Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

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Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic


The Uzbek SSR was formed on Oct. 27, 1924. Located in the central and northern parts of Middle Asia, it borders the Kazakh SSR on the north and northwest, the Turkmen SSR on the southwest, the Tadzhik SSR on the southeast, the Kirghiz SSR on the northeast, and Afghanistan on the south. Part of the northwestern boundry is formed by the Aral Sea. Uzbekistan is fifth in the USSR in terms of area (after the RSFSR, Kazakh SSR, Ukrainian SSR, and Turkmen SSR) and fourth in terms of population (after the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, and Kazakh SSR). Its area is 447,400 sq km, and the population is 14.1 million (Jan. 1, 1976). The capital is the city of Tashkent.

Uzbekistan comprises one autonomous republic and 11 oblasts. The republic is divided into 134 raions and has 76 cities and 86 urban-type settlements (see Table 1).

The Uzbek SSR is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, dehqans (peasants), and intelligentsia, the working people of all nationalities; a Union soviet socialist republic. Its present constitution was ratified on Apr. 19, 1978, by the Extraordinary Sixth Session of the Ninth Convocation of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR. The highest state body is the unicameral Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR, composed of 510 deputies elected for five-year terms by equally populated electorates. Between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, the highest state body is the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR. The Supreme Soviet adopts the laws of the Uzbek SSR and names the Council of Ministers—the government’s executive branch. The bodies of local government in the oblasts, raions, cities, city districts, settlements, kishlaks (hamlets), and auls (villages) are the soviets of people’s deputies, which are elected by the population for year terms. The Uzbek SSR is represented by 32 deputies in the Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The Kara-Kalpak ASSR, which is a part of the Uzbek SSR, is represented separately in the Soviet of Nationalities by 11 deputies.

Uzbekistan’s highest judicial body is the Supreme Court, elected by the republic’s Supreme Soviet for a five-year term; it includes two judicial collegiums (handling civil and criminal cases), a plenum, and a presidium. The procurator of the Uzbek SSR is appointed by the procurator general of the USSR for a five-year term.

Most of Uzbekistan lies between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Approximately four-fifths of the territory of the republic is occupied by plains, primarily the Turan Lowland. Mountains are encountered only in the eastern extremity of the republic, where they form part of the Tien-Shan and Gissar-Alai systems.

Topography. Uzbekistan can be divided into a region of plains and a region of foothills and mountains. The former includes the Ustiurt Plateau, the delta plain of the Amu Darya, and the Kyzylkum Desert. The Ustiurt Plateau, an undulating structural plateau with predominant elevations of 200–250 m, is sharply set off from the adjoining plains by scarps. The delta plain of the Amu Darya encompasses the territory along the river’s lower course, from the Tiuiamuiun Gorge in the south to the Aral Sea in the north. The terrain here is flat (elevations to 100 m), with occasional degraded uplands (Kubetau, Mangyr, Tuzkyr). The plain is transected from the southeast to the northwest by ancient channels of the Amu Darya that carried the river’s water to the Saryk-amysh Lakes.

The Kyzylkum Desert is an elevated stratified plain with absolute elevations ranging from 100 m in the northwest to 200–300 m in the southeast. The mountains in Kyzylkum, among them the Bukantau (elevations to 764 m), Tamdytau (922 m), and Kul’-dzhuktau (785 m), have rocky slopes and are strongly dissected by dry erosional valleys. Accumulations of proluvium lie at the bottom of the slopes. Closed depressions and basins are also encountered, the largest of which—Mynbulak (12 m below sea level), Aiakagytma, and Karakata—have lengths of 40–50 km. The mountains are separated by sandy expanses having characteristic eolian landforms.

The other region of the republic, the region of foothills and mountains, includes ranges and intermontane basins of the Tien-Shan and Gissar-Alai systems. Elevations reach 4,000 m and more (Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU Peak, 4,643 m, in the Gissar Range; Mount Beshtor, 4,299 m, in the Pskem Range). The ranges of the Western Tien-Shan in the extreme northeast of Uzbekistan are the Karzhantau, Ugam, Pskem,

Table 1. Administrative-tenrial divisions of the Uzbek SSR (as of Jan.1, 1976)
 Area (sqkm)PopulationRaionsCitiesUrban-type settlementsAdministrative center
Kara-Kalpak ASSR. . . . . . . . . .165,600825,00013910Nukus
Andizhan Oblast. . . . . . . . . .4,2001,259,0001274Andizhan
Bukhara Oblast. . . . . . . . . .143,2001,149,00013510Bukhara
Dzhizak Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,300426,0001052Dzhizak
Fergana Obast. . . . . . . . . .7,1001,593,0001278Fergana
Kashkadar’ia Oblast. . . . . . . . . .28,400972,0001155Karshi
Khorezm Oblast. . . . . . . . . .4,500666,000931Urgench
Namangan Oblast. . . . . . . . . .7,9001,024,0001059Namangan
Samarkand Oblast. . . . . . . . . .24,5001,610,00014611Samarkand
Surkhandar'ia Oblast. . . . . . . . . .20,800801,000973Termez
Syr Darya Oblast. . . . . . . . . .5,300416,000743Gulistan
Tashkent Oblast (including Tashkent). . . . . . . . . .15,6003,338,000141320Tashkent

Chatkal, and Kurama. The Fergana Basin and the Tashkent-Golodnaia Steppe piedmont plain are separated from these ranges by the Turkestan Range (Gissar-Alai), by the Turkestan’s western projection—the Mal’guzar Range—and by the Mal’gu-zar’s extension—the Nuratau Range. Further south is the Sanzar-Nuratau basin, which is separated from the Samarkand basin to its south by the Aktau, Karatau, and other mountains. The Kashkadar’ia and Surkhandar’ia basins are located in the extreme south of the republic and are separated from each other by the Gissar Range and the Baisuntau mountains; the Surkhandar’ia basin is bounded on the east by the Babatag Range, which stretches along the southeastern border of Uzbekistan.

Geological structure and minerals. Geologically, the territory of Uzbekistan includes Epihercynian mountain structures of the Tien-Shan (middle and southern Tien-Shan) and the Turan Epihercynian Platform. The geosynclinal development of this territory was basically completed by the end of the Paleozoic; subsequently, a cratonic condition was achieved. The contemporary high-mountain terrain of eastern Uzbekistan derives from the intense mountain-building tectonic movements of the late Tertiary (Neogene) and Quaternay periods, movements that have continued up to the present.

