Uttar Pradesh

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Uttar Pradesh

(o͝o`tär prä`dĭsh), state (2001 provisional pop. 166,052,859), 92,804 sq mi (240,363 sq km), N central India. The capital is LucknowLucknow
or Lakhnau
, city (1991 pop. 1,669,204), capital of Uttar Pradesh state, N central India, on the Gomati River. An educational and cultural center, it has varied industries, including food processing, railroad shops, and handicrafts.
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. Other important cities are AllahabadAllahabad
, city (1991 pop. 844,546), Uttar Pradesh state, N central India. On the site of Prayag, an ancient Indo-Aryan holy city, Allahabad is at the junction of two sacred rivers, the Yamuna and the Ganges.
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, BareillyBareilly
, city (1991 pop. 617,350), Uttar Pradesh state, N central India, on the Ramganga River. It is a district administrative headquarters, a transportation, and a sugar-refining and cotton-trading center.
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, KanpurKanpur
, city (1991 pop. 2,029,889), Uttar Pradesh state, N central India, on the Ganges River. A major industrial center, it produces chemicals, textiles, leather goods, and food products. It is also a transportation hub with an airport.
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, and VaranasiVaranasi
, formerly Benares
, city (1991 pop. 1,030,863), Uttar Pradesh state, N central India, on the Ganges River. Although a rail hub and trade center, Varanasi is chiefly important as a holy city.
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. The most populous state of India, it was formed in 1950 by merging the United Provinces and the small former princely states of Benares, Rampur, and Tehri. It was somewhat decreased in 2000 when the state of Uttarakhand was carved from its northwestern section. Hindi is the main language. There is a hilly region along the southern border, but most of the state is a low-lying alluvial plain formed by the Yamuna, Ganges, and Ghaghara rivers.

The mild climate generally permits two harvests a year; wheat, rice, millet, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, and jute are grown. The moderate rainfall is supplemented by an extensive system of barrage and canal irrigation and by wells and pumps that draw on groundwater. The economy is predominantly agricultural, and industry is centered on processing sugar and cotton; the once-important manufacture of brooches and artwares, such as ornamental brasses, has declined. Building stone and high-grade sand for the glass industry are abundant. Adequate railroads and roads ensure efficient distribution. Numerous universities are supported by this prosperous state. The state is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to a bicameral legislature with one elected house and by a governor appointed by the president of India.

Uttar Pradesh

 

a state in northern India, in the basin of the Ganges and one of its tributaries, the Yamuna. Area, 294,000 sq km. Population, 88.4 million (1971); mostly Hindustani. Its major cities are Lucknow (its capital), Kanpur, Agra, Varanasi (Benares), and Allahabad.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain covers about four-fifths of the area of the state. Most of the remaining territory is in the Himalayas, the main peak of which, Nanda Devi, rises to an elevation of 7,816 m. The state has a tropical monsoonal climate, with frequent droughts and summer floods.

Uttar Pradesh is an agricultural region. More than 70 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture (1971). Most of the rural population consists of peasants who own little or no land and rent plots from landowners. In 1952 ownership of land by the landed gentry was abolished.

Of the total cultivable land area, which amounts to 20 million hectares (ha), approximately 17 million ha is in use; 28 percent is irrigated, and more than 17 percent is sown twice annually. The major irrigational channels are the Upper Ganges, Lower Ganges, and Sarda canals. Wells are also widely used for irrigation.

The main food crops are rice (approximately 17 percent of all crops); wheat (16 percent); legumes, including gram; barley; millet crops, including bajra and jowar (sorghum); and potatoes. The main industrial crop is sugarcane; Uttar Pradesh accounts for over half the land in India used for its cultivation. Oil-bearing plants (rape and mustard), cotton, and jute are also grown. The most important animals raised are bulls and oxen.

Industry is based primarily on the processing of agricultural materials. Of primary importance is the food-processing industry, especially sugar refining. Uttar Pradesh produces more than one-half of India’s cane sugar, the main production centers being Rampur, Gorakhpur, and Merath. The leather and footwear industry is also important. Cotton and wool are also produced, mainly in the city of Kanpur.

Uttar Pradesh has enterprises for the manufacture of paper and tobacco products, a factory for the production of precision instruments in Lucknow, and a factory for the manufacture of electrical equipment in Hardwar that was built with the assistance of the USSR. The state also has repair shops and enterprises servicing the railroad industry. Hand-crafted objects produced include such widely used items as cloth, footwear, carpets, brocades, saris, and jewelry.

There is navigation on the Ganges to Kanpur, on the Ghaghra to Faizabad, and on the Ganges irrigational canals.

A. I. MEDOVOI

Uttar Pradesh

a state of N India: the most populous state; originated in 1877 with the merging of Agra and Oudh as the United Provinces; augmented by the states of Rampur, Benares, and Tehri-Garhwal in 1949; the N Himalayan region passed to the new state of Uttaranchal in 2000; now consists mostly of the Upper Ganges plain; agricultural. Capital: Lucknow. Pop.: 166 052 859 (2001). Area: 243 350 sq. km (93 933 sq. miles)
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