Urban VI


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Urban VI,

1318?–1389, pope (1378–89), whose election was the immediate cause of the Great SchismSchism, Great,
or Schism of the West,
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics.
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; a Neapolitan named Bartolomeo Prignano; successor of Gregory XI. He was made archbishop of Acerenza (1364) and of Bari (1377). On the death of Gregory, the conclave, with French cardinals in the majority, fell into factions and was threatened by a Roman mob demanding the election of an Italian to prevent the return of the papacy to Avignon. At the suggestion of Cardinal de LunaLuna, Pedro de
, 1328?–1423?, Aragonese churchman, antipope (1394–1417) with the name Benedict XIII. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana.
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, Prignano was elected. Urban, before his election peaceable and modest, now became upbraiding and harsh and alienated all the cardinals. They went to Anagni, then to Fondi, and declared Urban's election invalid on the ground that they had been intimidated by the mob. With the consequent election of a new "pope," Robert of GenevaRobert of Geneva,
d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal.
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 (antipope Clement VII), began the Great Schism. Urban was recognized from the first by most of Italy and Germany, by Flanders, and by England and English territories. Until 1380, St. Catherine of Siena lived at Rome, working for Urban's recognition. Urban alienated his political allies by his behavior; he probably murdered five cardinals (he had created a new sacred college) who had plotted against him, and thus horrified all Europe. Many believe Urban was insane. His election is now generally considered canonical. He was succeeded by Boniface IX.
References in periodicals archive ?
After Clement VII and Urban VI died, the schism continued through their respective successors, Pope Boniface IX (who became the 'Roman' pope in 1389) and Benedict XIII (the Avignon antipope who was crowned in 1394).
Here Blumenfeld-Kosinski explores the quite noticeable lack of any acquiescence to the general situation via supporters both of Urban VI (Constance de Rabastens) and the pro Clementine camp: Pierre de Luxemburg, Vincent Ferrer, and Marie Racine, the latter two of whom became increasingly disillusioned.
His resentment over the election of an Italian pope, Urban VI, in 1378, which signified the permanent relocation of the papacy to Rome, prompted the defiance of thirteen cardinals who elected a rival pope, the Frenchman Clement VII.
The failed 'crusade' of Henry Despenser, Bishop of Norwich, an endeavour in support of Pope Urban VI against another papal claimant that turned into an attack on French and Flemish enemies of England in 1383 and ultimately ended in English failure, provided an obvious target for much of his vitriol.
Subsequently, the cardinals elected Pope Urban VI, a none-too-popular choice.

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