Fold complexes of geosynclines and median masses can be distinguished in the Hercynian structures. The geosynclinal complexes of the middle Tien-Shan (Maidantala, Pskem, and Ugam ranges) are composed of red beds and carbonaceous rocks of the Devonian and Carboniferous periods bent into lineaments striking to the northeast; the complexes also contain magamatic formations (granodiorite granites of the Carboniferous; alaskites, syenodiorites, and monozonites of the Permian). The fold systems of the median masses (Karzhantau mountains, Kurama Range, Bukantau and Severnyi Tamdytau mountains) include su-baerial volcanogenic rocks of the Carboniferous and Permian, carbonates of the Devonian–Lower Carboniferous, and numerous granodiorite intrusions of the Middle Carboniferous and sye-nodiorite intrusions of the Upper Carboniferous-Permian; these rocks form large brachyfolds and volcano-tectonic structures. The geosynclinal fold complexes of the southern Tien-Shan (Zer-avshan, Turkestan, Nuratau, and Kul’dzhuktau ranges; Iuzhnyi Tamdytau, Auminzatau, and Sultanuizdag mountains) include carbonaceous rocks of the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous, flysch of the Middle Carboniferous, molasse of the Permian, and intrusions of granites, granodiorites, and syenites of the Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian. In the west, the Hercynian folds of the southern Tien-Shan divide into two branches: the northern branch assumes a meridional strike, perhaps joining with the Hercynides of the Urals; the southern branch, which is sublatitu-dinal, probably links up with the Hercynides of the Donbas.

The structure of the intermontane basins (Fergana, Angren, and Pritashkentskaia) includes Mesozoic-Cenozoic cratonic formations (sandy-argillaceous, carboniferous, and saliferous formations; red beds; molasse). High seismicity is characteristic of many areas of the eastern (mountainous) portion of Uzbekistan.

The Turan Platform includes the Ustiurt Plateau, the Bukhara-Khiva and Surkhandar’ia depressions, and the Central Kyzylkum Uplift, all delimited by abyssal fractures. The basement of the platform is composed of Precambrian schists, and the sedimentary mantle is composed mainly of terrigenous, carbonaceous, and saliferous deposits (of the Carboniferous-Quaternary). Volcanogenic sedimentary deposits and deposits of flysch and molasse of the Carboniferous, together with intrusions of granitoids, occur in the superimposed troughs formed along the abyssal fracture of the southern Tien-Shan. Hercynides of the southern Tien-Shan form the basement of the Central Kyzylkum Uplift. The thin sedimentary mantle here is made up of terrigenous carbonaceous deposits of the Cretaceous and Paleogene.

Uzbekistan is rich in minerals. Deposits of bismuth ores are associated with magmatic formations in the middle Tien-Shan (Ustarasaiskoe); porphyry copper is associated with syenodiorites (Almalyk), complex ores are associated with carbonaceous rocks (Kurgashinkan, Uchkulach), and gold ores, with volcanogenic rocks (Guzaksai, Kochbulak, and Kaul’dy). The Ingichka, Koitash, and Ucha deposits of tungsten are associated with the granitoids of the southern Tien-Shan. Oil is extracted in the Fergana Basin from strata of the Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene (Iuzhnyi Akamyshik, Andizhan, Palvak-tash), and lignite is mined in the Angren basin. The Precambrian formations of the Central Kyzylkum Uplift (Muryntau, Kokpa-tas) contain deposits of gold, and marble is found in Carboniferous deposits (Amankutan, Gazgan). There are large deposits of rock salt and potassium salts (Tiubegan), anthracite (Shargun’), and pyritiferous complex ores (Khandizinskoe) in the superimposed troughs of the Turan Platform. Large reservoirs of gas are concentrated in the Bukhara-Khiva depression (Gazli, Dzhar-kak, Karaulbazar-Saryktash, Urtabulak) and on the Ustiurt Plateau (Shakhpakhty).

Uzbekistan also has commercial deposits of nonmetals, including fluorspar, feldspar, graphite, ozokerite, sulfur, quartz, limestone, gypsum, building stone, bentonites, and such semiprecious stones as turquoise, garnet, listvenite, onyx, jasper, and rhodonite. The numerous thermal springs in the republic (Tashkent, Chartak) are used in balneotherapy. There are also large artesian basins (Fergana, Karshi).

Climate. Uzbekistan experiences such climatic features of continental subtropical regions as extended, dry, torrid summers, cool, moist falls, and mild winters with little snow. On the plains and in the low foothill regions, winters last from ½ to two months in the extreme south to five months in the extreme north (Ustiurt Plateau). The average January temperature is approximately –8°C (Churuk weather station on the Ustiurt Plateau); the average is 2.8°C in Termez and 3.6”C in Sherabad, both of which are in the extreme south. The lowest temperature in winter is –37°C (Churuk). The average July temperature approaches 26°C in the northern regions and exceeds 30°C in the south; at elevations of 3,000 m, the July average is approximately 10°C, in places exceeding 15°C–16°C. The maximum temperature on the plains and in the foothill regions is 42°C. During the summer, the daytime temperature of the soil surface reaches 60°C, climbing to 70°C in the deserts.

The plains receive the least amount of precipitation, only 80–90 mm a year. To the east and south, the quantity of precipitation increases with elevation; the increase is at first slow, but as the mountains are approached it becomes more rapid. In places, the yearly total in the mountains exceeds 890–1,000 mm. More than 70 percent of the precipitation falls in winter (as rain and snow) and spring. A snow cover forms nearly every year, but on the plains and in the foothills it lasts only a few days. Its thickness varies from several cm in the west (plains and foothills) to 60–80 cm in the east (foothills and moutains); in some mountainous regions it exceeds 100 cm. In winter, the prevailing winds on the plains are northeasterly, easterly, and southeasterly; in summer, northwesterly, northerly, and northeasterly winds predominate. Mountain and valley winds and katabatic winds arise in the mountains.

Glaciation. There are small glaciers in Uzbekistan on the upper course of the Kashkadar’ia (Severtsova, Batyrbai) and in the drainage basin of the Pskem River (47 glaciers). The glaciers on the upper Naryn and Karadar’ia rivers (headstreams of the Syr Daria), the numerous glaciers of the Alai and Turkestan ranges, and the thick glaciers of the Pamirs provide much of the water for Uzbekistan’s rivers.

Rivers and lakes. The distribution of rivers in Uzbekistan is extremely uneven. The region of plains has few rivers. Debouching onto the plains, the rivers lose their waters to irrigation, seepage, and evaporation; gradually drying up, they often terminate in alluvial deposits. The mountains are drained by a well-developed network of streams. The total capacity of the streams is 7.1 million kilowatts (kW), and the potential exists to produce 107 billion kilowatt-hours (kW-hr) annually.

