1977, Karachai-Cherkessia had a professional theater, 172 public libraries, a museum, 213 clubs, and more than 200 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 832 physicians in the oblast, or one physician per 434 inhabitants. There were 3,700 hospital beds.

The Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1957 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Khakass Autonomous Oblast. The Khakass AO (Khakassia) was formed on Oct. 20,1930. Part of Krasnoiarsk Krai, it is located in the Minusinsk Basin. It covers an area of 61,900 sq km and has a population of 508,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 8.2 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Abakan, with a population of 136,000.

In 1980 the industrial output was 23 times greater than in 1940. Mining is the main branch of industry (coal, iron ore, ores of nonferrous metals). Also developed are the lumber industry and the processing of agricultural raw materials. Construction is under way (1981) on an aluminum plant and a railroad-car combine. Electric power is generated by the Saian-Shushenskaia Hydro-electric Power Plant.

In 1980, Khakassia had 56 sovkhozes. Land cultivation is developed, dominated by grains. In 1980 the total sown area was 619,000 ha. There is beef-and-dairy farming and sheep raising. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 222,000 head of cattle, 112,000 swine, and 1,508,000 sheep and goats. The Saian Territorial-production Complex is being formed in Khakassia.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 83,800 pupils enrolled in 308 general-education schools, 2,300 students enrolled in eight vocational-technical schools, 10,000 students enrolled in seven specialized secondary schools, and 4,700 students enrolled in the pedagogical institute and the branch of the Krasnoiarsk Polytechnical Institute in Abakan.

In 1977, Khakassia had a professional theater, 228 public libraries, a museum, 297 clubs, and 337 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 1,100 physicians in the oblast, or one physician per 435 inhabitants. There were 6,700 hospital beds.

The Khakass AO was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Autonomous okrugs

Aga-Buriat Autonomous Okrug. The Aga-Buriat Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Aga-Buriat National Okrug) was formed on Sept. 26,1937. Part of Chita Oblast, it is located in the southeastern part of Transbaikalia. It covers an area of 19,000 sq km and has a population of 70,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 3.6 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Aginskoe.

Agriculture plays a leading role in the economy. Beef-and-dairy farming is the most important branch of agriculture. Horses are also raised. Crops include grain and feed crops. Mining is developed. Other industries include the lumber industry and the processing of local agricultural products.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 17,800 pupils enrolled in 54 general-education schools and 300 students enrolled in the Aginskoe Pedagogical School. In 1977 the Aga-Buriat Autonomous Okrug had 49 public libraries, 60 clubs, and 76 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 103 physicians and 670 hospital beds in the okrug.

The Aga-Buriat Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972 and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1977.

Chukchi Autonomous Okrug. The Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Chukchi National Okrug) was formed on Dec. 10, 1930. Part of Magadan Oblast, it is located on the Chukchi Peninsula. It covers an area of 737,700 sq km and has a population of 139,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 0.2 person per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Anadyr’.

Mining (nonferrous metals, coal) and fishing are developed. There is hunting of fur-bearing animals and marine mammals. Deer raising is the leading branch of agriculture (565,000 deer). Hothouse plants are also grown.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 27,100 pupils enrolled in 98 general-education schools and 200 students enrolled in one specialized secondary school.

In 1977 the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug had 94 public libraries, a museum, 114 clubs, and 176 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 553 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 233 inhabitants. There were 2,200 hospital beds.

The Chukchi Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1970 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Evenki Autonomous Okrug. The Evenki Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Evenki National Okrug) was formed on Dec. 10, 1930. Part of Krasnoiarsk Krai, it is located on the Central Siberian Plateau. It covers an area of 767,600 sq km and has a population of 17,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 0.02 person per sq km. The administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Tura.

Four-fifths of the okrug is covered with forests. Most of the Tunguska Coalfield falls within its bounds. Graphite and Iceland spar are mined. The leading branches of the economy are the fur trade, deer raising, and fur farming. Land cultivation and dairy farming are developing.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 3,600 pupils enrolled in 31 general-education schools and 100 students enrolled in the one specialized secondary school.

In 1977 the Evenki Autonomous Okrug had 27 public libraries, a museum, 26 clubs, and 28 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 70 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 214 inhabitants. There were 385 hospital beds.

The Evenki Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1971 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Khanty-Mansi National Okrug) was formed on Dec. 10,1930. Part of Tiumen’ Oblast, it is located in the central part of the Western Siberian Lowland. It covers an area of 523,100 sq km and has a population of 672,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 1 person per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Khanty-Mansiisk.

The extraction of oil and gas is the chief branch of industry (deposits include the Samotlor deposit). Two-thirds of the okrug is covered with forests. The lumber and wood-products industries and fishing are developed. Electric power is generated by the Surgut State Regional Electric Power Plant. The fur trade, fur farming, and deer raising are also widespread. Crops include feed crops, potatoes, and vegetables.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 93,800 pupils enrolled in 239 general-education schools, 863 students enrolled in two vocational-technical schools, and 3,100 students enrolled in four specialized secondary schools.

In 1977 the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug had 183 public libraries, a museum, 231 clubs, and 267 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 1,300 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 374 inhabitants. There were 6,000 hospital beds.

The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1970 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Komi-Permiak Autonomous Okrug. The Komi-Permiak Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Komi-Permiak National Okrug) was formed on Feb. 26,1925. Part of Perm’ Oblast, it is located in the foothills of the Cis-Ural Region. It covers an area of 32,900 sq km and has a population of 169,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 5.1 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Kudymkar.

The lumber industry is the leading branch of industry. Other industries include metalworking and the production of building materials and foodstuffs. Beef-and-dairy farming is developed. Crops include grain crops, flax, feed crops, potatoes, and vegetables. The fur trade is also developed.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 37,400 pupils enrolled in 227 general-education schools and 4,400 students enrolled in four specialized secondary schools.

In 1977 the Komi-Permiak Autonomous Okrug had a professional theater, 131 public libraries, a museum, 209 clubs, and 317 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 278 physicians in the okrug and 2,100 hospital beds.

The Komi-Permiak Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972 and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1975.

Koriak Autonomous Okrug. The Koriak Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Koriak National Okrug) was formed on Dec. 10, 1930. Part of Kamchatka Oblast, it is located on the Kamchatka Peninsula and adjacent parts of the mainland and is bounded by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. It covers an area of 301,500 sq km and has a population of 35,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 0.1 person per sq km. The administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Palana.

Fishing plays a leading role in the economy. Other branches are deer raising and the hunting of fur-bearing animals and marine mammals. Dairy farming and vegetable growing are developing.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 7,700 pupils enrolled in 43 general-education schools and more than 200 students enrolled in the agricultural vocational-technical school.

In 1977 the Koriak Autonomous Okrug had 42 public libraries, 57 clubs, and 53 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 189 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 188 inhabitants. There were 1,000 hospital beds.

The Koriak Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1971 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Nenets Autonomous Okrug. The Nenets Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Nenets National Okrug) was formed on July 15, 1929. Part of Arkhangel’sk Oblast, it is located in the extreme northeast of the East European Plain and includes the islands of Kolguev and Vaigach. It is bounded by the White, Barents, and Kara seas. It covers an area of 176,700 sq km and has a population of 50,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 0.3 person per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Nar’-ian-Mar.

The chief branches of the economy are deer raising, fishing, and hunting. The food industry and sawmilling are also developed. There is dairy farming. The Timan-Pechora Territorial-production Complex, based on the explored deposits of petroleum, gas, and coal, is being formed in the okrug and in the Komi ASSR.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 8,600 pupils enrolled in 42 general-education schools, 600 students enrolled in the zooveterinary technicum and the pedagogical institute in Nar’-ian-Mar, and 300 students enrolled in the vocational-technical school.

In 1977 the Nenets Autonomous Okrug had 35 public libraries, a museum, a house of people’s art, 54 clubs, and 59 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 98 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 444 inhabitants. There were 530 hospital beds.

The Nenets Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972 and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1979.

Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug. The Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Taimyr [DolganNenets] National Okrug) was formed on Dec. 10, 1930. Part of Krasnoiarsk Krai, it is located primarily on the Taimyr Peninsula and is bounded by the Kara and Laptev seas. It covers an area of 862,100 sq km and has a population of 48,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 0.06 person per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Dudinka. Mining, deer raising, and the fur trade are the leading branches of the economy. Fishing and fur farming are also developed. Electric power is generated by the Ust’-Khantaiskoe Hydroelectric Power Plant. Dairy farming is expanding.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 8,600 pupils enrolled in 26 general-education schools and 400 students enrolled in one specialized secondary school—the Dudinka Zooveterinary Technical School.

In 1977 the Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug had 36 public libraries, 40 clubs, and 45 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 170 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 260 inhabitants. There were 935 hospital beds.

The Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1971 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Ust’-Ordynskii Buriat Autonomous Okrug. The Ust’-Ordynskii Buriat Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Ust’-Ordynskii Buriat National Okrug) was formed on Sept. 26, 1937. Part of Irkutsk Oblast, it is located in the southern part of the Central Siberian Plateau, west of Lake Baikal. It covers an area of 22,400 sq km and has a population of 129,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 5.8 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Ust’-Ordynskii.

The economy is based on agriculture. The chief crops are grain; potatoes and vegetables are also grown. There is beef-and-dairy and pork-and-bacon farming. Industries include coal mining and the lumber, wood-products, and food industries.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were more than 32,000 pupils enrolled in 260 general-education schools, 210 students enrolled in the vocational-technical school, and 600 students enrolled in the pedagogical school in Bokhan.

In 1977 the Ust’-Ordynskii Buriat Autonomous Okrug had 140 public libraries, a museum, 155 clubs, and 276 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 149 physicians in the okrug and 1,400 hospital beds.

The Ust’-Ordynskii Buriat Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972 and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1977.

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. The Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (until 1977, Yamal-Nenets National Okrug) was formed on Dec. 10,1930. Part of Tiumen’ Oblast, it is located in the northern part of the Western Siberian Lowland. It covers an area of 750,300 sq km and has a population of 193,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 0.2 person per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Salekhard.

The principal branches of the economy are the extraction of gas (the Urengoi, Zapoliarnoe, and Medvezh’e deposits), fishing, and deer raising. Fur farming and the fur trade are developed. Crops include vegetables and potatoes.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 24,500 pupils enrolled in 60 general-education schools and 1,300 students enrolled in four specialized secondary schools.

In 1977 the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug had 84 public libraries, a museum, 93 clubs, and 103 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 403 physicians in the okrug, or one physician per 359 inhabitants. There were 1,900 hospital beds.

The Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1971 and the Order of Friend-ship of Peoples in 1972.

The Ukrainian SSR, or Ukraine, is located in the southwestern part of the European USSR. It is bounded on the west by Poland and Czechoslovakia, on the southwest by Hungary and Rumania, and on the south by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The Ukraine has the second largest population, after the RSFSR, of all the Union republics of the USSR. It covers an area of 603,700 sq km and has a population of 50,135,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 36,489,000 Ukrainians, 10,472,000 Russians, 634,000 Jews, 406,000 Byelorussians, 294,000 Moldavians, 258,000 Poles, and 238,000 Bulgarians. The average population density is 83 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Kiev, has a population of 2,248,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The other major cities of the republic are Kharkov (1,485,000), Dnepropetrovsk (1,100,000), Odessa (1,072,000), Donetsk (1,040,000), Zaporozh’e (812,000), L’vov (688,000), Krivoi Rog (663,000), and Zhdanov (511,000). Many new cities have appeared, including Severodonetsk (117,000), Novaia Kakhovka, Novovolynsk, and Vatutino. The Ukrainian SSR is divided into 25 oblasts. There are three major economic regions: Donets-Dnieper, Southwestern, and Southern. The republic has 479 raions, 415 cities, and 908 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The terrain of the republic is predominantly plainlike. Areas of high elevation include the Volyn’, Podol’e, and Dnieper uplands in the west, spurs of the Central Russian Upland in the northeast, and the Azov Upland and the Donets Ridge in the southeast. Lowlands include the Poles’e Lowland in the north, the Dnieper Lowland along the middle part of the left bank of the Dnieper, and the Black Sea Lowland in the south. The Ukrainian Carpathians in the west, with a maximum elevation of 2,061 m at Mount Goverla, are part of the Eastern Carpathians. In the south the Crimean Mountains rise to an elevation of 1,545 m at Mount Roman-Kosh. The republic’s mineral resources include coal, petroleum, natural gas, graphite, fireclay, chemical raw materials, iron, manganese, nickel, mercury, and titanium ores.

The climate is moderate and predominantly continental, except along the Southern Coast of the Crimea, where it is subtropical. Average January temperatures range from –7° or –8°C in the northeast to 2°–4°C along the Southern Coast of the Crimea. Average July temperatures range from 18°–19°C in the northwest to 23°–24°C in the southeast. Annual precipitation totals 600–700 mm in the northwest and 300 mm in the southeast.

The republic’s most important rivers are the Dnieper, Iuzhnyi Bug, Dnestr, Severskii Donets, Prut, and Danube (the mouth region). Lakes include Ialpug, Sasyk, Kagul, and Alibei, as well as several limans. The Ukraine has more than 23,000 artificial bodies of water, including the Kiev, Kanev, Kremenchug, and Dneprodzerzhinsk reservoirs and Lakes Lenin and Kakhovka. The Dnieper-Krivoi Rog Canal, the Severskii Donets-Donbas Canal, and the first section of the Dnieper-Donbas Canal were constructed to supply water to cities and industrial enterprises. The North Crimean Canal has been put into operation. As of 1982, construction was under way on the Danube-Dnestr and Kakhovka irrigation systems.

The soil and flora are distributed in distinct, almost latitudinal zones. In the mountain regions, high-elevation species are most common. The northern part of the republic is located in the mixed-forest zone and includes primarily pine, oak, birch, maple, and ash, with predominantly sod podzolic and bog soils. The middle and southern parts of the republic lie within the forest-steppe zone, with chernozem and gray forest soils, and the steppe region, with low-humus chernozem and, in the extreme south, chestnut soils. Forests cover about 14 percent of the republic.

Historical survey. Class society in what is now the Ukraine developed in the first millennium B.C. From the ninth to the 12th century A.D. most of the region belonged to Kievan Rus’. The Old Russian nationality was formed during this period; three Slavic peoples—the Russians, Ukrainians, and Byelorussians—subsequently evolved from it. From the 13th to 15th centuries, the peoples of the Ukraine resisted invasions by the Mongol-Tatars, Germans, and Turks. In the 14th century the Ukraine was ruled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, and other powers. In the 15th century the Ukrainians developed into a distinct nationality.

The War of Liberation of the Ukrainian People (1648–54) ended in the reunification of the Left-bank Ukraine with Russia, in accordance with a resolution of the Pereiaslav Rada. The Right-bank Ukraine was reunited with Russia in the late 18th century. The Peasant Reform in 1861 accelerated the development of capitalism. In the late 19th century the Ukraine’s first Social Democratic organizations were founded. The working peopie of the Ukraine took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the October Revolution of 1917. Soviet power was established between November 1917 and January 1918, and the Ukrainian SSR was formed on Dec. 12 (25), 1917. From 1918 to 1920 the Ukrainian people with the help of the Red Army routed the counterrevolutionary Central Rada, Directory, White Guards, and Austro-German and Anglo-French interventionists. On Dec. 30, 1922, the Ukrainian SSR became part of the USSR, and in November 1939 the Western Ukraine was reunited with the Ukrainian SSR. Northern Bucovina and sections of Bessarabia became part of the republic on Aug. 2,1940. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

In the years 1941–42 the Ukraine was occupied by fascist German troops. A partisan movement spread throughout the republic. By the autumn of 1943, Soviet forces had liberated the Left-bank Ukraine, and by October 1944 the entire republic was liberated. In June 1945 the Transcarpathian Ukraine joined the Ukrainian SSR, and the Crimea became part of the republic in 1954. In 1945 the Ukrainian SSR became a member of the United Nations.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of the Ukraine had 2,655,366 members and 93,902 candidate members, and the Komsomol of the Ukraine had 6,157,076 members. A total of 23.5 million persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Ukrainian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Ukrainian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1954 and 1958, the Order of the October Revolution in 1967, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, the Ukraine became a highly developed industrial-agricultural republic. It has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output exceeded the 1940 level by a factor of 14 and the 1913 level by a factor of 104. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Ukrainian SSR)
 194019701980
1 Diesel-steam locomotive
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............12.4138236
Coal (million tons) ...............83.8207.1197.1
Steel (million tons) ...............8.946.653.7
Rolled ferrous metals (million tons) ...............5.632.736.0
Iron ore (million tons) ...............20.2111.2125.5
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients million tons) ...............0.22.54.1
Chemical fiber (thousand tons) ...............1.665.3161
Soda ash (100-percent, thousand tons) ...............4138711,077
Sulfuric acid (thousand tons) ...............4072,2234,507
Turbines (million kW) ...............0.144.47.0
Blast-furnace and steel-smelting equipment (thousand tons) ...............10.084.7102.9
Roll-mill equipment (thousand tons) ...............6.061.760.1
Diesel locomotives, main-line (sections) ...............111,3901,311
Motor vehicles (thousand units) ...............115.7206.2
Tractors (thousand units) ...............10.4147.5135.6
Excavators (thousand units) ...............0.0177.79.9
Tractor plows (thousand units) ...............19.8112.5105.7
Tractor planters (thousand units) ...............11.063.178.0
Beet-harvesting combines (thousand units) ...............9.19.5
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............40.8148.9177.2
Cameras (thousand units) ...............32.3225461
Radio broadcast receivers (thousand units) ...............1.7673256
Television sets (thousand units) ...............1,9812,436
Refrigerators (thousand units) ...............0.2482692
Meat (thousand tons) ...............299.31,5652,074
Butter (thousand tons) ...............33.3245.2335
Vegetable oil (thousand tons) ...............158.71,071.3941
Granulated sugar (million tons) ...............1.585.975.3

The industry of the Ukraine possesses rich sources of fuel and energy. The Donets Coal Basin is the chief source of hard coal in the Ukrainian SSR and the entire country. Natural gas and petroleum have become increasingly important in the republic’s fuel budget. The largest steam power plants are located at Uglegorsk, Zaporozh’e, Burshtyn, Zmiev, Zuevka, Pridneprovsk, Voroshilovgrad, and Starobeshevo. New plants in operation include the Krivoi Rog State Regional Electric Power Plant No. 2. A series of hydroelectric power plants has been constructed on the Dnieper, including the V. I. Lenin Dnieper, Dneprodzerzhinsk, Kakhovka, Kremenchug, Kanev, and Kiev plants. The Chernobyl’ Atomic Power Plant began generating electricity in 1977. Plants under construction as of 1982 include the South Ukrainian and Khmel’nitskii atomic power plants.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Ukrainian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (million hectares) ...............31.332.833.6
Grain crops ...............21.415.516.5
wheat ...............7.26.08.0
Industrial crops ...............2.73.94.1
sugar beets ...............0.81.71.8
sunflowers ...............0.721.711.7
fiberflax ...............0.120.230.23
Melons and vegetables ...............0.750.600.6
Potatoes ...............2.12.01.7
Gross yield (million tons) Grain crops ...............26.436.438.1
wheat ...............8.415.621.3
Sugar beets ...............13.146.348.9
Sunflowers ...............0.92.72.3
Vegetables ...............5.55.87.2
Potatoes ...............20.719.713.1

The Ukrainian SSR, specifically the Donets and Dnieper regions, is an important center of ferrous metallurgy. Nonferrous metallurgy specializes in the production of light metals and mercury. The republic is a major producer of machinery for heavy industry and power plants, means of transportation, tractors, agricultural machinery, and instruments. The major machine-building enterprises include the New Kramatorsk and Zdanov heavy machine building plants, the Kharkov Tractor Works, the Kharkov Electrotiazhmash Plant, the Voroshilovgrad Diesel Locomotive Construction Works, and the Gorlovka Mining Equipment Plant. Enterprises of the chemical industry manufacture mineral fertilizers, chemical fibers, synthetic resins, plastics, dyes, and rubber products. The republic’s food-processing industry plays an important role in the economy of the entire country. Light industry constitutes an essential part of the republic’s economy. Microbiological synthesis is being developed on an indus-trial basis.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 2.1 times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980 the Ukraine had 2,110 sovkhozes and 7,096 kolkhozes, including 80 fishing kolkhozes. In 1980 the republic’s stock of agricultural equipment included 408,800 tractors (compared to 94,600 in 1940), 89,900 grain-harvesting combines (33,400 in 1940), and 230,800 trucks (54,900 in 1940). There were 42.1 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 70 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 34.2 million ha, hayfields for 2.1 million ha, and pastureland for 4.6 million ha. By 1980 the total area of irrigated land had reached 2,014,000 ha. Large-scale drainage projects had succeeded in draining 2,539,000 ha of land by 1980. Plant cultivation and animal husbandry accounted for 45 percent and 55 percent, respectively, of gross agricultural output in 1980.

Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops.

The area devoted to berry and other fruit plantings, except vineyards, increased from 612,000 ha in 1940 to 1,106,000 ha in 1980, and the area covered by vineyards rose from 103,000 ha to 248,000 ha. The gross yield of berries and other fruits except grapes increased from 790,000 tons to 2,253,000 tons, and the gross yield of grapes from 161,000 tons to 886,000 tons. Herbs and plants grown for essential oils are of great commercial importance.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Ukrainian SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............10,99721,35225,368
cows ...............5,9658,5639,271
Swine (thousands) ...............9,18620,74619,783
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............7,3258,9719,051
Poultry (millions) ...............69.6155.2233.6

Cattle raising is the leading branch of animal husbandry (see Table 3). Near industrial centers, large industrialized complexes have been built to manufacture animal products on a mass scale. Special industrialized establishments produce broilers and dietetic eggs. Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

Specialists in agriculture strive to accelerate production through the use of chemical materials and the comprehensive mechanization of land cultivation and livestock raising.

