Uxmal


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Uxmal

(o͞oshmäl`, o͞oz–), ancient city, northern Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. A Late Classic period MayaMaya
, indigenous people of S Mexico and Central America, occupying an area comprising the Yucatán peninsula and much of the present state of Chiapas in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, parts of El Salvador, and extreme western Honduras.
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 center situated in the Puuc hills, Uxmal flourished between 600 and 900. It is one of the finest expressions of Maya architecture known as the Puuc style. The site has such impressive structures as the unique Pyramid of the Magician; the Nunnery, with elaborately decorated facades of stone mosaic friezes; and the Governor's Palace (320 ft/98 m long, 40 ft/12.2 m wide, and 26 ft/8.9 m high), with some 20,000 carved stone elements in its facade. The site was abandoned shortly after 950 but was reoccupied briefly in the 15th cent. by the Xiu, a Mexican group who soon abandoned the site after wresting power from the Cocom Itzá at Mayapán.

Bibliography

See studies in the Handbook of Middle American Indians, ed. by R. Wauchope (13 vol., 1964–73); M. P. Weaver, The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors (1972).

Uxmal

 

one of the cultural and political centers of the ancient Mayas; situated on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. The date of the founding of Uxmal and its earliest history are still unknown. In the late tenth century, Uxmal was captured by the Tutul-Xiu tribe, who were associated with the Toltecs. From the 13th through 15th centuries, Mayapán and Chichén-Itzá repeatedly conducted internecine wars for political dominion over the Yucatan. The exact chronology of these events is unclear because of contradictions in available sources, but Uxmal was probably destroyed by Mayapán’s forces early in the 13th century. The Tutul-Xiu moved their capital to the city of Mani. The wars ended with the fall of Mayapán in 1441.

The Uxmal ruins, which are divided into six groups, have been investigated many times since the 19th century by archaeologists of the United States and Mexico, including J. L. Stephens, W. Holmes, K. Ruppert, A. Ruz, J. Acosta, and C. Saenz. The buildings, which have been partially restored, include many important examples of monumental architecture. The Governor’s Palace, one of the most beautiful, is richly decorated with sculpture and a mosaic frieze consisting of 20,000 individual tiles. The Temple of the Magician surmounts a pyramid measuring 30 m in height. The Nunnery is a complex consisting of four buildings with an inner court and an arch on the southern side. Other buildings include the House of the Pigeons, the House of the Turtles, and the House of the Dwarf.

REFERENCES

Kinzhalov, R. V. Iskusstvo drevnikh maiia. Leningrad, 1968.
Foncerrada de Molina, M. Uxmal: La ciudad del dios de la lluvia. Mexico, 1968.

R. V. KINZHALOV

Uxmal

an ancient ruined city in SE Mexico, in Yucat?n: capital of the later Maya empire
References in periodicals archive ?
His latest obsession is Mayan architecture, particularly the Post-classic site of Uxmal, and he's off to the Yucatan this summer to study it in detail; he'll be hanging out with some prominent archaeologists and sleeping in a tent.
A second phase, planned for the longer term, would expand the route or add connections to the archeological site of Uxmal, the resort of Cancun, the port of Progreso, and Campeche City.
Sayil, Uxmal and Xkipche are some of the best known, and where mapping data is available these display the same dispersed, low-density settlement pattern of nodal civic-ceremonial cores with dispersed urban sprawl clustering towards subsidiary civic-ceremonial groups as elsewhere in the lowlands (Sabloff & Tourtellot 1991; Prem 2003).
In the heart of Mayan territory is the Puuc Route, and the archeological site of Uxmal, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Lee (1996) recorded the multiple-chirp call at Uxmal, Yucatan, and gave a brief description of acoustical properties, including sonograms and a spectrogram.
At Uxmal, Puuc-style temples and palaces are ornamented with mosaics illustrating Chac as well as serpents and the cycles of the planet Venus.
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Walking among the ruined cities of Copan, Uxmal, Monte Alban, or Chichen Itza--fun names to pronounce all--it's tough for the 21st-century visitor to imagine how most of the ancient structures were once used.
What is for sure is that the highly advanced Mayan civilisation went into sudden decline around 1200 AD, when great stone cities such as Chichen Itza and Uxmal were abandoned.
We blocked the sound out of our ears, the sight from our eyes, shut our teacher and this whole crazy country from our open hearts, imagining ourselves back at Acapulco Bay, back on the Yucatan Peninsula, back on the pyramids of Tikal, Tulum, Chichen Itza, Copan, and Uxmal, back in the jungle, back in our happy Mayan past and the arms of Diego.
The researchers found samples of high-purity palygorskite clay in several locations on the Yucatan Peninsula, in a 40 km radius of the well-known Maya archaeological site of Uxmal.
He knew about Chichen Itza, Uxmal, and Mayapan, for example, but nothing about the classic cultures of cities like Copan, Tikal, or Palenque, which had been abandoned to the southern lowland jungles five hundred years before the Spanish.