All of the rivers in Uzbekistan are part of the drainage basins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Most of the rivers are fed by snow and glaciers, with maximum discharge in June. Each year, the drainage basin of the Amu Darya delivers 79 cu km of water to the plains, a figure representing one-half of the total discharge from the mountainous region of Middle Asia. Of this amount, 6 cu km (8 percent of the total discharge from the drainage basin of the Amu Darya) comes from the mountainous region of Uzbekistan. The most important river of Uzbekistan is the Syr Darya. Its annual discharge is 38 cu km, of which approximately 4 cu km (10 percent) comes from sources within Uzbekistan. Most of the tributaries of the Syr Darya do not actually reach the river because they lose their water to irrigation.

Lakes are located primarily in the valleys and deltas of the larger rivers and along the periphery of irrigated oases. The largest lake is the Aral Sea. Lakes created as reservoirs include the Kattakurgan, Kairakkum, Chardara, Kuiumazar, Kasansai, Ti-uiabuguz (“Tashkent Sea”), and Charvak.

Soils. Sandy soils predominate in the Kyzylkum Desert. In the interior, on the alluvial cones and degraded landmasses, there are gray-brown soils, with takyrs and takyr soils in the basins. The sierozems found in the foothills and low mountains include light sierozems (from 250 to 400 m), conventional sierozems (400–700 m), and dark sierozems (700–1,200 m). Higher up, on mountains of medium height (1,200–2,800 m), there are cinnamon-colored and brown mountain-forest soils, and at elevations greater than 2,800 m, there are light brown meadow-steppe soils. Among these automorphic soils, hydromorphic soils, such as solonchaks, meadow soils, meadow-bog soils, and bog soils, are encountered in poorly drained piedmont plains and river valleys, as are such semihydromorhic soils (with certain attributes of automorphic and hydromorphic soils) as sierozem-meadow and desert-meadow soils. Irrigated soils make up a distinct type.

Flora. The desert landscapes of Uzbekistan have vegetative groupings dominated by xerophytic subshrubs (primarily wormwood and saltwort), widely spaced groupings of woody Chenopo-diaceae (chiefly saxaul), and certain woody or shrubby psammo-phytic legumes and plants of the family Polygonaceae. In areas where the desert surface is strewn with stones or gypsum, the principal plants are the subshrub Anabasis salsa, wormwood and saltwort subshrubs, the saxaul shrub, prickly bindweed shrubs, and shrubs of the genus Atraphaxis. On the sandy expanses of desert, plants include the sand sedge, the plant Haloxylon persicum, various shrubs of the family Polygonaceae, saltwort shrubs and shrubs of the genus Astragalus, sand grasses of the genus Aristida, and saltwort annuals. The plant Haloxylon aphyllum and thickets of tamarisk are typical of areas of the desert having solonchak or clay soil.

The river valleys of Uzbekistan contain gallery forests composed of trees (poplar, willow, Elaeagnus), shrubs (tamarisk, Lycium, Halymodendron halodendron), and herbs (Phragmites, Erianthus, Calamagrostis, Alhagi, licorice, wild sugarcane). The region of foothills in the republic can be broken down on the basis of elevation into zones encompassing the piedmont plain (from 300 to 600 m), the law foothills (600–900 m), and the high foothills (900–1,200 m). Vegetation in the piedmont plain typically includes the herbs Poa bulbosa and narrow-leaved sedge (Carex pachystylis). In addition, there are many ephemerals of the families Cruciferae, Leguminosae, Poaceae, Boraginaceae, Compositae, Umbelliferae, and Labiatae. In the zone of low foothills, vegetation also includes perennial thick-stemmed herbs that grow for much of the year. Among the plants frequently encountered are carrack (a prickly variety of resin important for winter forage), herbs of the genus Psoralea (nectariferous), Phlomis, plants of the genus Eremurus, Ferula caratsiensis, and plants of the genus Crambe. The zone of high foothills comprises a dry steppe made up of forbs, among which are the large downy species of the genus Agropyron and the bulbous species of the genus Hordeum. The steppe also includes such large dicotyledons as the large species of Inula and the achlamydeous species of the genus Althaea. Vegetation on areas where the soil is gravelly includes prickly shrubs of the genus Amygdalus, shrubs of the genus Cerasus, and shrubs of the genus Atraphaxis.

Poplars and willows grow in the river valleys. In the zone encompassing forests, meadows, and steppes at elevations of 1,200–1,800 m, vegetation is for the most part xerophytic; at elevations of 1,800–2,500 m, it consists of mesophytic juniper bushes. There are small apple and nut groves in some areas. A variety of cherry plum (Prunus divaricata) grows at the base of the slopes, and in the river valleys there are poplar and willow trees. Birches grow in the Western Tien-Shan. At elevations of 2,500–2,700 m, there are fescue steppes; here, the tree Juniperus turkestanica occurs as a prostrate shrub. Higher up, to elevations of 3,000 m, there are Lagotis meadows and highland xerophytes (Acantholimon, viper’s-grass, Tragacantha). In all, forests cover 2.07 percent of the republic’s territory.

Fauna. The desert plains of Uzbekistan abound in reptiles. In the sandy expanses of the deserts, there are geckos (scincoid [Teratoscincus scincus] and comb-toed [Crossobamon evers-manni]), the lizards Phrynocephalus mystaceus and Phrynocephalus interscapularis, Eremias grammica, and the sand boa Eryx miliaris. The areas where the desert is covered by stones or clay soil are home to the terrestrial lizard Agama sanguinolenta, var-anids, testudinates, and vipers of the genus Echis.

The sandy areas are also inhabited by a large number of mammals. Rodents include the feather-footed jerboa, the jird Meriones meridianas, the gerbil Rhombomys opimus, and the long-clawed ground squirrel (Spermophilopsis leptodactylus). Predators are represented by the sand cat (Felis margarita). Desert areas with hard compacted soils are home to the gerbil Meriones erythourus, dipodids (Allactaga elater, Allactaga severtzovi), the Afghan vole (Microtus afghanos bucharensis), and the suslik Citellus fluvus.

Typical birds of the sandy deserts include Pander’s ground jay, the brown-necked raven, the desert great gray shrike (Lanius excubitor pallidirostris), the desert wheatear, and Hippolais. There are many birds in the gallery forests, among them pheasants, night herons, ravens, and the desert warbler (Sylvia nana). Mammals here include the short-tailed bandicoot rat (except in the basin of the Syr Darya), jungle cat, golden jackal, and wild boar. Birds predominate in the oases, where the Senegalese turtledove and sparrows, swallows, the common swift, and mynas are encountered. Larks and the tawny pipit (Anthus campestris) inhabit the foothills; mountains of medium height are inhabited by the bunting Emberiza bruniceps and skylark, and high mountains, by the horned lark and water pipit. Typical mammals of the mountain steppes and meadows are the ground squirrel Citellus relictus and marmots (long-tailed bobac, Talas bobac).