The chief form of transportation is railroad transport. In 1980 the Ukraine had 22,550 km of railroad lines. The seaports of Odessa, Nikolaev, Il’ichevsk, Zhdanov, and Kherson are important for the USSR’s maritime trade. The total length of navigable riverways amounted to 4,900 km in 1980. There were 209,800 km of roads in 1980, of which 165,700 km were paved. The republic also has good facilities for air transport. Its network of pipelines receives petroleum, petroleum products, and gas from the Northern Caucasus, the Volga Region, and the Urals and supplies some of the republic’s natural gas from the Shebelinka and Dashava deposits to other regions.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Ukrainian SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............1,1272,8503,500
Milk (thousand tons) ...............7,11418,71221,112
Eggs (million tons) ...............3,2729,20214,606
Wool (thousand tons) ...............13.424.927.3

The standard of living in the Ukraine is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.5 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 3.203 billion rubles in 1940 to 46.743 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of 8.6. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 34.261 billion rubles, compared to 96 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,110 rubles, compared to 28 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 441.1 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 90.8 million sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 27.9 percent of the Ukraine’s population between the ages of nine and 49 was literate; the figure for men was 41.7 percent, and that for women was 14 percent. During the 1914–15 academic year the area within the boundaries of the Ukrainian SSR as of Sept. 17, 1939, had 20,200 schools, with a total of 1,728,300 pupils. Not a single state-run school conducted classes in Ukrainian. A complete secondary education was provided by 577 schools and 71 specialized secondary educational institutions. The region had 19 higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new Ukrainian school system was formed, with classes taught in both Ukrainian and Russian. In 1939 the literacy rate was 88.2 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.8 percent of the population was literate.

In 1977 there were 2,224,000 children enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 7.7 million pupils were enrolled in 24,000 general-education schools of all types. A total of 597,000 students were enrolled in 1,047 vocational-educational institutions, including 300,000 in secondary vocational-technical institutions. There were 807,100 students enrolled in 723 specialized secondary educational institutions and 856,700 in 143 higher educational institutions. The republic’s higher educational institutions include the universities of Kiev, L’vov, Kharkov, Odessa, Chernovtsy, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Uzhgorod, and Simferopol’; the Kiev, Kharkov, L’vov, and Odessa polytechnic institutes; the Kiev Conservatory; and the Kiev Medical Institute.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 776 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 139 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1977 a total of 179,500 scientific workers were employed in scientific institutions.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. In 1977 the republic had 79 theaters, including the T. G. Shevchenko Ukrainian Theater of Opera and Ballet, the I. M. Franko Ukrainian Drama Theater, the Lesia Ukrainka Kiev Theater, the Odessa Theater of Opera and Ballet, and the Odessa Russian Drama Theater. There were 27,700 motion-picture projection units and 26,000 clubs. The largest libraries are the CPSU State Library of the Ukrainian SSR (founded 1866; 1,729,100 copies of books, pamphlets, and journals) and the Central Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (more than 6 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). In 1977 there were 27,000 public libraries (330.3 million copies of books and journals) and 158 museums.

In 1977, 8,430 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 160.6 million copies, or three times more than in 1940. There were 173 journals and magazines in 1977, with a total annual circulation of 229.1 million, compared to 251 publications, with an annual circulation of 12.3 million, in 1940. In 1977 the republic had 1,799 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 24,074,000 and a total annual circulation of 4.505 billion. Books, magazines, journals, and newspapers are printed in Ukrainian, Russian, Moldavian, and several foreign languages; Ukrainian-language publications account for more than two-thirds of the total number of copies. The Telegraph Agency of the Ukraine (RATAU) and the Republic Book Chamber were established in Kiev in 1922.

The first radio broadcast was made in 1924 from Kharkov. Radio programs are broadcast in Ukrainian, Russian, Moldavian, Hungarian, German, and English. In 1951 the Kiev Television Center went into operation.

In 1977 the republic had 3,983 hospitals, with 599,300 beds, compared to 2,498 hospitals and 157,600 beds in 1940. Medical personnel in 1977 included 166,800 physicians and 491,200 secondary medical personnel, compared to 35,300 physicians and 100,800 secondary medical personnel in 1940. The republic has many popular health resorts offering basic cures. Areas of special note in this regard are the Southern Coast of the Crimea, the Odessa health resort region, Evpatoriia, Saki, and Truskavets.

The Byelorussian SSR, or Byelorussia, is located in the western part of the European USSR. Bounded on the west by Poland, it covers an area of 207,600 sq km and has a population of 9,675,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 7,568,000 Byelorussians, 1,134,000 Russians, 403,000 Poles, 231,000 Ukrainians, and 135,000 Jews. The average population density is 46.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Minsk, has a population of 1,333,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The other major cities are Gomel’ (405,000), Vitebsk (310,000), Mogilev (308,000), Bobruisk (203,000), Grodno (212,000), Brest (194,000), Baranovichi (138,000), Borisov (117,000), and Orsha (115,000). Many new cities have appeared, including Novopolotsk, Svetlogorsk, Soligorsk, and Zhodino. The republic is divided into six oblasts and 111 raions. It has 96 cities and 109 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The terrain of the republic is predominantly plainlike. A zone of hill-and ridge-shaped moraines stretches across the northwestern part; known as the Byelorussian Shelf, it rises to a maximum elevation of 345 m. In the south is the marshy Byelorussian Poles’e. Mineral resources include potassium salts, rock salt, peat, and petroleum.

The republic has a moderate continental climate. Average January temperatures range from – 4°C in the southwest to – 8°C in the northeast, and average July temperatures range from 17°C in the north to 19°C in the south. Annual precipitation varies from 500 mm to 700 mm.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Byelorussian SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.515.134.1
Trucks (thousands units) ...............29.840.1
Tractors (thousand units) ...............80.389.6
AC electric motors (0.25–100 kW, thousand kW) ...............11.81,5583,150
Rolling-contact bearings (million units) ...............101.3139.7
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............2.52,2504,931
Chemical fiber (thousand tons) ...............2.664.8255
Radio broadcast receivers (thousand units) ...............0.4423.6473.9
Television sets (thousand units) ...............634.8448.2
Bicycles (thousand units) ...............519.7695.0
Motorcycles (thousand units) ...............152.4217.3
Refrigerators (thousand units) ...............216.5582.4
Clocks and watches (million units) ...............2.47.3
Paper (thousand tons) ...............51103189
Fiberboard (million sq m) ...............0.716.930.1
Particleboard (thousand cu m) ...............102.6377
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............9.837.541.5
Knit outerwear (million units) ...............1.231.136.1
Meat (thousand tons) ...............60.3427.6578.1

The chief rivers are the Dnieper, its tributaries the Pripiat’ and Sozh, the Zapadnaia Dvina, and the Neman. The republic has approximately 11,000 lakes. It has sod podzolic, sod podzolic bog, and peat bog soils. Forests, primarily coniferous, cover more than one-third of the republic.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now the Byelorussian SSR in the first millennium A.D. During the ninth to 11th centuries, the region was part of Kievan Rus’. The Old Russian nationality was formed in this period; three East Slavic peoples—the Russians, Ukrainians, and Byelorussians—subsequently evolved from it. In the 12th century the region was divided into feudal principalities, including the Polotsk and TurovPinsk principalities. In the 14th century it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and in 1569 it became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the late 18th century it was re-united with Russia.

The abolition of serfdom in 1861 accelerated the development of capitalism in Byelorussia. The first Social Democratic circles were organized in the late 19th century. The working people of Byelorussia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the October Revolution of 1917. In 1915 the western part of Byelorussia was occupied by German troops. Soviet power was established in October and November 1917. From February to November 1918, almost all of Byelorussia was occupied by German forces. On Jan. 1, 1919, the Byelorussian SSR was formed. The Litduanian-Byelorussian SSR existed from February to August 1919. In 1919 and 1920 the region was occupied by bourgeois Poland. Under the terms of the Treaty of Riga (1921), Western Byelorussia passed to Poland.

In 1922 the Byelorussian SSR became part of the USSR, and in 1939 Western Byelorussia was reunited with the Byelorussian SSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

In 1941 the Byelorussian SSR was occupied by fascist German troops. The Byelorussian people rose against the enemy, forming 1,255 partisan detachments and groups, with a total strength of more than 374,000 persons. During the war more than 2.2 million citizens of the republic perished. In July 1944 the Byelorussian SSR was liberated by Soviet forces. In 1945 it became a member of the United Nations.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Byelorussia had 520,283 members and 22,218 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Byelorussia had 1,324,206 members. A total of 4,577,379 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Byelorussian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Byelorussian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1935 and 1958, the Order of the October Revolution in 1968, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Byelorussia became a highly developed industrial-agricultural republic. It has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980, industrial output was 29 times greater than in 1940 and 235 times greater than in 1913. During the Soviet period the role of heavy industry in the economy has increased. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1.

The largest electric power plants are the Lukoml’ (2,400 mega-watts), Berezov, Svetlogorsk, and Smolevichi state regional power plants. Peat has long been extracted in Byelorussia, and petroleum is now extracted and refined in Novopolotsk and Mozyr’. The republic is one of the USSR’s major producers of motor vehicles, machine tools (manufactured in Minsk, Vitebsk, Gomel’, Orsha, and Molodechno), and tractors (manufactured in Minsk, Zhodino, and Mogilev). The instrument-making, electronics, and electrical engineering industries, centered in Minsk, Vitebsk, Gomel’, Mozyr’, Brest, and Lida, are well developed. The chemical industry specializes in the production of mineral fertilizers, particularly on the basis of the Starobin Potassium-salt Basin, and polymers, specifically chemical fibers, centered at Svetlogorsk, Mogilev, Novopolotsk, and Grodno. Meat and dairy products dominate the food-processing industry. The chief products of light industry are textiles (linen fabrics in Orsha and cotton fabrics in Baranovichi), knitwear, and leather footwear. The city of Borisov is known for its wood products.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was nearly twice as great as in 1940. By the end of 1980, Byelorussia had 897 sovkhozes and 1,801 kolkhozes. Its stock of agricultural equipment included 117,200 tractors (compared to 10,400 in 1940), 27,400 grain-harvesting combines (1,700 in 1940), and 72,300 trucks (6,100 in 1940). There were 9.6 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 46 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 6.2 million ha, hayfields for 1.5 million ha, and pastureland for 1.8 million ha. In 1980 the area of drained land reached 2,716,700 ha, or 25 percent of all farmland. Plant cultivation and animal husbandry accounted for 39 percent and 61 percent, respectively, of gross agricultural output in 1980.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Byelorussian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............5,2126,0476,308
Grain crops ...............3,4752,5053,139
Industrial crops ...............313313290
fiberflax ...............275261234
Potatoes ...............929956787
Feed crops ...............4332,2242,038
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............2,7274,2395,009
Flaxfiber ...............3610261
Potatoes ...............11,87913,2349,339

Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops. The area devoted to fruit plantings, including berry plantings, increased from 91,000 ha in 1940 to 162,000 ha in 1980. The gross yield increased from 70,000 tons to 414,000 tons.

Meat and dairy production is the leading branch of agriculture (see Table 3). Figures on the output of animal products are given in Table 4. Fur farming (black fox, mink, and coypu), apiculture, and pond fish culture are undergoing development.

In 1980, Byelorussia had a total of 5,510 km of railroad lines. In 1979 there were 46,100 km of roads, 36,700 km of which were paved. In 1980 there were 3,900 km of waterways in use. The republic has good facilities for air transport. In 1975 there were 2,000 km of trunk pipelines and approximately 1,500 km of gas pipelines.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Byelorussian SSR)
 194111971119811
1 As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............2,8445,3836,768
cows ...............1,9562,4902,738
Swine (thousands) ...............2,5204,0044,567
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............2,578692570
Poultry (millions) ...............14.727.039.2

The standard of living in Byelorussia is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.9 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, grew from 524 million rubles in 1940 to 9.909 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of more than 13. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 6.347 billion rubles, compared to 17 million rubles in 1940. The size of the average account in 1980 was 971 rubles, compared to 41 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 72.4 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 20.981 million sq m.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Byelorussian SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............275685857
Milk (thousand tons) ...............2,0055,26 46,105
Eggs (million units) ...............6121,6693,03 4
Wool (thousand tons) ...............3.31.21.1

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 32 percent of Byelorussia’s population was literate; the figure for men was 43.5 percent, and that for women was 20.7 percent. During the 1914–15 academic year there were 7,700 general-education schools, with a total of 489,000 pupils. There were several teachers’ seminaries, technical schools, and three teachers’ institutes.

After the establishment of Soviet power a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Byelorussian. In 1939 the literacy rate was 80.8 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.8 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977 a total of 418,000 children were enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 1.6 million pupils were enrolled in 8,000 general-education schools of all types. A total of 127,600 students were enrolled in 194 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 60,100 students in 108 secondary vocational-technical schools. There were 162,200 students in 132 specialized secondary educational institutions and 167,800 students in 31 higher educational institutions. The republic’s largest higher educational institutions are the Byelorussian University, the Byelorussian Polytechnic Institute, the Minsk Pedagogical Institute, and the Minsk Medical Institute.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 715 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 113 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific center is the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR. Scientific workers in the republic number 34,500 (Jan. 1,1978).

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. In 1977 the republic had 15 theaters, including the Iakub Kolas Byelorussian Drama Theater, the Ianka Kupala Byelorussian Theater, and the Byelorussian Theater of Opera and Ballet. There were 6,700 motion-picture projection units and 6,400 clubs.

The largest libraries are the V. I. Lenin State Library of the Byelorussian SSR (founded 1922; 6,496,000 copies of books, pamphlets, and journals in 1975) and the Ia. Kolas Fundamental Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR (1,895,000 copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). In 1975 there were 7,000 public libraries (74.1 million copies of books and journals). The republic has 61 museums.

In 1977, Byelorussia’s publishing houses released 2,330 book and pamphlet titles (including 393 in Byelorussian), with a total printing of 35.1 million copies. In 1940, by contrast, 772 titles were released, with a total printing of 10.37 million copies. The total annual circulation of journals and magazines in 1977 was 36.5 million, including 29.1 million for the 30 publications in Byelorussian. In 1940 there were 27 journals and magazines, with a total circulation of 1.1 million. In 1977 the republic published 186 newspapers, with a total annual circulation of 830 million, including 280 million for the 128 newspapers in Byelorussian. The Byelorussian Telegraph Agency (BelTa) was established in 1931, and the Republic Book Chamber was founded in 1922.

The first radio broadcast was made in Minsk in 1925, and the Minsk Television Center went into operation in 1956. Radio and television programs are broadcast in Byelorussian and Russian.

In 1977 the republic had 897 hospitals, with 114,700 beds, compared to 514 hospitals and 29,600 beds in 1940. Medical personnel included 30,200 physicians and 87,900 secondary medical personnel, compared to 5,200 physicians and 17,900 secondary medical personnel in 1940.

The Uzbek SSR, or Uzbekistan, is located in the central and northern parts of Middle Asia. It is bounded on the south by Afghanistan and on the northwest by the Aral Sea. It covers an area of 447,400 sq km and has a population of 16,158,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 10,569,000 Uzbeks, 298,000 Kara-Kalpaks, 1,666,000 Russians, 649,000 Tatars, 620,000 Kazakhs, 595,000 Tadzhiks, and 163,000 Koreans. The average population density is 36.1 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Tashkent, has a population of 1,858,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The other major cities are Samarkand (489,000), Namangan (241,000), Bukhara (192,000), Fergana (180,000), Kokand (156,000), and Margilan (114,000). Many new cities have appeared, including Chirchik (136,000), Angren (111,000), Almalyk (104,000), Navoi, and Bekabad. The Uzbek SSR comprises the Kara-Kalpak ASSR and 11 oblasts. The republic is divided into 156 raions and has 109 cities and 93 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The largest part of Uzbekistan, the northwestern section, lies in the Turan Lowland; much of the section is occupied by the Kyzylkum Desert. In the east and south are foot-hills and spurs of the Tien-Shan and Gissar-Alai. In this region lie such intermontane valleys as the Fergana Basin and the Zeravshan valley. Mineral resources include natural gas, petroleum, coal, and ores of nonferrous and rare metals.

Uzbekistan has an arid, markedly continental climate. The average January temperature ranges from – 6° to 3°C, and the average July temperature from 26° to 32°C. Annual precipitation ranges from 80–200 mm in the plains to 1,000 mm in the mountains.

The chief rivers are the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Chirchik (a tributary of the Syr Darya), and the Zeravshan. In the plains, desert vegetation grows on sierozems and gray-brown soils. Steppes, forests, and mountain meadows are found in the mountainous regions.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Uzbekistan during the first millennium B.C. The ancient states of Bactria, Khwarazm, Sogdiana, and Parthia came into existence in the eighth century B.C. The region was invaded by the Achaemenids in the sixth century B.C. and was conquered by Alexander the Great in the fourth century B.C. In the third and second centuries, it belonged to the Seleucid state and to the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. In the period between the second century B.C. and the eighth century A.D., a number of states flourished in Uzbekistan; these were the Kangiui (Kangkha), Fergana, Tocharian, and Ephthalite states, as well as the Kushana Kingdom and the Turkic Kaganate. In the eighth century the region was conquered by the Arabian Caliphate, and anti-Arab revolts, including the Mukanna Uprising, ensued. Between the ninth and 13th centuries the region was occupied by the Samanid and Karakhanid states and Khwarazm. The Uzbek nationality took shape in the 11th and 12th centuries. The region was conquered by the Mongol-Tatars in the 13th century and formed part of the Timurid state in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Uzbek Sheibanid state arose in the 15th century, the Bukhara and Khiva khanates in the 16th century, and the Kokand Khanate in the 18th century.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Uzbek SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.518.333.9
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............0.38251,291
Tractors (thousand units) ...............21.124.2
Trailers, tractor-drawn (thousand units)38.537.1
Cotton pickers (units) ...............55,9219,050
Cotton planters (thousand units) ...............0.58.08.6
Cultivators, tractor-drawn (thousand units) ...............1.920.119.3
Compressors (units) ...............2,4486,889
Spinning frames (units) ...............8111,704
Roving frames (units) ...............457359
Excavators (units) ...............1,0251,505
Bridge cranes, electric (units) ...............8711,387
Reinforced-concrete articles and structural units (thousand cu m) ...............2,8714,643
Lint cotton (thousand tons) ...............5341,3841,745
Rawsilk(tons) ...............6931,1721,711
Knitted outerwear and underwear (million pieces) ...............3.532.450.9
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............3.818.430.4
Vegetable oil (thousand tons) ...............141.7293.6412.3
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............39.3334.1725.2
Grape wine (million decaliters) ...............1.97.913.6

During the 1860’s and 1870’s part of Uzbekistan—Samarkand Oblast and parts of Fergana, Semirech’e, and Syr Darya oblasts—was incorporated into Russia. Participation in the Russian economic system accelerated the emergence of industry. The Uzbek working people took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916, the February Revolution of 1917, and the October Revolution of 1917.

Soviet power was established between November 1917 and March 1918, with most of the region becoming part of the Turkestan ASSR. With the aid of the Red Army, the working people routed the White Guards and the Basmachi. In 1921 and 1922 the first land and water reforms were implemented. On Oct. 27, 1924, as a step in the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the Uzbek SSR was created as a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in Uzbekistan as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Uzbek people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Uzbekistan had 495,118 members and 23,232 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Uzbekistan had 1,917,408 members. A total of 3,548,070 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Uzbek people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Uzbek SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1939 and 1956, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Uzbekistan became an industrial-agricultural republic. A region of developing heavy industry and well-established light and food-processing industries, it is the principal cotton-growing region of the USSR. Uzbekistan has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 16 times greater than in 1940 and 77 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are presented in Table 1.

The bulk of the electric power output is produced by heat and power plants. The largest electric power plants are the Tashkent, Syr Darya, Navoi, and Angren state regional electric power plants, and the republic’s largest hydroelectric power plant is the Charvak Hydroelectric Power Plant. Natural gas is the republic’s chief energy resource. The main region for the gas industry is Bukhara Oblast, where Gazli, the site of one of the country’s largest deposits, is situated.

Petroleum is extracted mainly in the Fergana Valley, in Bukhara Oblast, and brown coal is mined at the Angren coalfield. Ferrous metallurgy plants have been constructed in Bekabad, and nonferrous metallurgy is developed in Almalyk and other places. The chemical industry, which is centered in Chirchik, Kokand, Samarkand, Fergana, Almalyk, and Navoi, specializes in the production of mineral fertilizers for cotton growing.

Synthetic resins, plastics, and chemical fibers are also manufactured. Machine building is developed, including the production of agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, textile machines, and road-building machines. This industry is centered mainly in Tashkent, Samarkand, Andizhan, Kokand, and Chirchik. Leading branches of light industry include cotton-ginning and cotton fabric production plants, which are concentrated in Tashkent, Bukhara, and Fergana, and the silk industry, which is centered in Margilan and Namangan.

The food-processing industry includes plants that produce vegetable oil and fats, as well as creameries, cheese-making plants, wineries, and fruit- and vegetable-processing plants.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 4.7 times greater than in 1940. At the end of 1980 there were 664 sovkhozes and 854 kolkhozes. The republic’s stock of agricultural equipment in that year included 157,300 tractors (compared to 23,000 in 1940), 36,600 cotton pickers, 8,500 grain-harvesting combines (1,600 in 1940), and 52,600 trucks (7,300 in 1940). There were 26.3 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 59 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 4.1 million ha, hayfields for 100,000 ha, and pastureland for 21.7 million ha. Irrigation plays an important role in agriculture. In 1980 the Uzbek SSR had 3,518,000 ha of irrigated land. The largest canals are the Bol’shoi Fergana, the Amu-Bukhara, and the Eskiankhor. Reservoirs include the Kattakurgan, Iuzhnyi Surkhan (Southern Surkhan), and Chimkurgan.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Uzbek SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............3,0363,4763,995
Grain crops ...............1,4801,1601,174
Industrial crops ...............1,0221,7411,912
cotton ...............9241,7091,878
Potatoes ...............232123
Vegetables ...............2553104
Melons ...............394652
Feed crops ...............447452723
Gross yield (thousand tons) Seed cotton ...............1,3864,4956,245
Grain crops ...............6019802,518
Potatoes ...............113180239
Vegetables ...............3117812,459
Melons ...............3245491,046

Plant growing accounted for 73 percent of the gross agricultural output in 1980. Figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops are presented in Table 2. Cotton growing is the most important branch of the republic’s agriculture. In the southern regions, especially valuable fine-fiber varieties of cotton are grown. Large new cotton-growing regions have been developed in such areas as the Golodnaia Steppe and along the lower course of the Amu Darya. Work is in progress to open up the Karshi and Dzhizak Steppes. Between 1940 and 1980 the area devoted to fruit plantings, including berry plantings but excluding vineyards, increased from 33,000 ha to 203,000 ha, and the area covered by vineyards increased from 28,000 ha to 98,000 ha. The gross yield of berries and other fruits, except grapes, rose from 136,000 tons to 702,000 tons, and the gross yield of grapes increased from 130,000 tons to 497,000 tons.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Uzbek SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............1,6722,9073,531
cows ...............6221,1401,360
Swine (thousands) ...............103296531
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............5,7927,9788,962
Poultry (millions) ...............2.413.825.6

Animal husbandry is devoted mainly to the raising of livestock, particularly Karakul sheep. Figures on the livestock and poultry population are given in Table 3. Sericulture is well developed. The output of major animal products is given in Table 4.