Birds inhabiting the deciduous mountain forests include the rufous turtledove, tawny owl, and Dendropos leucopterus; mammals here include the honey badger, Turkestan rat, the mouse Mus sylvaticus, and rodents of the family Gliridae. Birds of the juniper forests include the white-winged goosebeak and the finches Carpodacus rhodochlamys and Carpodacus grandis. Among the mammals are the cape hare and the vole Microtus carruthersi. The true fox, wolves, golden eagle, eagle owl, and snakes of the genus Ancistrodon inhabit all areas, from the deserts to the high mountains.

Carp, rudd, sheatfish, and fish of the genus Barbus are found in ponds and reservoirs, while Old World minnows, the Turkestan cat Glyptosternum reticulatum, osmans (Chirchik basin), and trout (basin of the Syr Darya) are found in streams and rivers in the mountains. There are three endemic species of the genus Pseudoscaphirhynchus in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya.

Preserves. There are a number of preserves in Uzbekistan. Zaamin, Chatkal, Nuratau, and Kyzylsu are mountain-forest preserves. The Aral-Paigambar, Kyzylkum, Karakul’, Zeravshan, and Badai-Tugai preserves are located in the plains. In addition, nine sanctuaries have been established.

Natural regions. The plains and foothill-mountain sections are clearly distinguishable in Uzbekistan. There are a number of regions within these two sections. The Ustiurt region is dominated by landforms typical of stony (gypsum) deserts. Here, on gray-brown soil, the subshrub Anabasis salsa forms groupings with the shrub Salsola arbusculo and with wormwood shrubs; it also occurs by itself. The Lower Amu Darya region is typified by a combination of clay-delta desert landforms with clusters of reedlike grasses of the genera Phragmites and Tamarix and with the sub-shrub Anabasis salsa and wormwoods on hydromorphic and semihydromorphic soils. The Kyzylkum region has landscapes typical of sandy deserts; the main plant is the Haloxylon persicum. This region also has low mountains, at the base of which there are proluvial plains (sandy loam, rock debris) with wormwood and wormwood-saltwort associations. The Lower Zeravshan region has sandy desert landforms. Here, the plant Haloxylon persicum, plants of the genus Calligonum, and Astragolus villofissimus occur with Salsola rígida and S. arbúsculo on takyr-like soils. There are also solonchak soils. The Surkhandar’ia region has landscapes encompassing all elevations, from the desert zone to the zone of glaciers and permanent snow. The Kashkadar’ia region is typified by a combination of foothill, medium-mountain, and high-mountain belts. The Middle Zeravshan region has well-developed landscapes of the foothill, desert-steppe, and dry steppe belts. There are also mountains of medium height. In the Golodnaia Steppe, most of the landscapes are of the foothill and medium-mountain type, the latter being more sharply expressed than in the Middle Zeravshan region. The Chirchik-Angren region has foothill, medium-mountain, and high-mountain landscapes. Glaciers and areas of permanent snow figure prominently in the high mountains. The Fergana region has landscapes ranging from the desert type to the high-mountain (glaciers, permanent snow) type. Al! landscapes are at higher elevations than all the other foothill-mountain regions. The Fergana region also has large oases (Kokand, Margilan, Namangan).


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Novikov, L. K., and K. S. Khalmukhamedov. Zapovedniki Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1972.
Babushkin, L. N., and N. A. Kogai. “Fiziko-geograficheskoe raioni-rovanie Uzbekskoi SSR.” Tr. Tashkentskogo gosudarstvennogo in-ta, 1964, issue 231. Atlas Uzbekskoi SSR. Tashkent-Moscow, 1963.
L. N. BABUSHKIN, N. A. KOGAI, I. I. GRANITOV, R. N. MEKLENBURTSEV, and M. A. AKHMEDZHANOV (geological structure and minerals)

The largest part of the population (65.5 percent) is made up of Uzbeks (7,724,700; all data from 1970 census). The population also includes Kara-Kalpaks (230,300, of whom 217,500 live in the Kara-Kalpak ASSR), Russians (1,473,500), Tatars (573,700), Kazakhs (476,300), Tadzhiks (448,500), Koreans (147,500), Ukrainians (111,700), Kirghiz (110,700), Jews (102,900), Turkmens (71,000), Azerbaijanis (38,900), Armenians (34,200), Uighurs (23,900), and Bashkirs (20,800).

By 1976 the population of Uzbekistan was 3.2 times larger than in 1913 (see Table 2). Population growth has take place basically through natural increase, for which Uzbekistan’s figures are the second highest among the Union republics (27.3 persons per 1,000 residents in 1975), the Tadzhik SSR occupying first place. (The rate for the USSR as a whole is 8.8.)

The average population density is 31.5 per sq km (Jan. 1, 1976). The population is distributed very unevenly. Average density is five persons per sq km in the Kara-Kalpak ASSR, 8 per sq km in Bukhara Oblast, 34.2 in Kashkadar’ia Oblast, 214 in Tashkent Oblast, 224.4 in Fergana Oblast, and 299.9 in Andizhan Oblast. Density reaches 2,000 persons per sq km in certain suburban areas.

As of Jan. 1, 1976, men made up 49.1 percent of the population, and women 50.9 percent. More than 77 percent of the work force is employed in material production. In 1975, the number of industrial and nonindustrial workers reached 3,343,000 (756,000 in 1940), of whom 697,000 were employed in industry, 386,000 in construction, 582,000 in agriculture, 311,000 in transportation and communications, and 478,000 in education and culture. Women make up 42 percent of the work force.

The urban population has increased with industrialization (see Table 2). Of the 76 cities of Uzbekistan, 64 were formed during the years of Soviet power, including 44 since 1960. The major cities, with their populations (Jan. 1, 1976), are Tashkent (1,643,000), Samarkand (304,000), Andizhan (220,000), Namangan (217,000), Kokand (152,000), Bukhara (144,000), and Fergana (132,000). Among the new cities that have become major industrial centers are Chirchik, Angren, Almalyk, Bekabad, and Navoi.

Primitive communal system (to the mid-first millennium b.c.). Stone implements found in Fergana and Bukhara oblasts show that Uzbekistan was inhabited in the Lower Paleolithic. The skull and various bones of a Neanderthal boy uncovered in the cave Teshik-Tash date from the Mousterian culture. As is evidenced by finds in the cave Amir-Temir (near the city of Baisun), by the cave habitation sites of Aman-Kutan (near Samarkand) and Obirakhmat

Table 2. Population of the Uzbek SSR
 TotalUrbanRuralPercentage of total
1913 (end-of-year estimate). . . . . . . . . .4,334,0001,060,0003,274,00024.575.5
1926 (census of December 17). . . . . . . . . .4,621,0001,012,0003,609,00021.978.1
1940 (estimate for January 1. . . . . . . . . .6,551,0001,606,0004,945,00024.575.5
1959 (census of January 1). . . . . . . . . .8,119,0002,729,0005,390,00033.666.4
1970 (census of January 15). . . . . . . . . .11,800,0004,322,0007,478,00036.663.4
1976 (estimate for January 1). . . . . . . . . .14,079,0005,484,0008,595,00038.961.1

and Kul’bulak (both near Tashkent), and by habitation sites in the Fergana Valley, the primitive inhabitants of what is now Uzbekistan lived in large groups and engaged primarily in hunting and gathering.

The transition to the Mesolithic in the region took place 12,000 to 15,000 years ago; the transition to the Neolithic took place at the beginning of the fifth millennium B.C. (seeKELTEMINAR CULTURE). The tribes inhabiting Uzbekistan began making copper implements at the end of the third millennium B.C. The first regular agricultural settlements (seeZAMAN-BABA and DAL’VERZIN SETTLEMENT) appeared during the Bronze Age, in the second and early first millennia B.C. The Taza-Bag-iab culture came to Uzbekistan in the second half of the second millennium B.C. During the late Bronze Age, the cultivation of land by means of artificial irrigation was carried on throughout almost all Uzbekistan; the main crops were wheat, barley, and millet. Sheep predominated among the domestic animals, which also included cattle and horses. Large tribal associations were formed, and intertribal exchange gradually developed. By the end of the Bronze Age, early class relations had appeared among the tribes of Middle Asia.

Slaveholding system (mid-first millennium b.c. to the fifth century A.D.). The Uzbek nationality is descended from tribes and peoples that inhabited Middle Asia for many centuries and were linked not only politically and economically, but ethnically as well. An advanced material culture developed from the ancient Sogdian-Khwarazmian civilization.

The economic development of the first states of Middle Asia, which included what is now Uzbekistan, depended on irrigation agriculture. The irrigation systems in the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, and Zeravshan river basins were larger than those of the late Middle Ages; they could have been constructed only by large agricultural communes having a centralized government and a large slave labor force. In the steppe and mountain regions, livestock raising and horticulture became increasingly important. The development of livestock raising in several regions of Middle Asia forced a substantial part of the population to adopt a nomadic way of life. Improvements in tools and advances in metalworking fostered the growth of handicrafts and an expansion in exchange and trade.

The slaveholding states of Khwarazm, Bactria, Sogdiana, and the Parthian Empire emerged in Middle Asia in the first millennium B.C. Cities such as Maracanda (Samarkand) and Kireshata flourished. The Achaemenids established control over much of Middle Asia in the sixth century B.C. Between 329 and 327 B.C., during his campaign against Persia, Alexander the Great conquered Middle Asia. The local population waged an uninterrupted struggle against the invaders; the largest uprising was led by Spitamenes between 329 and 327 B.C. The Greco-Bactrian kingdom was established in Middle Asia in approximately 250 B.C. In the mid-second century B.C., the Tochari and other nomadic tribes of Middle Asia, supported by Khwarazm, Sogdiana, and Bactria, drove the Greco-Macedonian rulers out of Middle Asia. In the second half of the second century B.C. Fergana was an independent association of states.

During this period in Middle Asia handicraft production continued to progress, commodity-money relations expanded, and cities grew. Advances were made in field crop farming, horticulture, and viticulture. Rice, wheat, grapes, and alfalfa were cultivated in Fergana, and wine-making was developed. Middle Asia, including what is now Uzbekistan, formed part of the Kushana Kingdom from the end of the first century B.C. to the mid-fourth century A.D. In the mid-fifth century the Ephthalites established in Middle Asia a state in which there developed the preconditions for the emergence of feudal relations.

Feudal society (sixth to mid-19th centuries). The Ephthalite state broke up in the 560’s under pressure from the Turkic peoples, who in the mid-sixth century had created the Turkic Kaganate, a large state in which feudal relations were developing.

In Middle Asia (West Turkic Kaganate) the population consisted of settled land cultivators and nomadic stock raisers. Most of the land cultivators were kedivers, who were personally bound to the rich landowners, or dehqans. The popular masses repeatedly rebelled against the feudal aristocracy; of particular importance was the uprising led by Abrui in the Bukhara region in the 580’s. Cotton cultivation, sericulture, and the silk and cotton trade developed extensively in Middle Asia during this period. Gold, copper, iron, lead, silver, and other metals were mined, and local artisans fashioned them into coins, weapons, and domestic articles. The West Turkic Kaganate was a federation of Turkic tribes that fought among themselves. In the sixth and seventh centuries a new type of settlement arose in Middle Asia in response to the frequent wars and uprisings; these settlements consisted of fortified estate-castles of the aristocracy surrounded by cultivated land and fortified houses for the dehqans and merchants.

By the mid-eighth century the Arab Caliphate had conquered Middle Asia and forced it to accept Islam. The peoples of Middle Asia courageously resisted the conquerors. A major uprising in Sogdiana between 720 and 722 was followed by rebellions in the second half of the 720’s and between 734 and 737 in Sogdiana, Khorasan, and other regions. A mass uprising under the leadership of Abu Muslim took place between 747 and 750, bringing about the fall of the Umayyad dynasty and the rise of the Abbasids. An uprising led by Sumbad and Ishak erupted in 755, and the important Mukanna Uprising took place in 776. The movement was centered in Mavera-un-Nahr and was supported by nomadic Turkic tribes. The uprising of Abdul Hasib took place in 801 and 802, and the Rafi ibn Leis Uprising, an antifeudal rebellion against the Caliphate, broke out in 806 in Sogdiana. Objectively, the Arab conquest played a positive role in the development of the productive forces of Middle Asia. Cities grew, especially Samarkand, Binkent (Tashkent), Termez, and Bukhara. Trade, including caravan trade, and handicraft production expanded, and exchange between the urban and rural population and between farmers and nomads increased. The inclusion of Middle Asia in the Caliphate helped to overcome feudal fragmentation and furthered the development of economic and cultural ties with the peoples of Southwest Asia.