The chief form of transportation is railroad transport. In 1980, Uzbekistan had 3,420 km of railroad lines and 83,600 km of roads, of which 60,900 km were paved. There is navigation along the Amu Darya and on the Aral Sea. The republic also has good facilities for air transport. Routes through Tashkent link Moscow and a number of European capitals with countries in Southeast Asia. The principal gas pipelines are Middle Asia-Central Zone, Bukhara-Urals, and Bukhara-Tashkent-Frunze-Alma-Ata.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Uzbek SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............82208330
Milk (tdousan d tons) ...............4511,3332,266
Eggs (million tons) ...............1338601,461
Wool (thousand tons) ...............6.82229.2

The standard of living in Uzbekistan is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.8 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 523 million rubles in 1940 to 10.333 billion rubles in 1980; the per capita turn-over increased by a factor of 6.1. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 3.390 billion rubles, compared to 18 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,044 rubles, compared to 33 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 62.2 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 27.382 million sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 98 percent of the indigenous population was illiterate. During the 1914–15 academic year, Uzbekistan had 165 general-education schools, with a total of 17,500 pupils; 2–3 percent of Uzbek boys between the ages of seven and 12 were enrolled in school. There were no higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new Uzbek school system was formed, with classes taught in Uzbek. By 1939 the literacy rate had risen to 78.7 percent, and by 1970 it had reached 99.7 percent.

In 1977, there were 656,000 children enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year there were 3.8 million pupils enrolled in 9,500 general-education schools of all types. There were 356 vocational-technical educational institutions, with a total of 161,000 students, including 88,000 in 162 secondary vocational-technical institutions. There were 208,600 students in 199 specialized secondary educational institutions and 259,600 students in 43 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the University of Tashkent, the Tashkent Pedagogical Institute, the Tashkent Medical Institute, the Tashkent Agriculture Institute, and the University of Samarkand.

In 1976, 779 of every 1,000 employed persons had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, compared with 61 of every 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR.

In 1977, there were 32,300 scientific workers employed in scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. At the end of 1977 the republic had 26 theaters, including the A. Navoi Uzbek Theater of Opera and Ballet, the Mukimi Uzbek Musical Theater, and the Khamza Uzbek Drama Theater. There were 4,700 motion-picture projection units and 3,800 clubs. The largest library is the A. Navoi State Library of the Uzbek SSR (founded 1870; 4.2 million copies of books, pamphlets, journals, and magazines). There are 6,500 public libraries (44.6 million copies of books, journals, and magazines). Uzbekistan has 33 museums.

In 1977, 2,176 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 35.7 million copies; by contrast, in 1940,1,219 titles were released, with a total printing of 11.2 million copies. Of the books and pamphlets published in 1977, 951 were in Uzbek; the total number of copies was 24.8 million. There were 81 journals and magazines published, with a total annual circulation of 138.3 million; 260 newspapers were published, with a total single-issue circulation of 4,626,000 and a total annual circulation of 917 million. There are 173 Uzbek-language newspapers. The Uzbek Information Agency (UzTAG) was founded in 1918, and the Republic Book Chamber was opened in 1926.

The first radio broadcasts were made in 1922 in Tashkent. In 1927, the first radio station began broadcasting. Programs are in such languages as Uzbek, Russian, Tadzhik, Kazakh, and Kara-Kalpak. Television broadcasts began in 1958 and are conducted in Uzbek, Russian, and Kazakh. The republic’s television center is located in Tashkent.

Uzbekistan had 1,138 hospitals, with a total of 159,300 beds, in 1977, as compared to 380 hospitals, with 20,300 beds, in 1940. In 1977 there were 39,300 physicians and 121,200 secondary medical personnel, as compared to 3,200 doctors and 12,200 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Health resorts include the popular climatic and balneological resorts of Aktash, Tashkent Mineral’nye Vody, Chartak, and Shakhimardan.

Kara-Kalpak ASSR

The Kara-Kalpak ASSR (Kara-Kalpakia) was formed on Mar. 20, 1932, and became part of the Uzbek SSR on Dec. 5, 1936. Located in the northwestern part of the Uzbek SSR, it is bounded on the north by the Aral Sea. Kara-Kalpakia covers an area of 165,600 sq km and has a population of 957,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). According to the 1979 census, the population includes 282,000 Kara-Kalpaks, 285,000 Uzbeks, 244,000 Kazakhs, 49,000 Turkmens, and 21,000 Russians. The average population density is 5.8 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Nukus, has a population of 119,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Kara-Kalpakia’s mineral resources include deposits of common salt, Glauber salt, petroleum, and natural gas. In 1980 the total industrial output was 7.3 times greater than in 1940. The most highly developed branches of industry are cotton processing, the processing of fish and animal husbandry products, the production of building materials, and metalworking.

In 1980, Kara-Kalpakia had 106 sovkhozes and 41 kolkhozes. The land under cultivation is irrigated. The total sown area in 1980 was 313,100 ha. Cotton is the principal crop; in 1980, 133,700 ha were planted to cotton. The chief grain crop is rice. Alfalfa is also grown. Vegetables and melons are cultivated, and there are orchards and vineyards. As of Jan. 1, 1981, the live-stock population included 305,500 head of cattle and 587,100 sheep and goats. Sericulture and fur farming are of some importance.

In 1939, the literacy rate in Kara-Kalpakia was 69.3 percent. As of the 1970 census, it had risen to 99.6 percent.

During the 1977–78 academic year there were 242,000 pupils enrolled in 817 general-education schools of all types, compared to four schools, with 199 pupils, in the 1914–15 academic year. In the 1977–78 academic year there were 8,000 students enrolled in 23 vocational-technical educational institutions, 14,000 students in 21 specialized secondary educational institutions, and 5,000 students in the University of Nukus. During the 1914–15 academic year there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

The principal scientific institution is the Kara-Kalpak Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. In 1977, KaraKalpakia had a professional theater, a philharmonic society, 465 public libraries, two museums, 263 clubs, and 314 motion-picture projection units.

The republic had 2,000 physicians, or one physician per 443 inhabitants, in 1977, as compared to 117 physicians, or one per 4,264 inhabitants, in 1940. In 1977 there were 9,600 hospital beds, as compared to 1,600 in 1940.

The Kara-Kalpak ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1959, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

The Kazakh SSR, or Kazakhstan, is located in the southwestern Asian part of the USSR. It is bounded on the east by China and on the west by the Caspian Sea. It covers an area of 2,717,300 sq km and has a population of 15,053,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 5,289,000 Kazakhs, 5,991,000 Russians, 900,000 Germans, 898,000 Ukrainians, 313,000 Tatars, and 263,000 Uzbeks. The average population density is 5.5 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital, Alma-Ata, has a population of 975,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). Other major cities include Chimkent (334,000), Semipalatinsk (291,000), Pavlodar (288,000), Ust’-Kamenogorsk (286,000), Dzhambul (277,000), Tselinograd (241,000), Petropavlovsk (212,000), Aktiubinsk (205,000), Ural’sk (176,000), Kustanai (174,000), Kzyl-Orda (163,000), and Gur’ev (135,000). Many new cities have appeared, including Karaganda (583,000), Temirtau (217,000), Shevchenko (122,000), Rudnyi (112,000), Dzhezkazgan, Ekibastuz (81,000), Balkhash (79,000), Arkalyk (66,000), and Kentau (53,000). The republic is divided into 19 oblasts and 221 raions and has 82 cities and 197 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Much of Kazakhstan is occupied by plains and lowlands. The lowest elevation in the USSR—132 m below sea level—occurs in the Karagie Basin in the western part of the republic. Mountains belonging to the Altai and Tien-Shan are found in the east and southeast. Mineral resources include iron ore, oil, natural gas, coal, ores of nonferrous metals, phosphorites, and various salts.

The republic has an arid, markedly continental climate. The average January temperature ranges from – 19°C in the north to –4°C in the south. The average July temperature ranges from 19°C in the north to 26°C in the south. Annual precipitation totals less than 100 mm in the deserts, 300–400 mm in the north, and 1,000–2,000 mm in the mountains.

The chief rivers are the Irtysh, Syr Darya, Ural, Emba, and IIi. The largest lakes are the Balkhash and Zaisan. Such reservoirs as the Bukhtarma, Kapchagai, and Chardar’ia have been built on the rivers. In addition to chernozems, the main types of soils are brown, gray-brown, and chestnut. The mountain areas exhibit an altitudinal zonation. Steppe, semidesert, and desert vegetation grows in the plains. Forests, primarily larch, cover 3.3 percent of Kazakhstan. Coniferous forests predominate in the mountains, and saxaul in the deserts.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Kazakhstan from the third to first centuries B.C. The tribal association of the Usun and Kangiui (Kangkha) state was formed during this period. From the sixth to eighth centuries the Turkic Kaganate—an early feudal state—and the Turgesh and Karluk states existed. In the period from the ninth to 12th centuries, western, southwestern, southern, and southeastern Kazakhstan were part of the Oguz, Kimak, Kipchak, and subsequently, Karakhanid states. Wars took place against the Seljuks in the second half of the 11th century, and the Khitans invaded in the first half of the 12th century. In the early 13th century Kazakhstan was conquered by the Mongol-Tatars. At the end of the 15th century the Kazakh Khanate formed; it was divided into hordes: the Great Horde (Semirech’e), the Middle Horde (central Kazakhstan), and the Little Horde (western Kazakhstan). The formation of the Kazakh nationality was essentially completed by the early 16th century. In the early 18th century the Kazakhs fought off a series of Dzungarian attacks. In the 1730’s and 1740’s the Little and Middle hordes voluntarily accepted Russian citizenship.

The unification of Kazakhstan with Russia was completed in the 1860’s. Incorporated into Russia were parts of Semirech’e and Syr Darya oblasts and all of Ural’sk, Turgai, Akmolinsk, and Semipalatinsk oblasts. Participation in the Russian economic system spurred the development of industry and the construction of railroads, including the Siberian and Orenburg-Tashkent railroads. The working people of Kazakhstan took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917.

Soviet power was established between November 1917 and February 1918. Aided by the Red Army, the working people routed the bands of the ataman Dutov and the White Guards, suppressed the revolt by the bourgeois nationalists of AlashOrda, and restored Soviet power.

On Aug. 26,1920, the Kirghiz ASSR was created as part of the RSFSR. The first land and water reforms were implemented in 1921 and 1922. As a step in the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the republic was renamed the Kazakh ASSR in April 1925. On Dec. 5,1936, the Kazakh ASSR was made a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Kazakh people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Kazakhstan had 657,665 members and 30,215 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Kazakhstan had 1,839,379 members. A total of 6,108,100 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Kazakh people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Kazakh SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1956, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Kazakhstan became an industrial-agricultural republic. It is of particular importance in the economy of the USSR for the extraction of iron ore and many nonferrous metals and for the production of superphosphate and sodium chloride. The Kazakh SSR has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 32 times greater than in 1940 and 246 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Kazakh SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.634.761.5
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, million tons) ...............0.41.3
Tractors (thousand units) ...............8.146.6
Knitted outerwear (million pieces) ...............0.223.928.3
Knitted underwear (million pieces) ...............0.137.467.3
Leatherfootwear (million pairs) ...............1.227.830.2
Canned goods (million standard cans) ...............30303411
Meat (thousand tons) ...............97525608
Vegetable oil (thousand tons) ...............56284
Granulated sugar (thousand tons) ...............71176272

The energy industry is based on local deposits of coal and oil and on hydroelectric power. Large hydroelectric power plants include the Ust’-Kamenogorsk and Bukhtarma plants on the Irtysh, the Chardar’ia on the Syr Darya, and the Kapchagai on the Hi. The largest coal-fired steam power plants are at Karaganda, Temirtau, Petropavlovsk, Pavlodar, Ermak, Alma-Ata, and other industrial centers. The largest power plant operating on natural gas (supplied from the Uzbek SSR) is the Dzhambul State Regional Electric Power Plant. An atomic power plant is also in operation.

Mining serves as the basis for the development of various sectors of industry, including metallurgy, centered in Aktiubinsk, Temirtau, Karaganda, and Ermak. The largest coalfields are located at Karaganda and Ekibastuz. Petroleum is extracted on the Mangyshlak Peninsula and in the vicinity of Emba. Iron ore is mined (Sokolovsk-Surbai mining and ore-dressing combine), as are bauxites and copper, nickel, and complex ores. Nonferrous metallurgy, which is of national importance, is represented by copper, lead and zinc, and aluminum industries. Titanium and magnesium are also produced. Machine-building plants, mainly centered in Karaganda, Alma-Ata, Tselinograd, Pavlodar, and Ust’-Kamenogorsk, produce forging and mining equipment, machine tools, excavators, tractors, agricultural machines, and radio engineering articles. Other leading industries are the chemical industry (especially the production of mineral fertilizers, polysty-rene, synthetic rubber, and chemical fibers), petroleum refining, centered in Gur’ev and Pavlodar, and light industry, including leather, footwear, sheepskin coats, and wool-processing enterprises. The food-processing industry is represented by such major enterprises as meat-packing and canning plants, vegetable oil mills, and sugar refineries.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Kazakh SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............6,80930,97036,390
Grain crops ...............5,81722,60325,340
wheat ...............3,44 717,40017,094
millet ...............903716833
rice ...............2882131
Industrial crops ...............341406388
cotton ...............102118127
sugar beets ...............157078
sunflowers ...............16593103
Potatoes ...............100193191
Vegetables ...............235166
Feed crops ...............4947,67510,363
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............2,51622,24027,506
wheat ...............1,64417,17318,613
rice ...............56277613
Potatoes ...............3941,8962,239
Seed cotton ...............93276358
Sugar beets ...............3852,2232,223

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 7.6 times greater than in 1940. Sovkhozes became widespread with the extensive development of virgin and unused lands, and they now play a major role in the republic’s agriculture. Between 1954 and 1960,25.5 million hectares (ha) of new land were put to agricultural use. In 1980 there were 2,077 sovkhozes and 397 kolkhozes (excluding fish-catching kolkhozes). In that year the republic’s stock of agricultural equipment included 237,400 tractors (compared to 30,800 in 1940), 109,700 grain-harvesting combines (11,800 in 1940), and 135,900 trucks (15,300 in 1940). There were 193.3 million ha of farmland in 1980, or more than 70 percent of the total area; plow-land accounted for 35.4 million ha, hayfields for 5.4 million ha, and pastureland for 152.2 million ha. In 1980, Kazakhstan had 2,014,000 ha of irrigated land.

The principal hydraulic engineering installations are the Chardar’ia Reservoir, the Chiili Canal, the Kzyl-Orda Dam on the Syr Darya, the Arys’-Turkestan Canal, the Bugun’ Reservoir, the Talas-Assa Canal, and the Irtysh-Karaganda Canal.

In 1980 livestock raising and plant growing accounted for 55 percent and 45 percent, respectively, of Kazakhstan’s gross agricultural output. The republic’s agriculture has two main branches: large-scale, mechanized cultivation of grain, which is carried out on virgin lands requiring no irrigation and on irrigated lands, and the raising of sheep for meat and wool and of cattle for meat.

Other branches of agriculture include the cultivation, mostly on irrigated land, of industrial crops, grapes and other fruits, and melons and the raising of cattle for meat and dairy products, finewooled sheep, poultry, and small quantities of swine and camels. There is also beekeeping.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Kazakh SSR)
 194111971119811
1 As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............3,35 67,2858,693
cows ...............1,2592,5332,985
Swine (thousands) ...............4512,2663,093
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............8,13231,77635,208
Horses (thousands) ...............8971,2451,300
Camels (thousands) ...............103130121
Poultry (millions) ...............6.729.548.1

Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops. Table 3 deals with the livestock and poultry population. The growth in output of major animal products is shown in Table 4.

The chief form of transportation is railroad transport. In 1980, Kazakhstan had 14,230 km of railroad lines. There were 104,600 km of roads, of which 76,100 km were paved, and 4,400 km of navigable inland waterways. The republic has good facilities for air transport. The principal petroleum pipelines are Gur’ev-Orsk, Uzen’-Shevchenko, Uzen’-Kuibyshev, and Tuimazy-Angarsk. Trunk gas pipelines in operation are Middle Asia-Central Zone, Middle Asia-Urals (Gazli-Sverdlovsk and Gazli-Cheliabinsk via Ustiurt), and Bukhara-Tashkent-Chimkent-Dzhambul-Frunze-Alma-Ata.

The Pavlodar-Ekibastuz territorial-production complex is being formed in Pavlodar Oblast.

The standard of living in Kazakhstan is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.5 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 412 million rubles in 1940 to 12.992 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of 9.6. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 6.013 billion rubles, compared to 14 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1977 was 1,030 rubles, compared to 26 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 95.7 million sq m. In 1978 and 1979 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 11.899 million sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 8.1 percent of the population was literate. During the 1914–15 academic year, there were 2,006 schools, with a total of 105,000 pupils, of whom 7,900 were Kazakhs. After Soviet power was established, new schools were opened with instruction in Kazakh. In 1939, the literacy rate was 83.6 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.7 percent of the population is literate.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Kazakh SSR)
 194019701980
Milk (thousand tons) ...............1,0993,9324,597
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............2269161,069
Eggs (million units) ...............3131,7083,369
Wool (thousand tons) ...............1495111.8

In 1977 ere were 775,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year a total of 3.3 million pupils were enrolled in 9,000 general-education schools of all types. There were 421 vocational-technical educational institutions, with 219,700 students, including 121,400 students in 238 vocational-technical institutions providing a secondary education. There were 247,400 students enrolled in 220 specialized secondary educational institutions and 232,200 students in 50 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are Kazakh University, the Kazakh Pedagogical Institute, the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute, the Kazakh Agricultural Institute, and the University of Karaganda.

In 1977, for every 1,000 employed persons, 770 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 99 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. At the end of 1977 there were 33,600 scientific workers in Kazakhstan.

Cultural institutions have increased substantially in number. In 1977 the republic had 29 theaters, including the Kazakh Drama Theater and the Kazakh Theater of Opera and Ballet. There were 10,300 motion-picture projection units and 8,200 clubs. The largest library is the A. S. Pushkin State Library of the Kazakh SSR (founded 1931; 2.7 million copies of books and journals). In 1977 there were 9,200 public libraries (87.1 million copies of books and journals). The republic has 42 museums.

In 1977, 2,170 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 28.9 million copies; by contrast, 762 titles with a total printing of 5,775,000 copies, were released in 1940. Of the books and pamphlets published in 1977, 765 were in Kazakh; the total number of copies was 15.3 million. There were 107 journals and magazines published, with a total annual circulation of 51.8 million, as compared to 38 journals and magazines, with an annual circulation of 1,149,000 in 1940. Of the journals and magazines published in 1977, 28 were in Kazakh. There were 423 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 5,217,000 and a total annual circulation of 1.043 billion. The Kazakh Telegraph Agency (KazTAG) was founded in 1921. The republic book chamber was opened in 1937.

The first radio broadcasts took place in 1923, and the first television broadcasts in 1958. The republic radio and television systems broadcast in Kazakh, Russian, Korean, Uighur, German, and Uzbek. The House of Republic Radio and Television Broadcasting is located in Alma-Ata.

In 1977, Kazakhstan had 1,720 hospitals, with 185,400 beds, as compared to 627 hospitals and 25,400 beds in 1940. There were 42,100 physicians and 137,400 secondary medical personnel in 1977, as compared to 2,700 physicians and 12,000 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Popular health resorts offering climatic and koumiss therapy and pelotherapy include Shchuchinskii (Borovoe until 1971), Muialdy, and Chimgan.

The Georgian SSR, or Georgia, is located in the central and western parts of Transcaucasia. It is bounded on the southwest by Turkey and on the west by the Black Sea. It covers an area of 69,700 sq km and has a population of 5,071,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 3,433,000 Georgians, 160,000 Ossets, 85,000 Abkhazians, 448,000 Armenians, 372,000 Russians, 256,000 Azerbaijanis, 95,000 Greeks, and 45,000 Ukrainians. The average population density is 72.8 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Tbilisi, has a population of 1,095,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The other major cities include Kutaisi (200,000), Batumi (126,000), and Sukhumi (117,000). New cities have appeared, including Rustavi (134,000), Tkvarcheli, Chiatura, Zestafoni, Tkibuli, Vale, and Kaspi. The Abkhazian ASSR, the Adzhar ASSR, and the Iuzhnaia Osetiia Autonomous Oblast are part of the Georgian SSR. The republic has 65 raions, 57 cities, and 55 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Almost two-thirds of the republic is occupied by mountains and foothills. The Greater Caucasus, whose maximum elevations occur at Mount Shkhara (5,068 m) and Mount Kazbek (5,033 m), is in the north, and the Lesser Caucasus (the South Georgian Highland) is in the south. These two mountain systems are separated by intermontane lowlands, including the Colchis Lowlands, Vnutrenniaia Kartli Plain, Nizhnekartli Plain, Alazani Plain, and Iori Plateau. Mineral resources include coal, petroleum, barite, and manganese, copper, and complex ores.

The climate and soil-vegetation cover are characterized by altitudinal zonation. In the western part of the republic, the climate is humid and subtropical. The average January temperature is 3°–7°C up to elevations of 500–600 m, and the average August temperature is 23°–26°C; precipitation reaches 3,000 mm annually. In Eastern Georgia, in the plains and on the plateau, the average July temperature is 24°–25°C, and the average January temperature ranges from 0°C to – 3°C; precipitation totals 300–1,000 mm annually and reaches 1,800 mm in the mountains.

The chief rivers are the Kura and the Rioni. The chief lakes are Paravani and Ritsa.