The Samanid state was formed in Middle Asia in the ninth century. Its most developed region consisted of what is now Uzbekistan, especially the Zeravshan River valley. Cities and various rural areas, such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Termez, and the Shash region, became major agricultural, trade, handicraft, and cultural centers. Samarkand became famous far beyond Middle Asia for the production of high-quality paper and glass. Khwarazm was an important economic region. Leather, fabrics, silk, wool, clothing, livestock, and other commodities were exported to the countries of Eastern Europe, to China, and elsewhere. The large landowners of Mavera-un-Nahr usually divided their land into small parcels, which they then leased to peasant sharecroppers who had little or no land of their own and, in addition, paid exorbitant taxes to the feudal rulers. The Samanid state was continually rocked by peasant rebellions.

The Uzbek nationality developed over a protracted period. Turkic tribes penetrated and settled in Sogdiana, Mavera-un-Nahr, and other regions between the sixth and ninth centuries. In some instances the Turkic elements were assimilated by the indigenous population. In other instances they became predominant: in the eighth century there were powerful Karluk elements in Fergana and Oghuz elements in Shash. At the same time, Sog-dian farmers who reached Semirech’e, which was populated mainly by Turkic nomads, gradually abandoned their own language and adopted that of the nomads.

In the late tenth century the Karakhanid state was formed in Semirech’e from various Turkic tribes, including the Karluks, Chigils, Argu, and Iagma. The rulers of the state, the bogra-khan Harun ibn Musa ibn Satuk and Nasr I, conquered Mavera-un-Nahr between 992 and 999; subsequently the Samanid state collapsed. The Karakhanid state, Khwarazm, and (south of the Amu Darya) the Ghaznavid state, replaced the Samanid state. In the late 12th century Khwarazm became more powerful and subjugated most of Middle Asia. The Turkic-speaking Uzbek nationality was essentially formed by the 11th or 12th century.

By the early 13th century, Muhammad II Ala’-al-Din, the shah of Khwarazm, had routed the Karakitai and annexed Middle Asia and southern Kazakhstan. The Mongol-Tatar forces of Genghis Khan invaded the shah’s possessions in 1219. The popular masses, notably the people of Khodzhent under the leadership of Timur Melik, tenaciously resisted the aggressors. Most of the feudal lords, however, submitted to the Mongol-Tatars without resistance, thereby avoiding much of the suffering endured by other strata of the population. By 1221 the Mongol-Tatars had conquered all of Middle Asia. In 1224 Genghis Khan handed control over this vast territory to his second son, Jagatai, but in actuality power was wielded by the Mongol vicegerent Mahmud Ialavach, a merchant of Khwarazm. The Mongol-Tatars ruled the conquered lands with the support of the feudal elite and the Muslim clergy. The people were oppressed by both the Mongol-Tatars and the local feudal lords. In 1238 a major uprising against the Mongols erupted in Bukhara under the leadership of Mahmud Tarabi, only to be brutally suppressed.

In the second half of the 14th century Tamerlane (1336–1405) established a powerful empire with Mavera-un-Nahr as its nucleus and Samarkand as its capital. Tamerlane’s aggressive policies placed a heavy burden on the peoples of Mavera-un-Nahr and other regions. Under Tamerlane feudal relations in Middle Asia attained their greatest development. A period of feudal disorder ensued after Tamerlane’s death, and his empire essentially divided into two amalgamations of feudal holdings. The first was in Khorasan; its capital was Herat, and it was ruled (1409–47) by Tamerlane’s son Shah Rukh. The other was in Mavera-un-Nahr; its capital was Samarkand, and it was ruled (1409–49) by Shah Rukh’s son Ulug Beg. Ulug Beg encouraged the development of handicrafts and trade; one of the outstanding scholars of the Middle Ages, he made major contributions to science and culture. His scientific work earned him the hatred of the Muslim clergy. After Ulug Beg’s death, his state disintegrated into independent, warring territories. Only nominal efforts to unify the state were undertaken by the Timurids Abu Said (ruled 1451–69) and Sultan Husayn (ruled 1469–1506).

The great Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi, who was the father of Uzbek classical literature, a renowned scholar and thinker, and a political figure, lived in Herat in the second half of the 15th century. His artistic work and progressive social activities had an enormous influence on the subsequent cultural development of the Uzbeks and other peoples of the medieval East.

In the late 15th and early 16th centuries Middle Asia was conquered by nomadic Uzbek tribes under Sheiban Khan (ruled 1451–1510) that had come from Dasht-i-Kipchak. In 1510 his troops were routed by the Iranian shah Ismail I, and Sheiban Khan was killed. The Sheibanids’ war against Ismail and the Ti-murid Baber was waged with varying success. Gradually, large groups of the nomadic conquerors adopted a settled mode of existence and took up the cultivation of the land. The settled population assimilated them at an increasing rate; the Uzbeks who had migrated from Dasht-i-Kipchak became part of the Turkic-speaking nationality that had formed in the 11th and 12th centuries, and they gave the nationality their name, “Uzbek.” The emergence of a new feudal aristocracy resulted in the gradual redistribution of the land. The Sheibanids sought to strengthen the country’s economy and to improve its irrigation system. A monetary reform was enacted at the beginning of the 16th century.

The development of feudal relations in the first half of the 16th century led to the collapse of the state created by Sheiban Khan. Khwarazm, Balkh, and other areas became principalities independent of Bukhara, which had been the capital of the Sheibanid state. The Khiva Khanate emerged. Abdullah-Khan II ibn-Iskan-der temporarily succeeded in uniting the country. In 1599 a new dynasty, the Ashtarkhanids, began ruling. In the 1740’s Bukhara was conquered by the ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah. In 1753, Mu-hammed Rahim ascended the throne of the Bukhara Khanate; he was the first emir and the founder of the Mangyt dynasty, which was to rule until 1920. Foreign trade, especially with Russia, expanded in the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries, and cities and commodity production continued to grow. Vicegerents, attempting to gain power, continually initiated internecine conflicts in the Khiva and Bukhara khanates. From 1826 to 1860 Bukhara was ruled by Nasrulla Khan, who united the khanate and established a stable central authority in the mid-19th century.

In the first quarter of the 19th century the Kokand Khanate, which had been formed in the early 18th century, ruled Tashkent, nearly all of the Syr Darya River basin, part of Semirech’e, and other areas. Russia and Kokand exchanged envoys in 1812 and 1813. In 1842 the Kokand Khanate was seized by the Bukhara Khanate, but a popular uprising against the emir’s rule, in which the local aristocracy was supported by Kipchak tribes, restored the independence of the Kokand Khanate in the same year. In 1847 a large popular uprising against Kokand’s rule in Tashkent led to Tashkent’s achieving relative independence. A number of popular uprisings in the Khiva Khanate broke out between the mid-18th and early 19th centuries as a result of widespread discontent over exorbitant taxes. The Middle Asian khanates were continually at war with one another throughout the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries; the khan of Kokand fought Bukhara on fifteen occasions over Ura-Tiube alone. The wars and constant internecine conflicts within the khanates, and the attendant devastation and pillaging, undermined economic and cultural life.

The intellectual life of the 19th-century Uzbek khanates was backward and conservative. Despite persecution by reactionary rulers and the clergy, however, a progressive national intelligentsia was born. The poets Ghazi, Makhmur, and Mukhammed Gul’khani flourished in Kokand at the beginning of the 19th century, the historian and poet Shir-Mukhammed Munis Khorezmi and his nephew Agakhi Mukhammad Riza in Khiva, and the poet Mirza Sadyk Munshi in Bukhara. The economic life of the khanates developed despite their feudal backwardness; irrigation systems were constructed and improved, agricultural production increased, and new cities arose.

In the 19th century Middle Asia became an arena for competition between Great Britain and Russia. Russia sought to establish and strengthen in every possible way its dilomatic and commercial relations with the khanates of Bukhara, Khiva, and Kokand; trade with Russia was highly profitable for Middle Asian merchants.

Unification with Russia; socioeconomic development of Uzbekistan in the second half of the 19th century. The tsarist government sought to control in Middle Asia sources of raw materials for Russian industry and areas for investment by the growing bourgeoisie. In addition, it wanted to keep Great Britain out of Middle Asia. Russian troops invaded Uzbekistan in the 1860’s. Initially, military operations were undertaken against the Kokand Khanate and the lands it had conquered. Russian forces entered Pishpek in the fall of 1862, took the fortress of Suzak in the summer of 1863, and captured the cities of Aulie-Ata and Turkestan in the spring of 1864. On Sept. 22,1864, Chimkent was taken by storm. On May 17, 1865, M. G. Cherniaev’s detachment captured Tashkent after a three-day assault. Bukhara’s troops were then routed as they moved toward Tashkent. In the autumn of 1866 Russian troops captured part of the Bukhara Khanate, including the cities of Ura-Tiube and Dzhizak and the fortress of Iangikurgan. The Kokand Khanate was now isolated from Bukhara.

In 1867 the Turkestan Governor-Generalship, with Tashkent as administrative center, was formed in the part of Turkestan occupied by tsarist troops; K. P. Kaufman was appointed the first governor-general. Under the peace treaty signed by Russia and Bukhara on June 23, 1868, territory containing the cities of Khodzhent, Ura-Tiube, Dzhizak, Kattakurgan, and Samarkand was ceded to Russia. Zeravshan Okrug of the Turkestan Governor-Generalship was formed from this territory. A peace treaty with the khan of Khiva, who acknowledged Russia’s protectorate, was signed on Aug. 12, 1873; a similar treaty with Bukhara was signed on Sept. 18, 1873. After the suppression of the Kokand Rebellion of 1873–76, the Kokand Khanate was abolished, and its territory became part of Fergana Oblast in the Turkestan Governor-Generalship. At the end of the 1880’s the territory of present-day Uzbekistan belonged partly to Syr Darya, Samarkand, and Fergana oblasts of the Turkestan Governor-Generalship and partly to the Khiva and Bukhara khanates.

Despite the reactionary policies of tsarism, Uzbekistan’s incorporation into Russia was historically progressive. Uzbekistan was drawn into the economic system of developing Russian capitalism; this new influence accelerated the economic development of the region and contributed to the emergence of an industrial proletariat and the birth of bourgeois relations. Uzbekistan was exposed to the influence of progressive Russian culture and science. The Uzbek people established contact with the Russian proletariat, the most revolutionary in the world; the working people of Uzbekistan were gradually drawn into active revolutionary struggle for national and social liberation.

The main task of tsarist economic policy in Uzbekistan was to develop cotton growing. Uzbekistan soon became one of the main suppliers of cotton to Russian industry. Beginning in 1884, American cotton, which was superior to the local variety, was sown in the region. Small peasant farms were the main producers of cotton. With the increased cultivation of cotton, commodity-money relations expanded and became more firmly entrenched in the countryside. The migration of Russian peasants to Syr Darya and Fergana oblasts began; in the process of resettlement, land was often forcibly siezed from the indigenous population. The Transcaspian (Middle Asian) Railroad was completed in 1899, the Orenburg-Tashkent Railroad was finished in 1905, and the Fergana and Bukhara railroads were constructed between 1910 and 1916.

In 1900, Turkestan had about 10,000 workers employed in 195 different industrial enterprises, as compared to 21 enterprises prior to 1880. Most of the Middle Asian proletariat was made up of railroad workers and workers in cotton-ginning and vegetable-oil mills. The majority of the factories and mills belonged to Russian capitalists. The colonial policies of the Russian government were designed to perpetuate the economic, political, and cultural backwardness of the local population.

The first protests by workers took place in the 1880’s and 1890’s and included disturbances at the Zauran-Koshturskii mine in 1885, a construction workers’ strike near Kokand in 1898, and disturbances among the industrial workers of Samarkand in the same year. The discontent of the peasants increased under the influence of the workers’ movement and as a result of intensified social and ethnic oppression. Their dissatisfaction found expression in spontaneous, uncoordinated clashes with the beys (seeBEY) and the local colonial administration. Peasant uprisings took place in Namangan and Andizhan districts in 1881, 1891, and 1895; the largest was the Andizhan Uprising of 1898.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries there were several conflicting ideological and sociopolitical currents of thought in Uzbekistan. These included the feudal-clerical current, which was the ideology of the powerful secular and clerical feudal lords; the bourgeois Jadidist current (seeJADIDISM), which was the ideology of the national bourgeoisie that had formed in Uzbekistan; the democratic current (represented by such figures as A. Donish, M. Alim, M. Mukimi, and Furkat), which defended the interests of the working people and supported friendship between the peoples of Middle Asia and Russia; and the Marxist-Leninist current, which was the ideology of the working class and was transmitted mainly by Social Democrats exiled from Central Russia.

Period of imperialism and bourgeois democratic revolutions in Russia (1900–17). Substantial mineral reserves were discovered in Uzbekistan at the beginning of the 20th century. The extraction of petroleum began in the Fergana Valley, and copper was mined in the areas of Naukat and Tarangutsai. Ozokerite and mineral salts were extracted. Beginning in the late 19th century, large textile firms opened agencies, offices, and warehouses in Uzbekistan for the sale of products and the purchase of cotton. The companies set artificially low prices for raw materials and high prices for manufactured goods. Only the initial processing of raw materials was carried out in Uzbekistan.