The soils in the maritime belt are subtropical podzols, red earths, and yellow earths; in the low-lying area of Eastern Georgia there are chernozems, chestnut soils, and cinnamon soils. In the mountains there are cinnamon, brown forest, sod carbonate, and mountain meadow soils. Forests cover approximately 39 per-cent of the republic’s territory; they occur mainly on mountain slopes. Both broad-leaved (beech, chestnut, oak, hornbeam) and coniferous (spruce, fir, pine) trees are found. Some regions of the republic still have Pinus pityusa, Pinus eldarica, yew, box, and Zelkova. Much of Eastern Georgia has steppes and thickets of thorny shrubs. Subalpine and alpine meadows are found in the high-mountain zones of the Greater Caucasus and the South Georgia Highland.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Georgian SSR)
 194019701980
1 Not including wine sent to other republics for final processing and bottling
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.7914.7
Manganese ore (thousand tons) ...............1,4491,5692,779
Steel pipes (thousand tons) ...............470513
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............9675
Chemical fibers and threads (thousand tons) ...............8.816.4
Trucks (thousand units) ...............1421.4
Metal-cutting machine tools (units) ...............8033,4393,750
Paper (thousand tons) ...............9.73638.8
Knitted outerwear and underwear (million pieces) ...............3.930.148.6
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............91516
Baikhov tea (initially processed, thousand tons) ...............1164127
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............29234497
Grape wine (million decaliters)11.75.57.8
Meat (thousand tons) ...............11.548.485.2

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Georgia at the beginning of the first millennium B.C. In the sixth century B.C., the slaveholding Colchian Kingdom came into existence. The Iberian (Kartli) Kingdom emerged in the fourth and third centuries B.C. Between the early sixth century A.D. and the early tenth century, the area was ruled by the Sassanids, the Byzantine Empire, and the Arabian Caliphate. The Georgian nationality was basically formed between the sixth and tenth centuries. The eighth and early ninth centuries saw the rise of the feudal principalities of Kakhetia, Ereti, and Tao-Klardzheti and the Abkhazian Kingdom. Georgia flourished economically and culturally in the 11th and 12th centuries.

The Mongol-Tatars and Tamerlane (Timur) invaded in the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 15th to early 17th centuries, the independent kingdoms and principalities of Kartli, Kakhetia, Imereti, Samtskhe-Saatabago, Mingrelia, Guria, and Abkhazia were formed. From the 16th to 18th centuries the region was an object of conflict between Iran and Turkey. Antifeudal and national liberation movements against the Iranian and Turkish yokes arose in this period; worthy of note are an uprising led by G. Saakadze in 1625 and an uprising that took place in 1659.

Eastern Georgia was united with Russia in 1801; Western Georgia, including Tiflis and Kutaisi provinces, became part of the Russian Empire over the period from 1803 to 1864. The people’s opposition to social and national oppression found expression in the Gurian Uprising of 1841 and the Mingrelian Rebellion of 1857. The peasant reform of 1864 accelerated the development of capitalism. In the 1890’s the first Social Democratic organizations were founded. The proletariat carried out a series of strikes, including the Batumi strike and demonstration of 1902 and the general strike of 1903 in southern Russia. The working people of Georgia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

In November 1917, petit bourgeois parties seized power. From 1918 to 1920, Georgia was occupied by German, Turkish, and British forces. With the help of the Red Army, the working people of Georgia established Soviet power in 1921; on Feb. 25, 1921, the Georgian SSR was formed.

The republic joined the Transcaucasian Federation on Mar. 12, 1922, and became a Union republic of the USSR on Dec. 5, 1936. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Georgian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............896737739
Grain crops ...............749389317
Industrial crops ...............524048
Vegetables and potatoes ...............395569
Feed crops ...............53251298
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............538621636
Sugar beets ...............72124120
Tobacco ...............131618
Potatoes ...............139299393
Vegetables ...............104327546

During the Great Patriotic War, the Georgian people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Georgia had 319,514 members and 11,768 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Georgia had 692,647 members. More than 2 million persons were members of trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Georgian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Georgian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1935 and 1965, the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Georgia became an industrial-agricultural republic. It is of particular importance in the economy of the USSR for its output of manganese ores, iron alloys, steel pipe, electric locomotives, trucks, metalcutting machine tools, electrical engineering products, and such food products as tea, citrus fruit, wine, tung oil, and essential oils. Georgia is the chief region of the USSR for subtropical agriculture. It has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 16 times greater than in 1940 and 134 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1.

The energy industry is mainly based on hydroelectric power. Many hydroelectric power plants have been built in the republic; the largest such plant is the Inguri Hydroelectric Power Plant. The largest steam power plant is the Tbilisi State Regional Electric Power Plant. The Zhinvali hydroengineering installation and the Khudoni Hydroelectric Power Plant were under construction in 1982. Hard coal, as well as manganese ores (near Chiatura), nonferrous metal ores, and barite, is mined in the Georgian SSR. Ferrous metallurgy is centered in Rustavi and Zestafoni, the chemical industry is concentrated in Rustavi and Kutaisi, and petroleum-refining plants are located in Batumi. Machine building is represented by large automobile, electric locomotive, machine-tool building, and instrument-making plants centered mainly in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Rustavi, Batumi, and Poti. Light industry, including silk, wool, cotton, knitwear, and leather and foot-wear industries, is developed. The food-processing industry, especially the production of tea, wines, and preserved foods, is also well established.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was more than four times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980 there were 494 sovkhozes and 696 kolkhozes. In 1980 the republic’s stock of agricultural equipment included 24,900 tractors (compared to 3,000 in 1940), 1,500 grain-harvesting combines (500 in 1940), and 23,900 trucks (2,700 in 1940). There were 3.1 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 44.3 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 800,000 ha, hayfields for 100,000 ha, and pastureland for 1.8 million ha.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Georgian SSR)
 194111971119811
1 As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............1,6071,4751,564
cows ...............575595621
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............2,1941,9552,044
Swine (thousands) ...............615687943
Poultry (millions) ...............7.111.718.8

Irrigation plays an important role in agriculture. Major irrigation systems include the Alazani, Samgori, and Tiriponi systems. The Verkhniaia Alazani Irrigation System has been under construction since 1965. A large part of the Colchis Lowlands has been drained. By the end of 1980 there were 412,000 ha of irri-gated land and 152,500 ha of drained land.

Plant growing accounted for 71 percent of the gross output of agriculture in 1980. The chief branches of agriculture are tea cultivation and fruit growing, especially citrus fruit growing and viticulture. In 1980 there were 66,800 ha of tea plantings (compared to 50,000 ha in 1940), 147,000 ha of vineyards (70,000 ha in 1940), and 177,000 hectares of other fruit plantings, including berry plantings (109,000 ha in 1940). The gross yield of tea was 502,000 tons in 1980 (51,000 tons in 1940), that of grapes was 996,000 tons (150,000 tons in 1940), and that of other fruits, including berries, was 687,000 tons (143,000 tons in 1940).

The chief grain crops are maize and wheat; the chief industrial crops are tobacco and essential-oil plants. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for major crops.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Georgian SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............75104143
Milk (thousand tons) ...............358518642
Eggs (million units) ...............251397655
Wool (thousand tons) ...............3.54.76.3

Cattle raising is the chief branch of animal husbandry. Sheep raising (based on natural grassland) and sericulture are also well developed. Table 3 provides figures on the livestock and poultry population, and Table 4 characterizes the output of animal products.

The standard of living in Georgia is steadily rising. The national income in 1980 was 1.9 times greater than in 1975. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 333 million rubles in 1940 to 4.328 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of 6.9. In 1980, total deposits in savings banks reached 3.465 billion rubles, compared to 13 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,729 rubles, compared to 44 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 38.6 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 8.3 million sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 23.6 percent of the population between the ages of nine and 49 was literate; the figure for men was 29.1 percent, and that for women was 17.1 percent. During the 1914–15 academic year there were 1,765 general-education schools of all types, with a total of 157,000 pupils, and five specialized secondary educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Georgian. In 1939, 89.3 per-cent of the population was literate. According to the 1970 census the literacy rate is 99.9 percent.

In 1977 there were 154,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year, 1 million pupils were enrolled in 4,200 general-education schools of all types. A total of 48,300 students were enrolled in 109 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 26,400 students in 55 secondary vocational-technical educational institutions. There were 52,900 students in 95 specialized secondary educational institutions and 84,300 students in 18 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the University of Tbilisi, the Georgian Polytechnical Institute, the Georgian Institute of Agriculture, the Georgian Conservatory, the Academy of Arts, and the Georgian Pedagogical Institute.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 802 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 163 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR. There were 25,000 research workers in the republic in 1977.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. In 1977 the republic had 25 musical and drama theaters, including the Z. P. Paliashvili Georgian Theater of Opera and Ballet, the Shota Rustaveli Drama Theater, the L. Meskhishvili Drama Theater, and the K. A. Mardzhanishvili Drama Theater; there were 2,000 stationary motion-picture projection units and more than 2,000 clubs. The largest library is trie K. Marx State Library of the Georgian SSR (founded 1923; 5,603,000 copies of books, pamphlets, and journals in 1977). In 1977 there were 3,900 public libraries (27.9 million copies of books, journals, and magazines). The republic has 87 museums.

In 1977, 2,470 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 17.7 million copies; by contrast, 1,639 titles, with a total printing of 5,618,000 copies, were published in 1940. Books are published in Georgian, Russian, Azerbaijani, Abkhazian, and Ossetic, as well as in foreign languages. In 1977, 74 journals and magazines were published, with a total annual circulation of 31.4 million; 62 of the publications, with a total annual circulation of 27.3 million, were in Georgian. By contrast 77 journals and magazines, with a total annual circulation of 1.7 million, were published in 1940. In 1977 the republic had 142 newspapers, with a total annual circulation of 685 million. The Georgian Tele-graph Agency (GruzTAG) was established in 1936; in 1972 it became known as Gruzinform. The Georgian Book Chamber was founded in 1924.

Radio broadcasting on a regular basis began in 1927. Programs are broadcast in Georgian, Russian, Azerbaijani, and Armenian. Television programs have been broadcast since 1956 in Georgian and Russian. There is a television center in Tbilisi.

In 1977 the republic had 478 hospitals, with 51,000 beds, compared to 314 hospitals and 13,300 beds in 1940. Medical personnel in 1977 included 21,300 physicians and 52,800 secondary medical personnel, compared to 4,900 physicians and 9,400 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Georgia has popular balneological and climatic health resorts, including Bakuriani, Borzhomi, Gagra, Novyi Afon, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, and Tskhaltubo.

Abkhazian ASSR

The Abkhazian SSR (Abhkazia; ASSR since 1931) was formed on Mar. 4, 1921. It is located in northwestern Transcaucasia and is bounded on the southwest by the Black Sea. It has an area of 8,600 sq km and a population of 509,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 83,000 Abkhazians, 213,000 Georgians, 80,000 Russians, 73,000 Armenians, and 14,000 Greeks. The average population density is 59.2 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Sukhumi, has a population of 117,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Industrial output in 1980 was 12 times greater than in 1940. Leading branches of the economy include coal mining and industries that process agricultural raw materials, such as canning, wine-making, the tea industry, and the tobacco and makhorka industry. Abkhazia also has machine-building, leather and foot-wear, wood-products, and building-materials industries.

In 1980 there were 56 sovkhozes and 89 kolkhozes. Agriculture specializes mainly in the cultivation of tea, tobacco, citrus fruits, tung trees, and essential-oil plants. Fruit growing, including viticulture and the cultivation of subtropical fruits, is also well developed. In 1980, the yield of high-quality tea leaves was 90,000 tons. The total sown area in 1980 was 43,900 ha; crops included grains, tobacco, vegetables, and melons.

Animal husbandry is dominated by meat and dairy production; poultry husbandry is well developed. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 139,000 head of cattle, 24,000 sheep and goats, and 92,000 swine.

The main seaport is Sukhumi.

During the 1977–78 academic year, there were 99,100 pupils enrolled in 392 general-education schools of all types, compared to 156 schools and 8,700 pupils in 1914–15. There were 3,000 students in six specialized secondary educational institutions in 1977–78, and 5,700 students in an institute of subtropical agriculture and a pedagogical institute in Sukhumi. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in 1976, 793 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

The republic’s scientific institutions include the Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, which has a monkey nursery, and the Abkhazian Branch of the Scientific Research Institute of Health Resort Science and Physical Therapy.

In 1977 the republic had one theater, a philharmonic society, 343 public libraries, two museums, 245 clubs, and 260 motion-picture projection units.

The Abkhazian ASSR had 1,800 physicians, or one for every 287 inhabitants, in 1977, compared to 403 physicians, or one for every 815 inhabitants, in 1940. In 1977 there were 6,000 hospital beds, compared to 1,400 in 1940. Health resorts include Sukhumi, Gagra, Gudauta, Novyi Afon, and Pitsunda.

The Abkhazian ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1935, the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Adzhar ASSR

The Adzhar ASSR (Adzharia) was formed on July 16, 1921. Located in southwestern Transcaucasia, it is bounded on the south by Turkey and on the west by the Black Sea. It has an area of 3,000 sq km and a population of 362,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 284,000 Georgians, 35,000 Russians, 16,000 Armenians, 7,000 Greeks, and 5,000 Ukrainians. The average population density is 120.8 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Batumi, has a population of 126,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

Industrial output in 1980 exceeded that of 1940 by a factor of 5.6. The chief industries are petroleum refining, machine building, and food processing.

In 1980 the Adzhar ASSR had 21 sovkhozes and 69 kolkhozes. Subtropical crops, which are grown primarily in the coastal strip, account for 57 percent of the area planted to perennial crops. The chief subtropical crops are tea and citrus fruits. In 1980, the yield of high-quality tea leaves was 66,000 tons. Also cultivated are tung trees, laurel, eucalyptus, and bamboo. The total sown area was 14,000 ha in 1980; grains, tobacco, melons, and vegetables, including potatoes, are cultivated. As of Jan. 1,1980, there were 11,000 sheep and goats and 123,000 head of cattle.

Batumi is the chief seaport.

In the 1977–78 academic year, 76,500 pupils were enrolled in 426 general-education schools of all types, compared to 10,100 pupils in general-education schools in 1921–22. In 1977–78 there were more than 2,000 students in three vocational-technical educational institutions, 3,600 students in eight specialized secondary educational institutions, and 2,100 students in the Sh. Rustaveli Pedagogical Institute in Batumi. Before the October Revolution there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in 1976, 798 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

The principal scientific institution is the Batumi Scientific Research Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR.

In 1977 the republic had one theater, 311 public libraries, two museums, 188 clubs, and 217 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 1,200 physicians, or one for every 290 inhabitants, compared to 270 physicians, or one for every 774 inhabitants, in 1940. The republic had 3,700 hospital beds, in 1977, compared to 900 in 1940. Health resorts include Batumi, Kobuleti, Tsikhisdziri, Zelenyi Mys, and Makhindzhauri.

The Adzhar ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967, the Order of the October Revolution in 1971, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Iuzhnaia Osetiia Autonomous Oblast

The Iuzhnaia Osetiia Autonomous Oblast (Iuzhnaia Osetiia) was formed on Apr. 20,1922. Located on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus, it has an area of 3,900 sq km and a population of 97,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 25 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Tskhinvali.

In 1980 industrial output was 33 times greater than in 1940. Industries in the republic that are well developed include the mining of complex ores, machine building, food processing, the timber and wood-products industry, and the building-materials industry.

In 1980 there were 18 sovkhozes and 14 kolkhozes. The total sown area was 21,600 ha in 1981; crops include grains (wheat, maize, and barley), sugar beets, and vegetables. Fruit growing, including viticulture, is also well established. Livestock raising is an important branch of agriculture; as of Jan. 1,1981, there were 151,000 sheep and goats and 68,000 head of cattle.

During the 1977–78 academic year there were 24,000 pupils enrolled in 182 general-education schools of all types, 210 students in one vocational-technical school, 800 students in four specialized secondary educational institutions, and 12,000 students in the Tskhinvali Pedagogical Institute.

In 1977 the oblast had one theater, 168 public libraries, two museums, 93 clubs, and 66 motion-picture projection units.

In 1977 there were 500 physicians, or one for every 210 inhabitants, and 1,400 hospital beds. Dzhava is a noteworthy health re-sort.

The Iuzhnaia Osetiia Autonomous Oblast was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

The Azerbaijan SSR, or Azerbaijan, is located in the eastern part of Transcaucasia. It is bounded on the south by Iran and Turkey and on the east by the Caspian Sea. It covers an area of 86,600 sq km and has a population of 6,202,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 4,709,000 Azerbaijanis, 475,000 Russians, 475,000 Armenians, and 158,000 Lezghians. The average population density is 71.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Baku, has a population of 1.046 million (Jan. 1, 1981). Kirovabad, another major city, has a population of 243,000. New cities that have appeared include Sumgait (201,000), Mingechaur, Stepanakert, Ali-Bairamly, and Dashkesan. The Nakhichevan ASSR and the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast are part of the Azerbaijan SSR. The republic has 61 raions, 63 cities, and 122 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Almost half of the Azerbaijan SSR has mountainous terrain. The southeastern section of the Greater Caucasus is in the north of the republic, and the Lesser Caucasus is in the south; the Kura Depression lies between them. The Talysh Mountains are in the southeast. In the southwest, separated from the rest of Azerbaijan by the Armenian SSR, is the Central Araks Depression; it is bounded on the north by the Daralagez (Aiotsdzorskii) and Zangezur ranges. The highest peak in the republic is Mount Bazardiuziu, which reaches an elevation of 4,480m. Mineral resources include petroleum, natural gas, iron and complex ores, and alunite.

The climate, soil cover, and vegetation are characterized by altitudinal zonation. Several types of climate can be distinguished, from dry and humid subtropical to mountain tundra. In the low-lying regions the average July temperature ranges from 25° to 28°C, and the average January temperature ranges from 3° to 1.5°–2°C. Temperatures are lower at higher altitudes (as low as – 10°C in the high-mountain regions). Annual precipitation ranges from 200–300 mm in the coastal and low-lying regions (except for the Lenkoran’ Lowland, where it totals 1,200–1,400 mm) to 1,300 mm on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus.

The main river is the Kura. The most important lakes are Gadzhykabul and Beiukshor. The predominant vegetation is that of arid steppes, semideserts, and high-mountain meadows; there are various types of chestnut, cinnamon, sierozem, and mountain meadow soils. The mountain slopes have broad-leaved forests on mountain forest soils; forests cover 10.5 percent of the total area.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Azerbaijan in the early first millennium B.C. The ancient states of Mannai, Media, Atropatene, and Caucasian Albania arose in the period from the ninth century B.C. to about the beginning of the Common Era. In the period from the third to tenth centuries AD., the region was ruled first by the Sassanids and then by the Arabian Caliphate; antifeudal liberation activity included anti-Sassanid uprisings, the Mazdakite movement, and the Babek Uprising. Several feudal states, such as those of the Shirvanshahs and the Hulaguids, arose during the ninth to 16th centuries.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Azerbaijan SSR)
 194019701980
1 Excluding wine sent to other republics for final processing and bottling
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............21215
Sulfuric acid (monohydrate, thousand tons) ...............26126652
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............115220
Pumping jacks (thousand units) ...............12.24.5
Household air conditioners (thousand units) ...............401
Refrigerators (thousand units) ...............75268
Borehole pumps (thousand units) ...............317791.6
Lint cotton (thousand tons) ...............58131248
Knitted outerwear and underwear (million pieces) ...............620.430
Carpet (thousand square meters) ...............8233,058
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............21118
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............20185470
Grape wine (thousand decaliters)19064,22210,346
Meat (thousand tons) ...............184858.9

The formation of the Azerbaijani nationality was essentially completed in the 11th to 13th centuries. The Seljuk Turks, the Mongol-Tatars, and Tamerlane (Timur) invaded the area during the 11th to 14th centuries. Part of the Safavid state from the 16th to 18th centuries, the region was an object of conflict between Persia and Turkey; national liberation movements, including that led by Ker-ogly, arose during this period. In the second half of the 18th century, more than 15 feudal states existed, including the Sheki, Karabakh, and Kuba khanates.

In the first third of the 19th century, northern Azerbaijan was united with Russia. The peasant reform of 1870 accelerated the development of capitalism, and by the late 19th century Baku had become a major industrial center. The first Social Democratic organizations were established, and the working class staged a number of strikes, notably the Baku strikes. The working people of Azerbaijan took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet power was established in November 1917; the Baku Commune was formed and became a bulwark of Soviet power in Transcaucasia. British and Turkish forces intervened in the summer of 1918, and the Musavatists seized power. With the help of the Red Army, the working people reestablished Soviet power. On Apr. 28, 1920, the Azerbaijan SSR was formed. It entered the Transcaucasian Federation on Mar. 12,1922, and on Dec. 5, 1936, it became a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Azerbaijani people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Azerbaijan had 291,308 members and 14,840 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Azerbaijan had 761,679 members. A total of 1,956,900 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Azerbaijani people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Azerbaijan SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1935 and 1964, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Azerbaijan became an industrial-agricultural republic. Its main contributions to the economy of the USSR are in the extraction and refining of petroleum, the petrochemical industry, and machine building. It has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Azerbaijan SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares ) ...............1,1241,1961,264
Grain crops ...............797621490
wheat ...............471420318
maize ...............10128
Industrial crops ...............213210272
cotton ...............188193250
tobacco ...............71417
Potatoes ...............221520
Vegetables ...............143239
Feed crops ...............66308432
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............5677231,136
wheat ...............298504780
maize ...............92229
Seedcotton ...............154336884
Tobacco ...............52557
Potatoes ...............82130172
Vegetables ...............63410824

In 1980 industrial output exceeded the 1940 level by a factor of 12 and the 1913 level by a factor of 72. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1. Steam power plants provide 90 percent of the republic’s electric energy; the most important of them is the Ali-Bairamly State Regional Electric Power Plant. In 1981 construction of the Azerbaijan State Regional Electric Power Plant was completed. Today, the Mingechaur Hydroelectric Power Plant is the largest such plant. The Shamkhor Hydroelectric Power Plant was under construction in 1982. Azerbaijan is the oldest petroleum- and gas-extraction region of the USSR. Petroleum is extracted on the Apsheron Peninsula, in the Kura-Araks Lowland, and in offshore areas (Neftianye Kamni).

Major oil refineries and gas-processing plants are centered near Baku. Chemical and petrochemical enterprises produce such articles as synthetic rubber, mineral fertilizers, and sulfuric acid. Metalworking and machine-building plants, located in Baku, manufacture mainly petroleum extracting and refining equipment, electrical engineering articles, and radioelectronics instruments and devices. The Sumgait pipe-rolling plant and the Dashkesan ore-dressing combine are the major enterprises of ferrous metallurgy. Nonferrous metallurgy is also well developed. Light industry is represented by cotton textile, silk, and wool fac-tories. The republic also has wine-making, canning, and fish-processing enterprises.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 5.5 times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980, Azerbaijan had 691 sovkhozes and 616 kolkhozes. The republic’s stock of agricultural equipment in 1980 included 35,300 tractors (compared to 6,100 in 1940), 4,300 grain-harvesting combines (700 in 1940), and 29,500 trucks (2,500 in 1940). There were 4.1 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 47.1 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 1.3 million ha, hayfields for 0.1 million ha, and pastureland for 2.1 million ha. Irrigation plays an important role in agriculture. In 1980 there were 1,215,000 ha of irrigated land. The largest canals are the Upper Shirvan, the Upper Karabakh, and the Samur Apsheron.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Azerbaijan SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............1,3571,5771,806
cows and female water buffalo ...............489605676
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............2,9074,3715,36 2
Swine (thousands) ...............120113183
Poultry (millions) ...............3.88.820.7

Plant growing accounted for 71 percent of the gross agricultural output in 1977. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops. Cotton growing is one of the leading branches of agriculture; high-quality varieties of tobacco are also raised. The Azerbaijan SSR is one of the USSR’s leading regions for early vegetable growing. Between 1940 and 1980 the area covered by vineyards increased from 33,000 ha to 263,000 ha, the area devoted to other fruit plantings, including berry plantings, rose from 37,000 ha to 141,000 ha, and the area devoted to tea plantings increased from 5,100 ha to 10,300 ha. Over the same period the gross yield of grapes increased from 81,000 tons to 1,481,000 tons, the gross yield of other fruits, including berries, from 115,000 tons to 278,000 tons, and the gross yield of tea from 240 tons to 22,000 tons.

An important role in the republic’s agriculture is played by beef-and-dairy and mutton-and-wool farming (see Table 3), which account for 14 percent of the proceeds from the sale of agricultural output by kolkhozes and sovkhozes. Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

The chief form of transportation is railroad transport. In 1980, Azerbaijan had 1,900 km of railroad lines and 25,900 km of roads, of which 19,900 km were paved. The main seaport is Baku. There are 500 km of navigable riverways. The republic also has good facilities for air transport. In addition to the Baku-Batumi and Ali-Bairamly-Baku petroleum pipelines, the republic has the following gas pipelines: Karadag-Akstafa (with branches to Yerevan and Tbilisi), Karadag-Sumgait, and Ali-Bairamly-Karadag.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Azerbaijan SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............4194139
Milk (thousand tons) ...............275478796
Eggs (million units) ...............158413721
Wool (thousand tons) ...............4.27.610.7

The standard of living in Azerbaijan is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 2 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover of state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, rose from 297 million rubles in 1940 to 3.747 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of 4.9. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 1.647 billion rubles, compared to 8 million rubles in 1940. The size of the average account in 1980 was 1,183 rubles, compared to 26 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 32.9 million sq m. From 1976 to 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 6.9 million sqm.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 9.2 percent of the population was literate; the figure for men was 13.1 percent, and that for women was 4.2 percent. During the 1914–15 academic year there were 976 general-education schools of all types, with 73,100 pupils, and three specialized secondary educational institutions, with 455 students. There were no higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Azerbaijani. By 1939, the literacy rate had risen to 82.8 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.6 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977 there were 135,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 1,608,000 pupils were enrolled in 4,341 general-education schools of all types. A total of 79,900 students were enrolled in 149 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 41,400 students in 72 vocational-technical educational institutions offering a secondary education. There were 78,300 students in 74 specialized secondary educational institutions and 101,300 students in 17 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the University of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan Institute of Petroleum and Chemistry, the Azerbaijan Medical Institute, and the Azerbaijan Conservatory.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in 1976, 775 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, compared to 122 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR. As of Jan. 1, 1978, there were 21,700 research workers employed in scientific institutions.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. As of Jan. 1, 1977, the republic had 14 theaters, including the M. F. Akhundov Azerbaijan Opera and Ballet Theater, the M. Azizbekov Azerbaijan Drama Theater, the S. Vurgun Russian Drama Theater, the M. Gorky Young People’s Theater, the Sh. Kurbanov Theater of Musical Comedy, and the Dzh. Dzhabarly Azerbaijan Drama Theater. In the same year there were 2,300 motion-picture projection units and 2,900 clubs. The largest library is the M. F. Akhundov State Library of the Azerbaijan SSR in Baku (founded 1923; more than 3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). There are 3,600 public libraries (27.3 million copies of books and journals). The republic has 46 museums.

In 1977, 1,278 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 13.5 million copies; 820 of the publications were in Azerbaijani, with a total printing of 9.1 million copies. In 1940, by contrast, 1,141 titles were published, with a printing of 5 million copies. In 1977 there were 107 journals and magazines, with a total single-issue circulation of 1,718,000 and a total annual circulation of 34.4 million; 66 of the journals and magazines were in Azerbaijani. In 1940, 44 journals and magazines were published, with a total annual circulation of 700,000. In 1977 the republic had 120 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 2,714,000 and a total annual circulation of 524 million. The Azerbaijani Telegraph Agency (AzTAG) was founded in 1920; it has been known as Azerinform since 1972. The Book Chamber of the Azerbaijan SSR was established in 1925.

The first radio broadcasts were made in Baku in 1926. In 1956 a television center was opened in Baku. Radio and television programs are broadcast in Azerbaijani, Russian, and Armenian.

In 1977 the republic had 751 hospitals, with 56,900 beds, compared to 222 hospitals and 12,600 beds in 1940. There were 18,200 physicians and 48,300 secondary medical personnel in 1977, compared to 3,300 physicians and 7,500 secondary medical personnel in 1940. The republic has popular balneological health resorts, including Istisu and Naftalan.

Nakhichevan ASSR

The Nakhichevan ASSR was formed on Feb. 9,1924. Located in southern Transcaucasia, it is bounded on the southwest by Turkey and Iran. It covers an area of 5,500 sq km and has a population of 247,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 230,000 Azerbaijanis, 4,000 Russians, and 3,000 Armenians. The average population density is 44.9 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital is the city of Nakhichevan.

In 1980 industrial output was 17 times greater than in 1940. Major industries are food processing and mining; the republic also has electrical engineering, metalworking, light, and building-materials industries. Two hydroelectric power plants were constructed jointly with Iran.

In 1980 there were 37 sovkhozes and 35 kolkhozes. The cultivation of irrigated land is the dominant form of agriculture. The total sown area was 28,400 ha in 1980. Grain, tobacco, vegetables, and melons are cultivated; fruit growing, including viticulture, is also well established. Livestock include primarily sheep and cattle. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 69,000 head of cattle and 292,000 sheep and goats.

During the 1977–78 academic year 70,900 pupils were enrolled in 218 general-education schools of all types; by contrast, before the establishment of Soviet power, 6,200 pupils were enrolled in general-education schools. In 1977–78 a total of 1,100 students were enrolled in three vocational-technical educational institutions, including one secondary vocational-technical school, which had an enrollment of 600; there were 1,700 students in four specialized secondary educational institutions and 2,300 students in the pedagogical institute in Nakhichevan. Before the establishment of Soviet power there were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

Of every 1,000 employed persons in 1976, 773 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education.

The republic’s principal scientific institution is the scientific center of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR in Nakhichevan.

In 1975, the republic had one theater, 234 public libraries, three museums, 213 clubs, and 186 motion-picture projection units.

The Nakhichevan ASSR had 400 physicians, or one for every 600 inhabitants, in 1977, as compared to 58 physicians, or one for every 2,300 inhabitants in 1940. In 1977 there were 2,300 hospital beds, as compared to 400 beds in 1940.

The Nakhichevan ASSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast

The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was formed on July 7, 1923. Located in the southeastern portion of the Lesser Caucasus, it covers an area of 4,400 sq km and has a population of 164,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The average population density is 35.7 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Stepanakert.

In 1977 industrial output was 15 times greater than in 1940. Food processing and light industry are the leading industries. In addition to a developing electrical engineering industry, the ob-last also has timber, wood-products, building-materials, and carpet-weaving industries.

In 1980 there were 38 sovkhozes and 35 kolkhozes. The total sown area was 63,000 ha in 1980. Grains, cotton, tobacco, and feed crops are cultivated. Fruit growing, including viticulture, is also well developed. Animal husbandry is dominated by beefand-dairy and mutton-and-wool livestock raising. As of Jan. 1, 1981, there were 95,000 head of cattle, 291,000 sheep and goats, and 78,000 swine.

During the 1977–78 academic year more than 39,600 pupils were enrolled in 190 general-education schools of all types. In addition, there were 2,200 students in five specialized secondary educational institutions and 2,000 students in the pedagogical institute in Stepanakert.

In 1977 the oblast had one theater, 193 public libraries, three museums, 229 clubs, and 195 motion-picture projection units.

The oblast had 400 physicians, or one for every 400 inhabit-ants, in 1977. Hospital beds numbered 1,700 in that year.

The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

The Lithuanian SSR, or Lithuania, is located in the western part of the European USSR. It is bounded on the southwest by Poland and on the west by the Baltic Sea. The republic covers an area of 65,200 sq km and has a population of 3,445,000 (Jan. 1. 1980).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 2,712,000 Lithuanians, 303,000 Russians, 247,000 Poles, and 58,000 Byelorussians. The average population density is 52.8 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1981). The capital, Vilnius, has a population of 503,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The other major cities of the republic are Kaunas (383,000), Klaipėda (181,000), and Šiauliai (125,000). New cities include Birštonas, Neringa, and Naujoji Akmenė. The republic has 44 raions, 92 cities, and 22 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The terrain of Lithuania is plainlike, with traces of ancient glaciation. Mineral resources include peat and building materials.

The climate is transitional between marine and continental. The average January temperature is –5°C, and the average July temperature is 17°C. Annual precipitation is 630 mm.

The largest river is the Neman. There are many lakes. The republic has podzolic and sod podzolic soils. Forests, mainly coniferous forests, cover 27.6 percent of the total area.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Lithuania in the fifth and sixth centuries. By 1240 the feudal Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been formed. The Lithuanian nationality took shape in the 13th century. In the 13th to 15th centuries, the peoples of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania repelled the German feudal Catholic aggressors. In the battle of Tannenberg (1410), Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian forces routed the Knights of the Teutonic Order. From 1558 to 1583, Lithuania fought in the Livonian War against Russia. Under the Union of Lublin (1569), Lithuania was united with Poland to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In 1795 the greater part of Lithuania was united with Russia, and in 1814 the rest of the country, except the Klaipėda region, became part of Russia. Popular uprisings occurred in Lithuania in 1794,1831, and 1863–64. The abolition of serfdom in 1861 accelerated the development of capitalism. In the late 19th century the first Social Democratic organizations were founded. The working people of Lithuania took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution. In December 1918 and January 1919, Soviet power was established in most of Lithuania.

The Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR existed from February to August 1919. In April 1919 bourgeois Poland captured Vilnius. In late August a bourgeois dictatorship was established in Lithuania, and in December 1926 a fascist coup took place. In June 1940 the working people of Lithuania overthrew the fascist government. Soviet power was reestablished, and the Lithuanian SSR was proclaimed on July 21. On August 3 it became part of the USSR.

In 1941, Lithuania was occupied by fascist German troops. It was liberated by Soviet forces between July 1944 and January 1945. A socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Lithuania had 149,111 members and 6,794 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Lithuania had 392,891 members. A total of 1,641,935 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Lithuanian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Lithuanian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Lithuania became an industrial-agricultural republic. It is of particular importance in the economy of the USSR with respect to several branches of industry, mainly those not dependent on large quantities of metal, for example, the electronics, electrical engineering, and radio engineering industries and the production of computer hardware, instruments, and machine tools. Shipbuilding and the chemical industry are also highly developed.

The Lithuanian SSR has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 58 times greater than in 1940 and 151 times greater than, in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1. The Lithuanian SSR’s energy

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Lithuanian SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.087.411.7
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............226612
AC electric motors (0.25–100 kW, thousand units) ...............307552
Paper (thousand tons) ...............11102108
Knit underwear (million pieces) ...............0.84346
Knit outerwear (million pieces) ...............0.31316
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............0.51110
Television sets (thousand units) ...............193385
Meat (thousand tons) ...............56239312
Butter (thousand tons) ...............163952
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............0.9188270

industry depends mainly on fuel brought from outside the republic. Power plants include the Kaunas Hydroelectric Power Plant and the V. I. Lenin Lithuanian State Regional Power Plant (1,800 megawatts). The Ignalina Atomic Power Plant was under construction in 1981. Machine building and metalworking, centered in Vilnius, Kaunas, and Klaipėda, specialize in the manufacture of instruments, machine tools, electrical engineering equipment, and marine vessels. The chemical industry produces synthetic fibers (Kaunas), mineral fertilizers (Kėdainiai and Ionava), and plastics (Vilnius). Petroleum refining is being developed in Mažeikiai. Light industry, centered in Kaunas, Vilnius, Siauliai, Klaipėda, and Panevėžys, and food processing, particularly the manufacture of meat, dairy, and fish products, are also important. Handicrafts, including the making of amber and ceramic articles, wood carving, and leather embossing, are developed.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Lithuanian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............2,4972,2852,405
Grain crops ...............1,6388561,192
Fiberflax ...............964438
Sugar beets ...............132536
Potatoes ...............210174139
Feed crops ...............5201,165979
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............1,5362,0991,932
Flax fiber ...............30128
Sugar beets ...............255526559
Potatoes ...............2,7262,7211,178

Gross agricultural output rose by a factor of more than 1.8 between 1940 and 1980. At the end of 1980 the republic had 312 sovkhozes and 752 kolkhozes. The stock of agricultural equipment included 45,900 tractors (compared to 1,200 in 1940), 10,300 grain-harvesting combines (4,000 in 1965), and 29,200 trucks (15,700 in 1965). There were 3.6 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1977, or 55 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 2.5 million ha, hayfields for 400,000 ha, and pasture-land for 700,000 ha. Land reclamation is very important to the republic’s economy. In 1980 the area of drained land reached 2,652,100 ha.

Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops.

The principal branches of agriculture are cattle raising for meat and dairy products, swine raising for bacon, and poultry farming (see Table 3). In 1980 animal husbandry accounted for 70 percent of gross agricultural output.

Between 1940 and 1980 the area devoted to fruit plantings, including berry plantings, increased from 35,000 ha to 54,000 ha.

Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4. Apiculture, fur farming, and commercial fishing are undergoing development.

The chief forms of transportation are railroad transport and motor vehicle transport. In 1980, Lithuania had 2,010 km of rail-road lines and 32,300 km of roads, of which 20,400 km were paved. There were 628 km of inland waterways. Klaipėda has a seaport that remains ice free in the winter. The republic has good facilities for air transport. A gas pipeline runs from Dashava in the Ukrainian SSR, to Ivatsevichi in the Byelorussian SSR, to Vilnius and Panevėžys in the Lithuanian SSR, to Riga in the Latvian SSR.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Lithuanian SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............1,0541,8142,215
COWS ...............782839861
Swine (thousands) ...............1,0682,2972,551
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............62716165
Poultry (millions) ...............3.89.613.9

The standard of living in Lithuania is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.5 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, grew from 171 million rubles to 4.131 billion rubles between 1940 and 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of almost 15. Total deposits in savings banks reached 3.177 billion rubles in 1980, compared to 176 million rubles in 1965. The size of the average account in 1980 was 1,781 rubles. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 29.4 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 9,462,000 sqm.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Lithuanian SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............134390422
Milk (thousand tons) ...............1,3832,4902,524
Eggs (million units) ...............187701859

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1939 census, 76.7 percent of Lithuania’s population was literate; the figure for men was 78.7 percent, and that for women was 75 percent. By 1970 the literacy rate had reached 99.7 percent.

In 1977 129,000 children were enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 600,000 pupils were enrolled in 2,500 general-education schools of all types. There were 41,000 students in 80 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 26,000 in 49 vocational-technical schools offering a secondary education. There were 69,900 students enrolled in 74 specialized secondary educational institutions and 66,500 students in 12 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the University of Vilnius, the Kaunas Polytechnic Institute, the Kaunas Medical Institute, the Lithuanian Agriculture Academy, and the Conservatory of the Lithuanian SSR.

In 1978, for every 1,000 employed persons, 637 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 250 per 1,000 in 1959.

The leading scientific institution of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR. In 1977, more than 12,500 research workers were employed in scientific institutions.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the republic had 11 theaters, including the Lithuanian Drama Theater, the Lithuanian Theater of Opera, and Ballet, the Vilnius Russian Drama Theater, the Young People’s Theater, and the Vilnius Puppet Theater. There were 1,600 motion-picture projection units and 1,500 clubs. The largest republic libraries are the State Library of the Lithuanian SSR (founded 1919; more than 3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals), the library of the University of Vilnius (founded 1570; 3.3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals), and the library of the Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR (founded 1941; 3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). There are 2,700 public libraries (21.8 million copies of books and journals). The republic has 38 museums.

In 1977, 1,519 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 16.7 million copies; the books and pamphlets included 1,181 titles in Lithuanian, with a total printing of 14.2 million copies. There were 131 journals and magazines with a total annual circulation of 45.8 million; 103 of the publications were in Lithuanian, with a total annual circulation of 43.9. million. In 1977 the republic had 118 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 2.1 million and a total annual circulation of 410 million. Newspapers are published in Lithuanian, Russian, and Polish. The Lithuanian Telegraphy Agency (ELTA) was founded in 1919, and the Book Chamber of the Lithuanian SSR was founded in 1945 in Vilnius.

Radio broadcasting in Lithuania began in 1926; programs are in Lithuanian, Russian, and Polish. Television programs have been broadcast since 1957 in Lithuanian and Russian. A television center is located in Vilnius.

In 1977 the republic had 211 hospitals, with 38,300 beds, as compared to 77 hospitals and 8,900 beds in 1940. There were 11,400 physicians and 30,700 secondary medical personnel in 1977, as compared to 2,000 physicians and 2,000 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Lithuania’s popular balneological, peloid, and climatic health resorts include Druskininkai and Palanga.

The Moldavian SSR, or Moldavia, is located in the extreme southwestern part of the European USSR. It is bounded on the west by Rumania. It covers an area of 33,700 sq km and has a population of 3,995,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 2,526,000 Moldavians, 561,000 Ukrainians, 506,000 Russians, 138,000 Gagauz, 81,000 Bulgarians, and 80,000 Jews. The average population density is 118.6 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1980), making Moldavia the most densely populated Union republic. The capital, Kishinev, has a population of 539,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). Other major cities are Tiraspol’ (147,000), Bel’tsy (131,000), and Bendery (108,000). New cities include Rybnitsa, Dubossary, Ungeny, and Edintsy. The republic has 39 raions, 21 cities, and 45 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The terrain of the Moldavian SSR consists of a hilly plain dissected by river valleys and ravines. In the central part of the republic the Central Moldavian Uplands, or Kodry, reach a maximum elevation of 429 m. Mineral resources include building materials, phosphorites, and brown coal.

The republic has a moderate continental climate. The average January temperature is – 5°C in the north and – 3°C in the south. The average July temperatures are 19°C and 22°C, respectively. Annual precipitation varies from 400 mm in the south to 560 mm in the north.

The Dnestr and the Prut are the republic’s main rivers. Chernozem soils predominate. Forests of oak, hornbeam, beech, and linden cover 8 percent of the territory.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Moldavia in the ninth century. Early feudal state formations existed in the region in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Mongol-Tatars and Hungarian feudal lords invaded in the 13th and 14th centuries. In 1359 an independent Moldavian principality was established. The formation of the Moldavian nationality was completed by the end of the 14th century. In the 16th to 18th centuries, Moldavia was under Turkish rule. During this period a national liberation movement developed against the Turkish yoke, Ivan Liutyi (John the Terrible) led a war of liberation, and Ivan Podkova and S. Nalivaiko conducted campaigns in the region.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Iaşi (1791), part of Moldavia passed to Russia. The rest of Moldavia was united with Russia in 1793 as a result of the second partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Bessarabia became part of Russia under the Bucharest Peace Treaty of 1812. The peasant reform of 1861 in Bessarabia accelerated the development of capitalism. The working people of Moldavia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet power was established in all of Moldavia in early January 1918. Between January and March 1918, Bessarabia was seized by the kingdom of Rumania. On Oct. 12,1924, the Moldavian ASSR was proclaimed on the left bank of the Dnestr as part of the Ukrainian SSR. On June 28, 1940, Bessarabia was re-turned to the USSR. On Aug. 2, 1940, the Moldavian SSR was formed. The republic was occupied by fascist German forces in 1941 and was liberated by the Soviet Army during the Iaşi Kishinev Operation of 1944.

A socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Moldavia had 139,874 members and 7,589 candidate members and the Komsomol of Moldavia had 526,037 members. A total of 1,757,000 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Moldavian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Moldavian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1958, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Moldavia became an industrial-agricultural republic. It is one of the country’s most important regions for growing fruits, including berries and grapes, as well as maize, sunflowers, and vegetables. It has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 51 times greater than in 1940 and 298 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Moldavian SSR)
 194019701980
1 Excluding wine (brandy) sent to other republics for final processing and bottling
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.027.615.6
Electric machines, large (units) ...............3712,212
Centrifugal pumps (thousand units) ...............61.390.0
Tractors (thousand units) ...............7.59.6
Washing machines (thousand units) ...............186241.2
Refrigerators (thousand units) ...............162.7244.9
Hosiery (million pairs) ...............29.036.7
Knitted underwear (million pieces) ...............0.024.046.7
Knitted outerwear (million pieces) ...............0.15.710.2
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............0.113.016.5
Granulated sugar (thousand tons) ...............11.8356.5406
Vegetable oil (thousand tons) ...............14.0154.7133
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............48.5945.71,215
Grape wine (million decaliters)11.324.821.7
Brandy (thousand decaliters)12422635

Moldavia receives most of its electric power from steam power plants, the largest of which is the Moldavian State Regional Electric Power Plant. Food processing is the most important branch of industry. Wine-making (Kishinev, Kalarash, Tiraspol’, and Bel’tsy), fruit and vegetable canning (Tiraspol’, Bendery, Kaushany, and Oloneshty), the production of essential oils, sugar re-fining, and meat packing are highly developed. Machine building, including electrical engineering, instrument-making, and the production of farm machinery, and light industry, including such branches as knitwear, textile garment, and footwear industries, are also important.

In 1980 gross agricultural output was 3.5 times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980 there were 353 sovkhozes (including sovkhoz-plants) and 392 kolkhozes. In 1980 the stock of agricultural equipment included 50,300 tractors (compared to 1,400 in 1940), 3,800 grain-harvesting combines (200 in 1940), and 29,300 trucks (600 in 1940). There were 2.6 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 77 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 1.8 million ha, and pastureland for 0.3 million ha. The total area of irrigated land was 217,000 ha, and the total area of drained land was 41,800 ha. Plant growing accounted for 64 percent of gross agricultural output in 1980.

Agriculture is dominated by fruit growing, particularly viticulture. Kolkhozes and sovkhozes share large industrialized vine-yards and orchards, with areas of 3,000–6,000 ha. Between 1940 and 1980 the area covered by vineyards increased from 118,000 ha to 256,000 ha, and the area devoted to berry and other fruit plantings rose from 81,000 ha to 178,000 ha. Special sovkhoz-plants cultivate crops that yield essential oils. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Moldavian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............2,0571,8371,839
Grain crops ...............1,672832842
Industrial crops ...............261381373
Potatoes ...............293740
Vegetables ...............115272
Feed crops ...............76519499
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............1,8102,4382,815
Sugar beets ...............1192,8162,726
Sunflowers ...............162331250
Tobacco ...............58778
Vegetables ...............985531,303
Grapes ...............4037001,201
Berries and other fruits ...............177621638

Animal husbandry has achieved great successes through concentration and industrialization. Figures on the number of live-stock and poultry and on the output of animal products are given in Tables 3 and 4.

In 1980, Moldavia had 1,110 km of railroad lines and 11,500 km of roads, 9,800 km of which were paved. In the same year there were 1,200 km of waterways. The republic also has good facilities for air transport.

The standard of living in Moldavia is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.6 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, rose from 107 million rubles in 1940 to 3.526 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover grew by a factor of 15. Total deposits in savings banks reached 1.532 billion rubles in 1980, compared to 1 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,011 rubles, compared to 44 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 18.9 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 7,353,000 sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 18 percent of the population of Bessarabia and about 10 percent of Moldavians were literate. During the 1914–15 academic year, the territory of what is now Moldavia had 1,314 general-education schools with 92,000 students, including 26 Gymnasiums and Realschulen. Only 20 percent of schoolage children attended primary school, and there were no higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Moldavian. The literacy rate reached 45.9 percent by 1939 and 97.8 percent by 1959, according to the census for that year. By 1970, 99.5 percent of the population was literate.

In 1977 approximately 212,000 children were enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 800,000 pupils were enrolled in 1,900 general-education schools. There were 43,500 students enrolled in 92 vocational-technical educational institutions (including 24,900 students in 48 vocational-technical schools offering a secondary education), 59,200 in 49 specialized secondary educational institutions, and 47,900 in eight higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the University of Kishinev, the Kishinev Medical Institute, and the Moldavian Agricultural Institute.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 656 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 280 per 1,000 in 1959.

The leading scientific institution of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Moldavian SSR. In 1977 there were 7,600 scientific workers employed in scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Moldavian SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............5149051,176
COWS ...............181342435
Swine (thousands) ...............3391,5741,971
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............1,4641,4191,180
Poultry (millions) ...............4.412.117.8

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. As of Jan. 1, 1978, the republic had seven theaters, including the Moldavian Opera and Ballet Theater and the A. S. Pushkin Moldavian Music and Drama Theater; there were 1,800 motion-picture projection units and 1,900 clubs. The republic’s largest library is the N. K. Krupskaia State Library of the Moldavian SSR (founded 1832; approximately 3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). There are 2,000 public libraries (more than 18 million copies of books and journals). The republic has 38 museums.

In 1977, 1,346 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 13.2 million copies; 547 of the books and pamphlets, with a total printing of 6.6 million copies, were in Moldavian. In 1940, by contrast, 138 titles were published, with a printing of 1,469,000 copies. The republic’s 39 magazines and journals in 1977 had a total annual circulation of 36 million; they included 17 publications in Moldavian, with an annual circulation of 18.3 million. There were only three journals, with an annual circulation of 31,000, in 1940. In 1977 there were 153 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 1,989,000 and a total annual circulation of 346 million. In 1940 there were 22 newspapers, with a total single-edition circulation of 61,000 and a total annual circulation of 11.7 million. The Information Agency of the Moldavian SSR (ATEM) was founded in Kishinev in 1940. The Book Chamber of the Moldavian SSR was established in Kishinev in 1957.

The first radio broadcasts were made in 1930 in Tiraspol’. The Kishinev Television Center began operating in 1958. Radio and television programs are broadcast in Moldavian and Russian.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Moldavian SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............51176275
Milk (thousand tons) ...............1827921,194
Eggs (million units) ...............235578874
Wool (thousand tons) ...............2.23.12.6

In 1977 the republic had 346 hospitals, with 45,400 beds, as compared to 109 hospitals and 6,100 beds in 1940. There were 11,200 physicians and 35,000 secondary medical personnel in 1977, as compared to 1,100 physicians and 2,400 secondary medical personnel in 1940.

The Latvian SSR, or Latvia, is located in the Northwest European USSR. It is bounded on the west by the Baltic Sea. It covers an area of 63,700 sq km and has a population of 2,539,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 1,344,000 Latvians, 821,000 Russians, 112,000 Byelorussians, 67,000 Ukrainians, 63,000 Poles, and 38,000 Lithuanians. The average population density is 39.9 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital, Riga, has a population of 850,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The other major cities are Daugavpils (119,000) and Liepāja (109,000). New cities that have appeared include Olaine and Stučka. The republic has 26 raions, 56 cities, and 37 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The terrain of Latvia is plainlike, with traces of ancient glaciation. Mineral resources include building materials.

The climate is transitional between marine and continental. The average January temperature is –5°C, and the average July temperature, 17°C. Annual precipitation is 560 mm.

The chief river is the Daugava. The largest lakes are Lubāna and Rēzna. Sod podzolic soils predominate. Forests, primarily coniferous, cover more than 40 percent of the republic.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Latvia during the fifth century A.D. In the period from the tenth to 13th centuries, the first feudal principalities were formed—Koknese, Jersika, and Tālava. From the 13th to 16th centuries, Latvia was controlled by feudal-Catholic German conquerors. In 1562 part of it was divided between Poland and Sweden. As a result of the Treaty of Nystad (1721), northern Latvia was incorporated into Russia. The consolidation of the Latvian nationality was completed by the early 17th century.

By the end of the 18th century, all of Latvia had been unified with Russia. The abolition of serfdom in the 19th century accelerated

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Latvian SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.252.74.7
Passenger railroad cars, main-line (units) ...............534642
Streetcars (units) ...............240237
Buses (units) ...............3,18214,205
Electric light bulbs (million units) ...............1.511395.7
Paper (thousand tons) ...............24148131
Hosiery (million pairs) ...............35870
Knitted underwear (million pieces) ...............32826
Knitted outerwear (million pieces) ...............0.21318
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............11210
Motor scooters (thousand units) ...............300325
Radio broadcast receivers (thousand units) ...............221,8532,125
Washing machines (thousand units) ...............636590
Butter (thousand tons) ...............233334
Meat (thousand tons) ...............54143199.3
Granulated sugar (thousand tons) ...............41218303
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............9258403.1

the development of capitalism. During the 1890’s the first Social Democratic organizations were founded. The working people of Latvia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the October Revolution of 1917.

In November 1917, in Valka, Soviet power was proclaimed in the liberated part of Latvia. In December 1918 all power was transferred to the Soviets. In January 1919 the Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic was formed. In early 1920 the bourgeoisie seized power, and a bourgeois republic was established. A fascist coup took place in May 1934. In June 1940 the Latvian working people overthrew the fascist government and restored Soviet power. The Latvian SSR was formed on July 21,1940, and was made part of the USSR on August 5. In 1941, Latvia was occupied by fascist German forces. Soviet troops liberated the republic between 1944 and May 1945.

A socialist society took shape in Latvia as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

As of Jan. 1,1978, the Communist Party of Latvia had 145,812 members and 5,286 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Latvia had 293,417 members. A total of 1,356,500 persons be-longed to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Latvian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Latvian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Latvia became an industrial-agricultural republic. It plays a particularly important role in the economy of the USSR in machine building, light industry, and food processing. The Latvian SSR has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Latvian SSR)
 19401971980
Total sown area (thousand hectares ) ...............1,9641,5411,674
Grain crops ...............1,132573693
Fiberflax ...............591918
Sugar beets ...............151013
Potatoes ...............139130106
Vegetables ...............91515
Feed crops ...............609794828
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............1,3721,3231,054
Flaxfiber ...............1842
Sugar beets ...............251236182
Potatoes ...............2,0932,3281,199
Vegetables ...............87275200

In 1980 industrial output was 45 times greater than in 1940 and 42 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1. The energy industry is based primarily on the use of imported fuels. Hydroelectric power plants are located at PJavini, Riga, and Kegums. The main industries are machine building and metalworking, specializing in the manufacture of instruments, transportation and agricultural machinery, power generators, and electrical engineering and electronic equipment; the principal centers are Riga and Daugavpils. The chemical industry, centered at Daugavpils and Olaine, manufactures synthetic fibers and threads, glass fibers, thermoplastics, synthetic resins, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. The lumber industry specializes in the production of furniture and matchwood. In light industry, the production of knitwear is especially well developed. The food-processing industry is notable for the production of butter and cheese.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 1.4 times greater than in 1940. At the end of 1980, Latvia had 243 sovkhozes and 331 kolkhozes, including 11 fishing kolkhozes. In 1980 the republic’s stock of agricultural equipment included 32,900 tractors (compared to 1,300 in 1940), 6,800 grain-harvesting combines (3,700 in 1965), and 20,900 trucks (11,600 in 1965). There were 2.5 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 38 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 1.7 million ha, hayfields for 200,000 ha, and pastureland for 500,000 ha. Land reclamation has been carried out on a large scale. In 1980 there were 1,844,900 ha of drained land.

Agriculture is dominated by animal husbandry, which accounted for 71 percent of the gross agricultural output in 1980. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops. Between 1940 and 1980 the total area devoted to berry and other fruit plantings increased from 19,000 ha to 39,000 ha.

The main branches of animal husbandry are the raising of cattle for meat and dairy products and the raising of swine for bacon (see Table 3). Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4. Beekeeping has become widespread, with apiaries located on 75 percent of kolkhozes. Pond fish culture is engaged in by 29 kolkhozes. There are nine fur-farming sovkhozes, and 24 kolkhozes have fur farms; mink, silver foxes, and blue arctic foxes are raised.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Latvian SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............9861,2031,427
cows ...............797571580
Swine (thousands) ...............5881,0751,759
Sheep (thousands) ...............602318203
Poultry (millions) ...............25.911.2

The chief forms of transportation are railroad and maritime transport. In 1980, Latvia had a total of 2,380 km of railroad lines. There were 27,100 km of roads, of which 16,900 km were paved. The chief ports are Riga and Ventspils. In 1980 there were 345 km of navigable waterways. The republic also has good facili-ties for air transport. The network of pipelines consists of a petroleum pipeline from Polotsk (Byelorussian SSR) to Ventspils, a petroleum-products pipeline from Novopolotsk to Ventspils, and gas pipelines from Dashava (Ukrainian SSR) and Vuktyl (Komi ASSR).

The standard of living in Latvia is steadily rising. The national income was 1.6 times greater in 1980 than in 1970. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 189 million rubles in 1940 to 3.725 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover in-creased by a factor of 10.2. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 1.716 billion rubles, compared to 193 million rubles in 1965; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,218 rubles. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 27.9 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980, new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 5.347 million sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. In 1939 the literacy rate in Latvia was 92.7 percent; the figure for men was 94.6 percent, and that for women was 91 percent. The literacy rate in 1970 was 99.8 percent.

In 1977 there were 102,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 350,000 pupils were enrolled in 974 general-education schools of all types. A total of 29,100 students were enrolled in 74 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 16,000 students in 47 vocational-technical educational institutions offering a secondary education. There were 54 specialized secondary educational institutions, with 43,500 students, and ten higher educational institutions, with 46,300 students. The largest higher educational institutions are Latvian University, the Riga Polytechnic Institute, the Riga Medical Institute, and the Latvian Agricultural Academy.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Latvian SSR)
 194019701980
Milk (thousan d tons) ...............1,5371,7131,696
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............123205284
Eggs (million units) ...............174500730

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 771 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to an estimated 176 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. In 1977 scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions, employed 12,000 research workers.

In 1977 the Latvian SSR had ten theaters, including the Latvian Drama Theater and the Latvian Theater of Opera and Ballet. There were 1,236 motion-picture projection units and 957 clubs. The largest library in the republic is the V. Lācis State Library of the Latvian SSR (founded 1919; 4.5 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals in 1977). There are 1,418 public libraries (18.6 million copies of books and journals). The republic has 65 museums.

In 1977, 2,263 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 16.3 million copies; 1,174 of the books and pamphlets were in Latvian, with a total printing of 8 million copies. There were 92 journals and magazines, with a total annual circulation of 55 million; 48 of the journals and magazines were in Latvian, with an annual circulation of 47.8 million. In 1977, the republic had 92 newspapers, with a single-issue circulation of 1,481,000 and an annual circulation of 315 million. Newspapers are published in Latvian and Russian. The Latvian Information Agency (LATINFORM) was founded in 1940 as the Latvian Telegraph Agency; since 1973 it has been known as the Information Agency of the Council of Ministers of the Latvian SSR. The Book Chamber of the Latvian SSR was founded in 1940.

The first radio broadcasts were made in Riga in 1925. The Riga Television Studio has been in operation since 1954. Radio and television programs are broadcast in Latvian and Russian.

In 1977 the republic had 182 hospitals, with 33,000 beds, compared to 89 hospitals and 12,000 beds in 1940. There were 10,400 physicians and 26,900 secondary medical personnel in 1977, compared to 2,500 physicians and 3,600 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Popular health resorts offering climatic and balneological cures, as well as pelotherapy, include Baldone, Kiepāja, and Jūrmula.

The Kirghiz SSR, or Kirghizia, is located in northeastern Middle Asia. It is bounded on the southeast and east by China. It covers an area of 198,500 sq km and has a population of 3,653,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 1,687,000 Kirghiz, 912,000 Russians, 426,000 Uzbeks, 109,000 Ukrainians, 101,000 Germans, 72,000 Tatars, and 30,000 Uighurs. The average population density is 18.4 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital, Frunze, has a population of 552,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The other major city of the republic, Osh, has a population of 178,000. New cities that have appeared include Kyzyl-Kiia, Rybach’e, Maili-Sai, Talas, and Naryn. The Kirghiz SSR is divided into four oblasts and 40 raions, nine of which are under republic jurisdiction. There are 18 cities and 31 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Kirghizia is a mountainous region. Much of it is occupied by the Tien-Shan, which reaches a maximum elevation, within the republic, of 7,439 m at Pobeda Peak. Mountain ranges alternate with broad high-mountain valleys at elevations of 2,000–3,000 m. Lower valleys, up to 1,500 m in elevation, are found in the peripheral areas of the republic: the Chu Valley, the Talas Valley, and the easternmost part of the Fergana Valley (Fergana Basin). Mineral resources include coal and ores of rare and nonferrous metals.

Kirghizia has a continental climate. The average January temperature is – 6°C in most of the valleys; the average July temperature varies from 15° to 25°C. Annual precipitation ranges from 200 mm in the central region to 800 mm on the northern and western mountain slopes.

The chief river is the Naryn. The largest lake is Issyk-Kul’. Sierozems and chestnut and cinnamon soils predominate. Desert and semidesert vegetation is found, with mountain steppes, forests, and high-mountain meadows and meadow steppes in the mountains.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Kirghizia in the seventh and six centuries B.C. The early feudal state known as the Turkic Kaganate existed from the sixth to eighth centuries A.D. In the period from the eighth to tenth centuries, the region was ruled first by the Türgesh and then by the Karluks. From the mid-tenth century to the mid-12th the main appanage of the Karakhanid state was located in Kirghizia. The Mongol-Tatars conquered the region in the 13th century. During the first half of the 16th century, the Kirghiz waged a struggle against Oirat raids. The formation of the Kirghiz nationality was essentially completed in the second half of the 15th century.

During the first half of the 19th century, Kirghizia fell under the rule of the Kokand Khanate. A series of antifeudal uprisings subsequently took place; the largest rebellions were those of 1843,1856–57, and 1873–76. In the mid-19th century some of the Kirghiz voluntarily accepted Russian citizenship. In the 1860’s and 1870’s all of Kirghizia was united with Russia, forming parts of Semirech’e, Syr Darya, Fergana, and Samarkand oblasts. Participation in the Russian economic system accelerated the emergence of industry. In the early 20th century the first Social Democratic organizations were founded. The working people of Kirghizia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet power was established between November 1917 and June 1918. With the aid of the Red Army, the working people were able to rout the White Guards and detachments of the Basmachi.

In 1920 and 1921 land and water reforms were implemented. On Oct. 14, 1924, as a step in the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was created as part of the RSFSR. It was renamed the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast on May 25,1925, and was reorganized as the Kirghiz ASSR on Feb. 1, 1926. On Dec. 5, 1936, Kirghizia became a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Kirghiz people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Kirghizia had 109,856 members and 4,948 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Kirghizia had 420,412 members. A total of 1,170,577 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Kirghiz people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Kirghiz SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1957 and 1963, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Kirghizia became an industrial-agricultural republic. It plays a particularly important role in the economy of the USSR in nonferrous metallurgy, various branches of machine building, and animal husbandry. It has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 37 times greater than in 1940 and 362 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1.

The energy industry is based on the Toktogul, Uchkurgan, and Kurp-Sai hydroelectric power plants, the Alamedin Hydroelectric System, and the Frunze Heat and Power Plant. Hard and brown coal is mined and gas is extracted in the republic’s south-west. Nonferrous metallurgy, including the mining of mercury and antimony ores and the production of mercury and antimony, is important. Machine-building plants, centered mainly in Frunze, produce agricultural and feed-preparing machines, motor vehicles, machine tools, instruments, and electrical engineering articles. Light industry is especially represented by textile enterprises, which are located in Frunze and Osh. The food-processing industry specializes in the production of flour, meat, and sugar.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Kirghiz SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.053.59.2
Alternating current motors, 0.25-100 kW (thousand units) ...............133.8465
Light bulbs (million units) ...............112.1357
Motor vehicles (thousand units) ...............12.122.2
Pick-up balers (thousand units) ...............15.831.0
Prefabricated reintorced-concrete structures and members (thousand cu m) ...............561846
Knitted outerwear and underwear (million pieces) ...............0.215.717.9
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............0.29.69.8
Meat (thousand tons) ...............16.878.8118.1
Granulated sugar (thousand tons) ...............65.5198270.4

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 3.7 times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980 there were 231 sovkhozes and 180 kolkhozes. In 1980 the republic’s stock of agricultural equipment included 26,300 tractors (compared to 5,200 in 1940), 1,000 cotton pickers, 4,400 grain-harvesting combines (1,100 in 1940), and 19,300 trucks (2,600 in 1940). There were 10.1 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 51 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 1.3 million ha, hayfields for 200,000 ha, and pastureland for 8.4 million ha. By 1980 the total area of irrigated land had reached 986,000 ha. Important elements of the republic’s water-supply system are the Bol’shoi Chu and Otuz-Adyr canals and the Orto-Tokoi, Bazar-Kurgan, Naiman, Tortgul’, Toktogul, and Kirov reservoirs.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Kirghiz SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............1,0561,2641,272
Grain crops ...............778583553
wheat ...............450326257
Industrial crops ...............114149127
sugar beets ...............155128
cotton ...............647576
tobacco ...............51415
Melons, vegetables, and potatoes ...............234344
Feed crops ...............141490548
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............5881,0141,307
Sugar beets ...............6281,685956
Seed cotton ...............95187206
Tobacco ...............42235
Vegetables ...............45194400
Potatoes ...............105278293

Crop raising accounted for approximately 45 percent of gross agricultural output in 1980; the cultivation of industrial crops is of particular importance. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops.

Animal husbandry plays an important role in the republic’s agriculture in terms of both gross output and market output (see Table 3). Sheep raising accounted for 56 percent of the proceeds from sales of animal products in 1980. Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

The chief form of transportation is motor vehicle transport. In 1980, Kirghizia had 25,300 km of roads, of which 17,600 km were paved. The total length of railroad lines was 370 km. There is navigation on the Issyk-Kul’. The republic has good facilities for air transport. Pipeline transportation is represented by the Bukhara-Tashkent-Frunze-Alma-Ata and Maili-Sai-Dzhalal-Abad-Kara-Su-Osh gas pipelines.

The standard of living in Kirghizia is steadily rising. In 1980 the national income was 1.5 times greater than in 1970. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 94 million rubles in 1940 to 2.607 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of more than 8.5. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 991 million rubles, compared to 4 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 989 rubles, compared to 38 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1977 urban dwelling space totaled 14.2 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 5,127,000 sqm.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 3.1 percent of the population of Kirghizia was literate. During the 1914–15 academic year there were 107 schools, with a total of 7,000 pupils, of whom 574 were Kirghiz. There were no higher educational institutions. After the establishment of Soviet power, a new school system was formed, with classes

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Kirghiz SSR)
 194111971119811
1 As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............556912982
cows ...............219360384
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............2,5299,45510,058
Swine (thousands) ...............87244336
Horses (thousands) ...............408264259
Poultry (millions) ...............1.17.310.3

taught in Kirghiz. By 1939 the literacy rate had risen to 79.8 per-cent; according to the 1970 census, 99.7 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977 there were 133,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 800,000 pupils were enrolled in 1,800 general-education schools of all types. A total of 44,500 students were enrolled in 77 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 22,300 students in 37 vocational-technical educational institutions offering a secondary education. There were 46,300 students in 39 specialized secondary educational institutions and 52,100 students in nine higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are Kirghiz University, the Kirghiz Medical Institute, the Kirghiz Institute of Agriculture, and the Kirghiz Women’s Pedagogical Institute.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 763 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 56 per 1,000 in 1939.

The scientific center of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Kirghiz SSR. At the end of 1977 a total of 7,700 research workers were employed in scientific institutions.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. In 1977 the republic had seven theaters, including the Kirghiz Drama Theater and the Kirghiz Theater of Opera and Ballet. There were 1,200 motion-picture projection units and 1,100 clubs. The largest library is the N. G. Chernyshevskii State Library of the Kirghiz SSR (founded 1934; 3.5 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals in 1975). The republic has nine

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Kirghiz SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............41134159
Milk (thousand tons) ...............210548682
Eggs (million units) ...............47268416
Wool (thousand tons) ...............3.327.134.7

In 1977, 1,082 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 8 million copies; 465 of the titles were in Kirghiz, with a total printing of 4.3 million copies. In 1940, by contrast, 350 book and pamphlet titles were published, with a total printing of 1,283,000 copies. In 1977 there were 33 journals and magazines, with a total annual circulation of 31.6 million. The republic had 101 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 1,209,000 and an annual circulation of 231 million. The Kirghiz Telegraph Agency (KirTAG) has been in operation since 1936. The Republic Book Chamber was founded in 1939.

The first radio broadcasts were made in 1931 in Frunze. Radio programs are broadcast in Kirghiz, Russian, German, and Dungan. The Frunze Television Center began operating in 1958.

In 1977, Kirghizia had 267 hospitals with 39,800 beds, compared to 112 hospitals and 3,800 beds in 1940. There were 9,000 physicians and 29,100 secondary medical personnel in 1977, compared to 600 physicians and 2,600 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Kirghizia’s popular health resorts offering climatic and balneological therapy include Aksu, Dzhalal-Abad, Dzhety-Oguz, and Cholpon-Ata.

The Tadzhik SSR, or Tadzhikistan, is located in southeastern Middle Asia. It is bounded on the south by Afghanistan and on the east by China. The republic covers an area of 143,100 sq km and has a population of 4,007,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 2,237,000 Tadzhiks, 873,000 Uzbeks, 395,000 Russians, 80,000 Tatars, 48,000 Kirghiz, 39,000 Germans, and 36,000 Ukrainians. The average population density is 28 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital, Dushanbe, has a population of 510,000 (Jan. 1,1981). Leninabad, another major city, has a population of 126,000. New cities that have appeared include Nurek, Ordzhonikidzeabad, Isfara, Tursunzade, Kairakkum, and Khorog. The Tadzhik SSR comprises the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast and three other oblasts. The republic is divided into 43 raions, including eight raions under republic jurisdiction. It has 18 cities and 49 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Mountains cover more than 90 percent of the Tadzhik SSR. They belong to the Tien-Shan, Gissar-Alai, and Pamir mountain systems. Communism Peak, which reaches an elevation of 7,495 m, is the highest mountain in the USSR. In the north of the republic is the westernmost part of the Fergana Valley (Fergana Basin), and in the southwest are the Vakhsh and Gissar valleys. Mineral resources include ores of nonferrous and rare metals, fluorite, coal, natural gas, and common salt.

The climate is continental. The average January temperature is between 2° and – 2°C in the valleys and foothills of the southwest and north and falls below – 20°C in the Pamirs. The average July temperature ranges correspondingly from 30° to 0°C and below. Annual precipitation on the plains and in the valleys to an elevation of 500 m is 150–300 mm.

The chief rivers are the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Vakhsh (a tributary of the Amu Darya), and the Zeravshan; the largest lake is Karakul’. Soils are of the sierozem, cinnamon, and mountain meadow types. Desert, steppe, and high-mountain meadow vegetation predominates.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Tadzhikistan during the first half of the first millennium B.C., with the rise of the Bactrian state. During the sixth to fourth centuries B.C. the region was controlled by the Achaemenids and by Alexander the Great. It became part of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the third century B.C. and was later incorporated into the Kushana kingdom. During this period it suffered invasions by the Chionites, the Ephthalites, and Turkic tribes. Popular uprisings were led by Mazdak and Abrui. In the eighth century the people put up a heroic resistance to the Arab conquest in the Mukanna Uprising.

In the ninth and tenth centuries the area was part of the Taharid and Samanid states. The formation of the Tadzhik nationality was essentially completed at this time. During the tenth to early 13th centuries the region was part of the Ghaznavid and Karakhanid states and Khwarazm. In the 13th century it was conquered by the Mongol-Tatars. A national liberation struggle developed against the Tatar yoke. Uprisings were led by Malik Sandzhar, Tarabi, and Timur Melik. In the 14th and 15th centuries the area was part of the Timurid state. During a period beginning in the 16th century it belonged to the Bukhara Khanate and a number of small feudal holdings.

In 1868 the northern part of the region was united with Russia, becoming part of Fergana and Samarkand oblasts, and the Bukhara Khanate became a vassalage of Russia. Participation in the Russian economic system accelerated the emergence of industry. In the early 20th century Tadzhikistan’s first Social Democratic circles were formed. The working people of the region took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet power was established in northern Tadzhikistan between November 1917 and February 1918 and proclaimed throughout Tadzhikistan in late 1918. Between 1918 and 1923, with the help of the Red Army, the working people defeated the White Guards and the Basmachi. In 1921 and 1922 land and water reforms were carried out. On Oct. 14,1924, as a step in the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the Tadzhik ASSR was formed within the Uzbek SSR. On Dec. 5,1929, the Tadzhik SSR was formed as a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War, the Tadzhik people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Tadzhikistan had 97,403 members and 4,105 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Tadzhikistan had 377,571 members. A total of 967,435 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Tadzhik people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Tadzhik SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1956, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Tadzhikistan became an industrial-agricultural republic. It is one of the USSR’s most important regions for cotton cultivation, the mining of ores of nonferrous and rare metals, light industry, and food processing; it is the country’s main producer of fine-fiber cotton. The republic has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Tadzhik SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.063.213.6
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............5380
Power transformers (thousand kV-A) ...............1,3792,962
Spinning looms (units) ...............659
Prefabricated reinforced-concrete structures and articles (thousand cu m) ...............627.5936.7
Ginned cotton (thousand tons) ...............60.9235.0288.1
Raw silk (tons) ...............254322342
Carpet products (million sq m) ...............3.210.2
Knitted underwear (million pieces) ...............0.55.76.4
Knitted outerwear (million pieces) ...............3.64.8
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............0.56.17.8
Vegetable oil (thousand tons) ...............3.568.896.3
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............13.9172.8267.7
Grape wine (million decaliters) ...............0.33.55.6

In 1981 industrial output was 18 times greater than in 1940 and 156 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1.

The energy industry is mainly based on such major hydroelectric power plants as the Nurek, Golovnaia, and Kairakkum plants. The largest steam power plants are located in Dushanbe and Iavan. The Rogun and Baipazin hydroelectric power plants were under construction in 1982. Brown coal is mined and petroleum and natural gas are extracted. Nonferrous metallurgy is well developed, especially such branches as the mining and processing of lead and zinc ores. Aluminum is produced in Tursunzade. Machine-building and metalworking enterprises, located in Dushanbe, Leninabad, and Kanibadam, manufacture spinning looms, agricultural machines, equipment for trade and public catering enterprises, pipeline fittings, and electrical engineering articles. The expanding chemical industry is represented by the nitrogenous fertilizer plant in Kurgan-Tiube and the electrochemical plant in Iavan. Light industry includes cotton-ginning, cotton-textile, silk, and carpet plants. The food-processing industry, including butter-and-fat, wine-making, and fruit- and vegetable-processing enterprises, accounts for one-quarter of the republic’s total industrial output.

Gross agricultural output increased by a factor of 4.4 between 1940 and 1980. By the end of 1980, Tadzhikistan had 234 sovkhozes and 166 kolkhozes. The republic’s stock of agricultural

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Tadzhik SSR)
 194019701960
1Var. brevimulticautia
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............807765763
Grain crops ...............567321195
Cotton ...............106254308
Crown flax1 ...............3683
Vegetables ...............51216
Melons ...............1088
Feed crops ...............55151217
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............324222245
Seed cotton ...............1727271,011
Vegetables ...............44206381

equipment in 1980 included 31,700 tractors (compared to 3,900 in 1940), 3,400 cotton pickers, 1,400 grain-harvesting combines (100 in 1940), and 18,900 trucks (1,500 in 1940). There were 4.2 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 29 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 800,000 ha, and pastureland for 3.3 million ha. Irrigation plays an important role in agriculture. Major elements of the republic’s water-supply system are the Bol’-shoi Gissar, Dal’verzin, Bol’shoi Fergana, and Severnyi Fergana canals and the Farkhad, Kairakkum, and Nurek reservoirs. By 1980 the total area of irrigated land had reached 632,000 ha.

In 1980 plant growing accounted for 71 percent of the gross agricultural output. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops. Cotton cultivation is the most important branch of agriculture. Geraniums are grown for essential oil. Orchards and vineyards are common, and lemons are grown by the trench method. Fruit plantings, excluding vineyards but including berry and citrus fruit plantings, occupied 69,000 ha in 1980, as compared to 21,000 ha in 1940. Vineyards covered 26,700 ha in 1980, as compared to 8,000 ha in 1940. Between 1940 and 1980 the gross yield of berries and other fruits, except grapes, increased from 121,000 tons to 213,000 tons, and the gross yield of grapes rose from 49,000 tons to 159,000 tons.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Tadzhik SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............5801,0081,260
cows ...............188372471
Swine (thousands) ...............2178147
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............2,1742,6343,075
Horses (thousands) ...............1244536
Poultry (millions) ...............0.92.76.3

Animal husbandry is dominated by transhumant livestock raising (see Table 3). Sericulture is also important; a total of 4,000 tons of cocoons were produced in 1980. Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

In 1980 the Tadzhik SSR had 470 km of railroad lines. In 1980 the republic had 17,000 km of roads, of which 13,900 km were paved. There were 200 km of riverways. Tadzhikistan also has good facilities for air transport. Pipeline transport is represented by gas pipelines in southwestern Tadzhikistan leading from local gas fields and by branches to cities in northern Tadzhikistan from the Mubarek-Bekabad-Fergana trunk gas pipeline. Gas comes from Afghanistan via the Kelif-Dushanbe pipeline.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Tadzhik SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............306495
Milk (thousand tons) ...............135285499
Eggs (million units) ...............38131322
Wool (thousand tons) ...............1.64.95.7

The South Tadzhik territorial production complex is developed in the Tadzhik SSR on the basis of power-consuming enterprises and the hydroelectric power system on the Vakhsh River.

The standard of living in Tadzhikistan is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.7 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, grew from 100 million rubles in 1940 to 2.311 billion rubles in 1980; the per capita turn-over increased by a factor of 6.7. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 769 million rubles, compared to 5 million rubles in 1940. The size of the average account in 1980 was 959 rubles, compared to 44 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 13.5 million sq m; from 1976 to 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 5,574,000 sqm.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 2.2 percent of Tadzhikistan’s population was literate. Ten Russonative schools existed in the early 20th century in Khodzhent (now Leninabad), Ura-Tiube, and other cities, with a total enrollment of approximately 400 during the 1914–15 academic year. There were no specialized secondary or higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Tadzhik. In 1939 the literacy rate was 82.8 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.6 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977, 96,000 children were enrolled in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 1 million pupils were enrolled in 3,100 general-education schools of all types. A total of 28,800 students were enrolled in 65 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 14,300 students in 32 vocational-technical educational institutions offering a secondary education. There were 38,100 students in 39 specialized secondary educational institutions and 53,500 students in nine higher educational institutions. The republic’s largest higher educational institutions are Tadzhik University, the Tadzhik Medical Institute, and the Tadzhik Agricultural Institute.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 737 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 45 per 1,000 in 1939.

The largest scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Tadzhik SSR. In 1977 a total of 6,900 scientific workers were employed in scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. As of Jan. 1, 1977, the republic had 11 theaters, including the Tadzhik Theater of Opera and Ballet, the Tadzhik Drama Theater, and the Republic Theater of Musical Comedy. There were 1,100 motion-picture projections units and 1,200 clubs. The largest library is the Ferdowsi State Library of the Tadzhik SSR (established in 1933 from a city library founded in 1925; 2.5 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). The republic has 1,500 public libraries (10.1 million copies of books and journals). There are seven museums.

In 1977, 801 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 6 million copies; by contrast, 372 titles were released in 1940, with a total printing of 2,823,000 copies. In 1977, Tadzhik-language publications accounted for 342 titles, with a total printing of 4.2 million copies. The republic had 37 journals and magazines in 1977, with a total annual circulation of 19.8 million, compared to nine publications, with an annual circulation of 141,000, in 1940. There were 58 newspapers in 1977, with a total annual circulation of 241 million. Newspapers are published in Tadzhik, Russian, and other languages. The Tadzhik Telegraph Agency (TadzhikTA) has been in operation since 1933. The Republic Book Chamber was founded in 1936.

The first radio broadcasts were made in 1924; as of 1975 programs were broadcast in Tadzhik, Russian, and Uzbek. Television broadcasting began in 1959. A television center is located in Dushanbe.

In 1977 the republic had 278 hospitals, with 36,000 beds, compared to 121 hospitals and 4,500 beds in 1940. Physicians and secondary medical personnel numbered 8,200 and 22,700, respectively, in 1977, compared to 600 physicians and 2,700 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Climatic and balneological cures are offered at the republic’s popular health resorts Obigarm and Khodzha-Obigarm.

Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast

The Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast was formed on Jan. 2,1925. Located in the Pamirs, it covers an area of 63,700 sq km and has a population of 134,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The average population density is 2.1 persons per sq km. The administrative center is the city of Khorog.

Agriculture is the leading branch of the oblast’s economy. In 1980 there were 25 sovkhozes, and the sown area totaled 18,400 ha. Irrigation farming is practiced, primarily in the Western Pamirs. Fruit growing and sericulture are of some importance. In the Eastern Pamirs animal husbandry—mainly the raising of fat-tailed sheep and yaks—predominates. As of Jan. 1,1981, the oblast had 70,000 head of cattle and 347,000 sheep and goats.

In 1980 industrial output was 47 times greater than in 1940. Local industry is undergoing development. Common salt is extracted.

During the 1977–78 academic year 36,800 pupils were enrolled in 265 general-education schools of all types. In that year the ob-last had one vocational-technical school, with 287 students, and one medical school, with 62 students. Scientific institutions include the Pamir Biological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Tadzhik SSR.

In 1977 the oblast had one theater, 154 public libraries, a museum, a house of people’s arts, 184 clubs, and 85 motion-picture projection units.

As of 1977 there were 155 physicians and 1,060 hospital beds.

The Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

The Armenian SSR, or Armenia, is located in southern Transcaucasia. It is bounded on the west by Turkey and on the south by Iran. It covers an area of 29,800 sq km and has a population of 3,119,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 2,725,000 Armenians, 161,000 Azerbaijanis, 70,000 Russians, and 51,000 Kurds. The average population density is 104.7 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital, Yerevan, has a population of 1,055,000 (Jan. 1,1981). The other major cities of the republic are Leninakan (213,000) and Kirovakan (153,000). New cities that have appeared include Echmiadzin, Kafan, Abovian, Razdan, Oktemberian, and Alaverdi. The republic has 36 raions, 24 cities, and 33 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Armenia occupies the northeastern part of the Armenian Highland and the ranges of the Lesser Caucasus that border the highland on the north and east. The average elevation is 1,800 m; 90 percent of the republic is above 1,000 m in elevation. The highest peak is Mount Aragats, which rises to 4,090 m. The characteristic topography is a combination of mountains, plains, valleys, plateaus, and lake basins. Mineral resources include ores of nonferrous metals, iron ore, nepheline syenites, marble, and tuff.

The climate, soil, and flora are characterized by altitudinal zonation. The climate varies from arid subtropical to cold. The average July temperature ranges from 26° to 8°C, and the average January temperature from –2° to –12°C. Annual precipitation ranges from 200 mm to 800 mm.

The Araks is the chief river, and Lake Sevan is the largest lake. There is a predominance of steppe vegetation on chestnut or mountain chernozem soils. Forests cover approximately 10 per-cent of the region. In the northeast and southeast there are broad-leaved forests at elevations above 2,000 m. The upper mountain slopes have alpine meadows.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Armenia in the early part of the first millennium B.C. In the ninth to sixth centuries B.C. the area was ruled by the slaveholding Urartean state. The formation of the Armenian nationality was essentially completed during the second half of the first millennium B.C. The region came under the rule of the Achaemenids in the sixth century and the Seleucids in the third century; the development of Greater Armenia began in the sixth century. In the first century B.C. the area was claimed by Rome and the Parthian Empire. It fell into dependence on the Sassanids in the third century A.D. and was divided between the Byzantine Empire and Persia in the fourth century. Antifeudal, anti-Sassanid uprisings took place, notably the uprising led by V. Mamikonian in 450. In the period from the seventh to 15th centuries, the region was invaded by the Arabs, the Byzantines, the Seljuk Turks, the Mongol-Tatars, and Tamerlane. A struggle for control of Armenia between Persia and Turkey began in the 16th century, and in the 18th century the region was divided between the two powers. A national liberation movement developed against the Persian and Turkish yoke.

Between 1805 and 1828 eastern Armenia was united with Russia; it subsequently became Yerevan Province. The peasant reform of 1870 accelerated the development of capitalism. The working people of Armenia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution. In November 1917 petit bourgeois parties seized power, and Armenia was subsequently occupied by Turkish and British forces.

With the help of the Red Army the working people established Soviet power in 1920, and on Nov. 29, 1920, the Armenian SSR was formed. On Mar. 12,1922, it became part of the Transcaucasian Federation, and on Dec. 5, 1936, it was made a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 the Armenian people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1, 1978, the Communist Party of Armenia had 151,879 members and candidate members, and the Komsomol of Armenia had 441,333 members. A total of 1.35 million persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Armenian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Armenian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1958, 1968, and 1978, the Order of the October Revolution in 1970, and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Armenia became an industrial-agricultural republic. Its chief contributions to the USSR’s economy are in nonferrous metallurgy, machine building, the chemical industry, the manufacture of building materials, and the cultivation of grapes, tropical fruits, melons, vegetables, and some industrial crops, as well as the related branches of food processing and light industry. The Armenian SSR has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Armenian SSR)
 197019801980
1 Including brandy sent to other republics for final processing and bottling
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.4613.5
Power transformers (thousand kV-A) ...............4,8047,582
Electric light bulbs (million units) ...............135188
Centrifugal pumps (thousand units) ...............83.6115
Sulfuric acid (monohydrate, thousand tons) ...............68246
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............5279
Knitted outerwear and underwear (million pieces) ...............36083
Carpet products (thousand sq m) ...............161,2972,645
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............0.910.313.8
Wristwatches and clocks (million units) ...............3.25
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............17241416
Brandy (thousand decaliters) ...............6366011.1121
Grape wine (million decaliters) ...............0.24.64.8
Meat (thousand tons) ...............92755

In 1980 industrial output exceeded the 1940 level by a factor of 45 and the 1913 level by a factor of 390. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1. The most important electric power stations include steam power stations in Razdan, Yerevan, and Kirovakan, and the Sevan-Razdan Hydro-electric Power System, as well as the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant.

The main branch of industry is machine building, particularly the manufacture of machine tools, instruments, and electrical engineering equipment. The industry is centered in Yerevan, Leninakan, Charentsavan, and Abovian. The most highly developed branches of the chemical and petrochemical industries include the production of synthetic rubber and resins and of plastics (Yerevan, Kirovakan, and Alaverdi). Nonferrous metallurgy is also important, especially the production of copper and aluminum. Enterprises of light industry produce textiles (especially knitted goods and footwear). The food-processing industry is of nationwide importance, especially wine-making, brandy distilling, and fruit and vegetable preservation.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 surpassed the level of 1940 by a factor of 4.6. By the end of 1980 the republic had 444 sovkhozes and 310 kolkhozes. In 1980 the republic’s stock of agricultural equipment included 13,000 tractors (compared to 1,500 in 1940), 1,500 grain-harvesting combines (300 in 1940), and 15,700 trucks (1,000 in 1940). There were 1.3 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 45 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 500,000 ha, hayfields for 100,000 ha, and pastureland for 600,000 ha. Irrigation plays an important role in agriculture. In 1980 a total of 291,000 ha of land were irrigated. The chief irrigation canals are the Artashat, Oktemberian, Arzni-Shamiram, Nizhnerazdan, Talin, Kotaik, and Shirak.

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Armenian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............434409442
Grain crops ...............340186158
wheat ...............22811782
Sugar beets ...............244
Tobacco ...............567
Potatoes ...............131820
Vegetables ...............51418
Feed crops ...............38174229
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............223252236
wheat ...............144171148
Sugar beets ...............1790128
Tobacco ...............3.41218
Potatoes ...............97267254
Vegetables ...............33280468

In 1980 plant growing accounted for 49 percent of the gross agricultural output. The principal crops are grains, grapes and other fruits, tobacco, sugar beets, geraniums, vegetables, and melons. Between 1940 and 1980 the area occupied by vineyards increased from 16,000 ha to 36,000 ha, and the area devoted to other fruit plantings, including berry plantings, rose from 17,000 ha to 53,000 ha. Over the same period the gross yield of grapes increased from 66,000 tons to 206,000 tons, and the gross yield of other fruits, including berries, rose from 29,000 tons to 130,000 tons. Table 2 gives figures on sown area and gross yield for major crops.

Animal husbandry specializes in the raising of cattle for dairy and beef products and in the raising of sheep (see Table 3). Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

The principal forms of transportation are railroad and motor vehicle transport. In 1980, Armenia had 710 km of railroad lines and 9,100 km of roads, 7,800 km of which were paved. The republic also has good facilities for air transport. Gas pipelines run from the Azerbaijan SSR and from the Northern Caucasus via Tbilisi.

The standard of living in Armenia is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 2.1 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, grew from 109 million rubles in 1940 to 2.627 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of 7.5.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Armenian SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January
Cattle (thousands) ...............599666785
cows ...............212262309
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............1,2212,0632,353
Swine (thousands) ...............59121242
Poultry (millions) ...............1.74.511.1

In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 1.972 billion rubles, compared to 3 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,636 rubles, compared to 39 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 22.6 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 5.6 million sq m.

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, 9.2 percent of the population of Armenia was literate; the figure for men was 14.5 percent, and that for women was 2.9 percent. During the 1914–15 academic year 35,000 pupils were enrolled in 459 general-education schools. There was a single specialized secondary school, with 100 students, and there were no higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Armenian. By 1939 the literacy rate had climbed to 83.9 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.8 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977, there were 122,000 children in permanent preschool institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year, 600,000 pupils were enrolled in 1,500 general-education schools of all types. A total of 43,000 students were enrolled in 90 vocational-technical educational institutions, including 20,600 students in 45 vocational-technical educational institutions offering a secondary education. There were 54,800 students in 65 specialized secondary educational institutions and 56,400 students in 13 higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the University of Yerevan, the Yerevan Polytechnic Institute, the Yerevan Medical Institute, the Yerevan Zooveterinary Institute, and the Komitas Conservatory.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 786 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 135 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR. There are 17,000 scientific workers in the republic.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Armenian SSR)
 194019701981
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............235296
Milk (thousand tons) ...............170363488
Eggs (million units) ...............46238467
Wool (thousand tons) ...............1.53.94.7

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. In 1977 the republic had 14 theaters, including the A. Mravian Armenian Drama Theater, the G. Sundukian Armenian Theater, and the A. A. Spendiarov Armenian Theater of Opera and Ballet. The largest library in the republic is the A. F. Miasnikian State Library of the Armenian SSR (founded 1922; more than 6.7 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals in 1975). In 1977 there were 1,300 public libraries (12.4 million copies of books and journals). The republic also has 37 museums, 800,000 motion-picture projection units, and 1,200 clubs.

In 1977, 1,121 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 10.4 million copies. In 1940, by contrast, 699 titles were released, with a total printing of 2,819,000. There were 91 magazines and journals published in 1977, with a total annual circulation of 19.9 million; 51 of the publications were in Armenian, with a total annual circulation of 17.7 million. In 1940, 24 magazines and journals, with an annual circulation of 505,000, were published. In 1977 the republic had 82 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 1,541,000 and a total annual circulation of 249 million. The Armenian Telegraph Agency (ArmTAG) has been in operation since 1920. The Republic Book Chamber was founded in 1922.

The first radio broadcasts were made in Yerevan in 1926, and the Yerevan Television Center opened in 1956. Radio and television programs are broadcast in Armenian, Russian, Azerbaijani, and Kurdish.

In 1977 the republic had 194 hospitals, with 24,400 beds, compared to 96 hospitals and 4,100 beds in 1940. There were 10,200 physicians and 24,300 secondary medical personnel in 1977, compared to 1,000 physicians and 2,300 secondary medical personnel in 1940. The republic has popular health resorts offering high-mountain climatic and balneological cures, notably Arzni, Dzhermuk, and Dilizhan.

The Turkmen SSR, or Turkmenistan, is located in southwestern Middle Asia. It is bounded on the south by Iran and Afghanistan and on the west by the Caspian Sea. It covers an area of 488,100 sq km and has a population of 2,897,000 (Jan. 1,1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 1,892,000 Turkmens, 349,000 Russians, 234,000 Uzbeks, 80,000 Kazakhs, 40,000 Tatars, 37,000 Ukrainians, and 27,000 Armenians. The average population density is 5.9 persons per sq km (Jan. 1, 1981). The capital, Ashkhabad, has a population of 325,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The other major city, Chardzhou, has a population of 146,000. New cities that have appeared include Nebit-Dag, Bairam-Ali, Cheleken, and Bezmein. The republic is divided into five oblasts and 44 raions. There are 15 cities and 74 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. Approximately 80 percent of the Turkmen SSR is occupied by the Karakum Desert. In the south and south-west lie mountains and foothills of the Kopetdag and Paropamisus systems.

Turkmenistan has an arid, markedly continental climate. The average January temperature is – 5°C, and the average July temperature is 28°C. In the Atrek valley the climate is typical of extratropical deserts. Annual precipitation generally totals 60–150 mm and reaches 200–300 mm in the foothills and mountain valleys.

Natural resources include petroleum and natural gas. Gray-brown desert soils and sierozems predominate. The main types of vegetation are desert grasses and shrubs.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Turkmenistan during the first millennium B.C. From the sixth to fourth centuries, the region was controlled by the Achaemenids; it was conquered by Alexander the Great in the late fourth century. Turkmenistan became part of the Parthian Empire in the third century B.C. and the Sassanid state in the third century A.D. In the period from the fifth to eighth centuries, the region was invaded by the Ephthalites, Turkic tribes, and the Arabs; a notable example of resistance to the conquerors was the anti-Arab Mukanna Uprising. In the ninth and tenth centuries Turkmenistan formed part of the Taharid and Samanid states. In the 11th century it was conquered by the Oghuz. In the period from the 11th to 13th centuries, the area belonged first to the Seljuk state and then to Khwarazm. The Mongol-Tatars conquered the region in the 13th century, and at the end of the 14th century Turkmenistan became part of the Timurid state. The formation of the Turkmen nationality was essentially completed in the 15th century. In the 16th to 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Khiva and Bukhara khanates.

Between the late 1860’s and the mid-1880’s, part of Turkmenistan was incorporated into Russia, forming Transcaspian Oblast. Participation in the Russian economic system accelerated the emergence of industry. The working people of Turkmenistan took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet power was established in November and December 1917, with most of the region becoming part of the Turkestan ASSR. With the help of the Red Army, the working people defeated the White Guards and the British interventionists. Land and water reforms were implemented in 1921 and 1922. On Oct. 27,1924, as a step in the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the Turkmen SSR was formed as a Union republic of the USSR. An essentially socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution, which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, the Turkmen people mobilized all their resources to repel the fascist aggressors.

As of Jan. 1,1978, the Communist Party of Turkmenistan had 78,918 members and 4,402 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Turkmenistan had 336,379 members. A total of 773,100 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Turkmen people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Turkmen SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1957, the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972, and the Order of the October Revolution in 1974.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Turkmenistan became an industrial-agricultural republic. Its principal contributions to the economy of the USSR are in the petroleum, gas, and chemical industries and in the manufacture of rugs. The republic’s agriculture specializes in the production of cotton, karakul, and raw silk. Turkmenistan has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Turkmen SSR)
 194019701980
1The figure for 1977 was 5.6
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.081.81
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ...............69.372.5
Cooling-tower fans (units) ...............1,5672,481
Gas ranges (thousand units) ...............8799.7
Prefabricated reinforced-concrete structures and structural elements (thousand cu m) ...............472804
Lint cotton (thousand tons) ...............71.5222.7360.5
Raw silk (tons) ...............149229237
Knit underwear and outerwear (million pieces) ...............0.76.37.8
Leather footwear (million pairs) ...............0.72.14.2
Meat (thousand tons) ...............8.516.829.4
Vegetable oil (thousand tons) ...............15.236.839.2
Grape wine (thousand decaliters) ...............3681,6231,550

In 1980 industrial output was 12 times greater than in 1940 and 78 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1. The largest power plant is the Mary State Regional Electric Power Plant. The gas industry is developing rapidly; the notable gas deposits are at Shatlyk, Naip, Achak, and Gugurtli. There are petroleum refineries in Krasnovodsk. Construction is under way (1982) on a petroleum refinery in Chardzhou. Products of the republic’s chemical industry include iodine, sodium sulfate, mirabilite (Glauber’s salt), super-phosphate, sulfur and sulfuric acid. Other leading industries are food processing, which specializes in the production of vegetable oils and fats and in wine-making, and light industry, centered in Ashkhabad, Chardzhou, and Mary, which specializes in the manufacture of cotton fiber, raw silk, knitwear, and silk and cotton fabrics. Machine building is currently being expanded in Ashkhabad and Mary.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 4.9 times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980 there were 108 sovkhozes and 317 kolkhozes. The republic’s stock of agricultural equipment in that year included 37,100 tractors (compared to 4,400 in 1940), 9,300 cotton pickers, 1,100 grain-harvesting combines (200 in 1940), and 17,500 trucks (1,400 in 1940). There were 30.3 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 62 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 900,000 ha, and pastureland for 29.9 million

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Turkmen SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............411636 
Cotton ...............150397508
fine-fiber cotton ...............32112172
Vegetables ...............51116
Melons ...............112222
Grain crops ...............18384132
Feed crops ...............48116213
Gross yield (thousand tons) Seed cotton ...............2118691,258
fine-fiber cotton ...............40167303
Grain crops ...............12469276
Vegetables ...............32156267
Melons ...............76124201

ha. Turkmenistan had 960,000 ha of irrigated land in 1980. The V. I. Lenin Karakum Canal plays an important role in the development of the republic’s economy, particularly its agriculture.

Crop production accounted for more than 68 percent of the gross agricultural output in 1980. Figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops are given in Table 2. Cotton growing is the most important branch of the republic’s agriculture. Between 1940 and 1980 the total area devoted to berry and other fruit plantings, except vineyards, increased from 3,000 ha to 21,000 ha, and the area covered with vineyards rose from 4,000 ha to 16,000 ha. The gross yield of berries and other fruits, except grapes, increased from 5,000 tons to 32,000 tons, and the gross yield of grapes increased from 16,000 tons to 45,000 tons.

Animal husbandry is devoted mainly to the raising of Karakul sheep. Figures on the livestock populations are given in Table 3. A great deal of work is being done to improve desert grazing lands, particularly by supplying water. As of Nov. 1, 1980, 63.5 percent of all grazing land had been supplied with water. Sericulture is well developed; in 1980 a total of 4,868 tons of silkworm cocoons were produced, compared to 1,631 tons in 1940. Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

In 1980, Turkmenistan had 2,120 km of railroad lines and 16,400 km of roads, of which 11,400 km were paved. Krasnovodsk is the chief seaport. In 1980 there were 1,400 km of inland waterways. The republic also has good facilities for air transport. In 1975 the total length of oil pipelines was approximately 650 km, and that of gas pipelines was 1,320 km.

The standard of living in the Turkmen SSR is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.4 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 127 million rubles in 1940 to 2.018 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased by a factor of 5.3. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 727 million rubles, compared to 5 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,407 rubles, compared to 45 rubles in 1940. By the end of 1980, urban dwelling space totaled 14.6 million sq m. Between 1976 and 1980, new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 5,103,000 sq km.

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Turkmen SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............268444626
cows ...............96186233
Swine (thousands) ...............3669168
Sheep and goats (thousands) ...............2,5964,4894,483
Horses (thousands) ...............701813
Camels (thousands) ...............797183
Poultry (millions) ...............0.72.75.3

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. According to the 1897 census, the literacy rate among the indigenous population was 0.7 percent. During the 1914–15 academic year, Turkmenistan had 58 schools, with 7,000 pupils. There were no specialized secondary institutions or higher educational institutions.

After the establishment of Soviet power, a new school system was formed, with classes taught in Turkmen. In 1939 the literacy rate was 77.7 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.7 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977 there were 117,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year, 700,000 pupils were enrolled in 1,900 general-education schools of all types. The republic had 57 vocational-technical educational institutions, with a total of 23,700 students, including 9,000 students in 24 vocational-technical schools offering a secondary education. There were 31,400 students in 31 specialized secondary educational institutions and 33,000 students in six higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institution is Turkmen University.

In 1976, 795 of every 1,000 employed persons had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 78 per 1,000 in 1939.

The scientific center of the republic is the Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR. In 1977, 4,900 research workers were employed in scientific institutions, including higher educational institutions.

Cultural institutions have substantially increased in number. By the end of 1977 the republic had six theaters, including the Makhtumkuli Turkmen Theater of Opera and Ballet, the Mollanepes Turkmen Theater of Drama, and the A. S. Pushkin Russian Drama Theater. There were three philharmonic societies, 1,200 motion-picture projection units, and 1,000 clubs. The largest library in the republic is the K. Marx State Library of the Turkmen SSR (founded 1895; 3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals). In 1977 there were 1,300 public libraries (8 million copies of books and journals) and 12 museums.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Turkmen SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............225181
Milk (thousand tons) ...............107192306
Eggs (million units) ...............37122248
Wool (thousand tons) ...............4.914.016.1

In 1977, 565 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 4.6 million copies; 246 of the publications were in Turkmen, with a total printing of 3.7 million copies. In 1940, by contrast, 312 titles were published, with a total printing of 2,170,000 copies. There were 26 journals and magazines in 1977, with a total single-issue circulation of 543,000 and a total annual circulation of 11.5 million; in 1940, by contrast, there were nine journals and magazines, with an annual circulation of 393,000. A total of 36 newspapers were published in 1977, with a total single-issue circulation of 902,000 and a total annual circulation of 177 million. Newspapers are published in Turkmen, Russian, and other languages. The Turkmen Information Agency (Turkmeninform), which is located in Ashkhabad, began operating in 1925. The Republic Book Chamber was founded in 1926.

Radio broadcasting on a regular basis began in 1927, with programs in Turkmen and Russian. The first television broadcasts were made in 1959. The republic’s television center is located in Ashkhabad.

The Turkmen SSR had 273 hospitals, with a total of 27,300 beds in 1977, as compared to 99 hospitals and 5,600 beds in 1940. In 1977 there were 7,000 physicians and 20,300 secondary medical personnel, as compared to 1,000 physicians and 4,700 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Notable climatic, balneological, and peloid health resorts are Archman, Bairam-Ali, Mollakara, and Firiuza.

The Estonian SSR, or Estonia, is located in the Northwest European USSR. It is bounded on the west and north by the Baltic Sea. It covers an area of 45,100 sq km and has a population of 1,485,000 (Jan. 1, 1981).

According to the 1979 census, the republic’s population includes 948,000 Estonians, 409,000 Russians, 36,000 Ukrainians, and 23,000 Byelorussians. The average population density is 32.9 persons per sq km (Jan. 1,1980). The capital, Tallinn, has a population of 442,000 (Jan. 1, 1981). The other major city, Tartu, has a population of 107,000. New cities that have appeared include Kohtla-Järve, Kiviõli, and Sillamäe. The republic is divided into 15 raions and has 33 cities and 24 urban-type settlements.

Natural features. The terrain of Estonia is plainlike, with traces of ancient glaciation. The largest of the republic’s numerous islands are Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, and Muhu. Mineral resources include oil shale.

The climate is transitional between marine and continental. The average February temperature is –6°C, and the average July temperature is 17°C. Annual precipitation ranges from 600 to 700

Rivers are short and carry small volumes of water. They include the Narva and the Emajõgi. The chief lakes are Chudskoe (Peipsi) and Võrtsjärv. Podzolic soils predominate. Forests, more than two-thirds of which are coniferous, cover 36 percent of the republic.

Historical survey. Class society developed in what is now Estonia at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. The Estonian nationality took shape during the 12th and 13th centuries. In the 13th century the peoples of Estonia were faced with German and Danish aggression. From the second quarter of the 13th century to the mid-16th century, the Estonian area conquered by the German Crusaders was part of Livonia. In the late 16th century, the region was divided among Sweden (northern Estonia), the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (southern Estonia), and Denmark (Saaremaa). By the mid-17th century, Sweden gained control of all Estonia.

Table 1. Output of major industrial products (Estonian SSR)
 194019701980
Electric energy (billion kW-hr) ...............0.211.68.9
Excavators (units) ...............1,6802,251
Mineral fertilizers (100-percent nutrients, thousand tons) ............... 256268
Knitted underwear (million pieces) ...............1.313.713.1
Knitted outerwear (million pieces) ...............0.24.75.4
Preserved foods (million standard containers) ...............3.6151316.8
Meat (thousand tons) ...............179956.8
Butter (thousand tons) ...............132230.4

Under the terms of the Treaty of Nystadt (1721), Estonia was incorporated into Russia. The abolition of serfdom in Estonia Province in 1816 and in Livonia Province in 1819 accelerated the development of capitalism. The struggle against social and national oppression was manifested in the Mahtra Uprising of 1858 and the Krenholm Strike of 1872. In the early 20th century the first Social Democratic organizations were formed. The working people of Estonia took part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the February Revolution of 1917, and the Great October Socialist Revolution.

Soviet power was established in late October 1917. On Nov. 29, 1918, in Narva, the formation of the Estonian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. Attacked by nationalist counterrevolutionaries and White Guards, the republic fell in 1919. A fascist coup was carried out in March 1934.

In June 1940 the Estonian working people overthrew the fascist government and restored Soviet power. The Estonian SSR was created on July 21, 1940, and became part of the USSR on August 6. In December 1941, Estonia was occupied by fascist German forces. It was liberated by Soviet troops in 1944. A socialist society took shape in the republic as a result of industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution,

Table 2. Sown area and gross yield of crops (Estonian SSR)
 194019701980
Total sown area (thousand hectares) ...............918798957
Grain crops ...............572341445
Industrial crops ...............2636
fiberflax ...............2635
Potatoes ...............837972
Feed crops ...............235368428
Gross yield (thousand tons) Grain crops ...............6557261,198
Flaxfiber ...............711.4
Potatoes ...............1,2231,4141,146

which were carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party.

As of Jan. 1,1978, the Communist Party of Estonia had 86,119 members and 3,729 candidate members, and the Komsomol of Estonia had 153,932 members. A total of 729,888 persons belonged to trade unions.

Together with the other fraternal peoples of the USSR, the Estonian people achieved new successes in the building of communism in the postwar decades.

The Estonian SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1965 and the Order of Friendship of Peoples in 1972.

Economy. During the years of socialist construction, Estonia became an industrial-agricultural republic. Its principal contributions to the economy of the USSR are in the extraction and processing of oil shale, machine building, light industry, and food processing. Estonia has strong economic ties with the other Union republics.

In 1980 industrial output was 48 times greater than in 1940 and 61 times greater than in 1913. Figures on the output of major industrial products are given in Table 1. The Baltic State Regional Electric Power Plant and the Estonian State Regional Electric Power Plant are the two most important power plants in the republic. The shale-extraction industry, which is centered at Kohtla-Järve, is one of the leading branches of the economy. Shale provides the basis for large-scale production of electricity, gas production, and the manufacture of chemical products and building materials. Phosphorites are mined at Maardu. Other leading industries are machine building and metalworking, which specialize in electrical engineering equipment. In addition to the processing of oil shale, which is centered at Kiviõli, the chemical and petrochemical industries are notable for the production of mineral fertilizers. Light industry, particularly the manufacture of cotton fabrics at the textile combines in Tallinn and Narva, is developed. Fish and dairy products dominate the output of the food-processing industry, whose principal centers are Tallinn, Tartu, and Pärnu.

Gross agricultural output in 1980 was 1.8 times greater than in 1940. By the end of 1980 there were 158 sovkhozes and 151 kolkhozes, including eight fishing kolkhozes. The republic’s stock of agricultural equipment in 1980 included 19,400 tractors (compared to 1,800 in 1940), 3,500 grain-harvesting combines, and

Table 3. Livestock and poultry population (Estonian SSR)
 194111971119811
1As of January 1
Cattle (thousands) ...............528692819
cows ...............402309314
Swine (thousands) ...............3196881,086
Sheep (thousands) ...............322163153
Poultry (millions) ...............1.63.76.8

12,600 trucks. There were 1.5 million hectares (ha) of farmland in 1980, or 32 percent of the total area; plowland accounted for 1 million ha, hayfields for 300,000 ha, and pastureland for 200,000 ha. Land reclamation plays an important role in agriculture. Estonia had 1,006,300 ha of drained land in 1980.

Animal husbandry, the leading branch of agriculture, specializes in the production of milk and bacon; it accounted for 69 per-cent of the republic’s gross agricultural output in 1980.

Plant growing for the most part serves the needs of animal husbandry. Figures on sown area and gross yield for the principal crops are given in Table 2. Between 1940 and 1977 the total area devoted to fruit plantings, including berry plantings, increased from 4,000 ha to 13,000 ha.

The livestock and poultry population is characterized in Table 3. Figures on the growth in output of animal products are given in Table 4.

The main forms of transportation are railroad, maritime, and motor vehicle transport. In 1980, Estonia had 990 km of railroad lines and 27,300 km of roads, of which 24,800 km were paved. Tallinn is the chief seaport. The republic also has good facilities for air transport.

The standard of living in the Estonian SSR is steadily rising. The national income increased by a factor of 1.6 between 1970 and 1980. The retail commodity turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, increased from 121 million rubles in 1940 to 2.258 billion rubles in 1980, and the per capita turnover increased ninefold. In 1980 total deposits in savings banks reached 1.124 billion rubles, compared to 140 million rubles in 1940; the size of the average account in 1980 was 1,361 rubles. By the end of 1980 urban dwelling space totaled 17.1 million sq m. Beteen 1976 and 1980 new construction by the state, kolkhozes, and the public amounted to an area of 3.8 million sqm.

Table 4. Output of major animal products (Estonian SSR)
 194019701980
Meat (slaughtered weight, thousand tons) ...............72136196
Milk (thousand tons) ...............7821,0251,169
Eggs (million units) ...............134359542

Education, cultural affairs, and public health. In 1939 the literacy rate in Estonia was 98.6 percent. According to the 1970 census, 99.8 percent of the population is literate.

In 1977 there were 80,000 children enrolled in permanent pre-school institutions. During the 1977–78 academic year 200,000 pupils were enrolled in 600 general-education schools of all types. There were 34 vocational-technical educational institutions, with a total of 13,500 students, including 8,300 students in 24 vocational-technical schools offering a secondary education. A total of 24,800 students were enrolled in 38 specialized secondary educational institutions, and 24,700 students were enrolled in six higher educational institutions. The largest higher educational institutions are the Tallinn Polytechnic Institute and the University of Tartu.

In 1976, for every 1,000 employed persons, 777 had a higher or secondary (complete or incomplete) education, as compared to 161 per 1,000 in 1939.

The leading scientific institution is the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. In 1977, 5,800 research workers were employed in scientific institutions.

On Jan. 1,1978, the Estonian SSR had nine theaters, including the Estonian Theater of Opera and Ballet, the V. Kingissepp Estonian Drama Theater in Tallinn, the Russian Drama Theater, and the Estonian Vanemuine Theater. There were 600 motion-picture projection units and 500 clubs. The largest library is the F. R. Kreutzwald State Library of the Estonian SSR (founded 1918; approximately 3 million copies of books, pamphlets, and journals in 1976). In 1977 the republic had 700 public libraries (8.9 million copies of books and journals) and 54 museums.

In 1977, 2,187 book and pamphlet titles were released, with a total printing of 17.1 million copies. In that year the republic had 76 journals and magazines, with a total single-issue circulation of 963,000 and a total annual circulation of 19.9 million. There were 42 newspapers, with a total single-issue circulation of 1,154,000 and a total annual circulation of 248 million. Newspapers are published in Estonian and Russian. The Estonian Telegraph Agency (ETA) is the successor to an agency that was established in 1918. The Republic Book Chamber was founded in 1941.

Radio broadcasting on a regular basis began in 1926. The first television broadcasts were made in 1955. The republic’s television center is located in Tallinn. Radio and television programs are broadcast in Estonian, Russian, and Finnish.

The Estonian SSR had 155 hospitals, with a total of 16,500 beds in 1977, as compared to 58 hospitals and 5,100 beds in 1940. There were 5,700 physicians and 15,000 secondary medical personnel in 1977, as compared to 1,100 physicians and 1,500 secondary medical personnel in 1940. Health resorts include the popular climatic and peloid resorts of Pärnu and Haapsalu.

Bibliography

Sovetskii Soiuz [vols. 1-23]. Moscow, 1966–72.
Soiuz ravnykh: Spravochnik, 1922–1972. Moscow, 1972.
SSSR i soiuznye respubliki [v 1967–1975]. Soobshcheniia TsSU SSSR i TsSU soiuznykh respublik ob itogakh vypolneniia plana razvitiia narodnogo khoziaistva. Moscow, 1968–76.
Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1975: Statistich. ezhegodnik. Moscow, 1976.
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