By 1913 cotton-ginning and vegetable-oil enterprises accounted for 50.7 percent of the entire industrial output. The sowing of cotton continually increased at the expense of grains; 33,918,000 poods (1 pood = 16.38 kg) of cotton were harvested in Fergana, Samarkand, and Syr Darya oblasts in 1915, as compared to 15,301,000 poods in 1907. In 1914 cotton made up 80 percent of Middle Asia’s exports to Russia. The development of cotton growing strengthened the ties between peasant farms and the marketplace and accelerated the stratification of the peasantry. Although the growth rates of capitalist enterprises, trading firms, and banks were comparatively high, bourgeois relations, especially in agriculture, barely developed in Turkestan Krai (seeTURKESTAN KRAI). Feudal relations were dominant in the Uzbek kishlak (hamlet). Islam provided the ideological basis for feudalism. The Muslim clergy played an important role in the economic and political life of Uzbekistan.

The first Social Democratic circles arose in Uzbekistan at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1904 the Social Democratic and Socialist Revolutionary Alliance was formed in Tashkent; in the following year, the group split into Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries (SR’s). The working people of Uzbekistan took part in the Revolution of 1905–07. By the fall of 1905, 15 workers’ and three soldiers’ Social Democratic circles existed in Tashkent. In 1905 and 1906 the newspaper Samarkand played a major role in propagating revolutionary ideas among the working people and soldiers; the Bolshevik M. V. Morozov acted as the paper’s editor. Social Democratic military-revolutionary organizations were established in Tashkent (Turkestan Social Democratic Military Committee), Samarkand,.and other cities.

On Oct. 14,1905, the employees of Turkestan’s railroads went on strike. They were joined by workers of industrial enterprises, and disturbances broke out among the soldiers of railroad battalions and the sailors of the Amu Darya Flotilla. On October 19 the tsarist authorities fired on a mass meeting of the working people of Tashkent. The funeral of the slain became a huge revolutionary demonstration. The strike caused an upsurge in the revolutionary movement in the army. The Bolsheviks of Tashkent, together with the SR’s, prepared a protest by the workers and soldiers. An uprising begun by the soldiers of the Tashkent Reserve Battalion in the early morning of Nov. 16, 1905, was suppressed. The reprisals against those who took part in the uprising brought about an intensification of the revolutionary movement throughout Turkestan, and the general strike erupted anew.

The first congress of employees of the Middle Asian Railroad, held Dec. 13–20, 1905, adopted a resolution demanding the establishment, by revolutionary means, of an eight-hour day by January 1906. The revolutionary struggle of the working people of Turkestan forced the tsarist government to reserve six seats for “native deputies” in the First and Second State Dumas. A state of “emergency protection” declared in Turkestan in September 1906 was retained until 1909. After the coup d’etat of June 3, 1907, an electoral law was enacted that deprived the indigenous population of Uzbekistan of suffrage and of representation in the State Duma. In 1910 the Third State Duma passed a law confiscating “surplus” lands from the native population of Turkestan. During the years of reaction, the growing national oppression in Uzbekistan led to increased nationalistic activity by the Jadidists. Despite the terrorist tactics of the government, the strike movement came to life in 1910 and 1911, with Uzbek workers taking part. On July 1,1912, the Turkestan Sappers’ Uprising took place.

World War I initially brought an economic upsurge to Uzbekistan: cotton planting expanded, new cotton-ginning mills were built, the proletariat increased in size, and a local industrial bourgeoisie emerged. In the second half of 1915, however, an economic slump began. The rapid development of cotton growing at the expense of grain crops resulted in higher prices for bread, foodstuffs, and fodder. Exports from Uzbekistan of raw materials, foodstuffs, and fodder for industry and the army increased, and imports of bread and manufactured articles declined; by 1916 bread prices had increased fourfold. When cotton prices fell in 1916, widespread economic ruin of peasant farms ensued.

The revolutionary crisis was ripening in Uzbekistan and throughout Turkestan, as was evidenced by the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916. The immediate cause of the uprising was a tsarist ukase providing for the compulsory enlistment of the local population in rear-services work. Approximately 120,000 men were to be called up from the region of present-day Uzbekistan. The uprising, essentially an anticolonial national liberation rebellion, began on July 4 in Khodzhent and soon spread throughout Turkestan. Only in a few areas did reactionary feudal-clerical circles attempt to exploit the uprising in order to achieve their own class goals. The uprising was brutally suppressed, but the people’s struggle against tsarism continued.

The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Civil War and Military Intervention (1917–20). After the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia, soviets of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies were formed in Turkestan Krai. Leadership in the soviets was assumed by the Mensheviks and SR’s. The Uzbek bourgeoisie, feudal lords, and clergy formed the nationalist counterrevolutionary organizations Shura-i-Islam (Council of Islamists) and Shura-i-Ulema (Council of the Clergy). The Mladobukhartsy (Young Bukharans) stepped up their activities. The Turkestan Committee of the Provisional Government was formed in Tashkent on Apr. 7 (20), 1917; all power was held by the committee. The first trade unions of industrial workers of the indigenous nationalities were created: the councils of Muslim workers and the leagues of Muslim working people (Ittifak). In the summer and fall of 1917 workers’ strikes took place in Uzbekistan; the dehqans (land-holding peasants) organized a movement for land and water, and revolutionary protests broke out among the troops of Turkestan Okrug.

In the soviets of workers’ deputies, the Bolsheviks formed a bloc with the Left SR’s and Menshevik Internationalists in order to mobilize the masses for an armed uprising against the Provisional Government. On Sept. 12 (25), 1917, a mass meeting of 7,000 people in Tashkent adopted a resolution calling for the transfer of all power to the soviets. On October 25 (November 7) the presidium of the Tashkent soviet passed a resolution to undertake preparations for the armed uprising. On October 27 (November 9) P. A. Korovichenko, commissar-general of the Provisional Government in Turkestan, declared the city under martial law, arrested several members of the executive committee of the soviet, and disarmed revolutionary-minded soldiers of the Siberian 2nd Reserve Rifle Regiment. Despite these precautions, the armed uprising began on the morning of October 28 (November 10); it was led by a revolutionary committee that was set up the same day under the chairmanship of the Bolshevik V. S. Liapin. A workers’ druzhina (combat detachment) of 2,500 fought in the uprising, together with soldiers from several units who had machine guns and artillery pieces. The rebels were aided by the workers and soldiers of Perovsk, Samarkand, Kushka, and Chardzhui (Chardzhou). After a four-day battle, the uprising achieved victory in Tashkent on Nov. 1(14), 1917.

The Third Krai Congress of Soviets, held Nov. 15–22 (Nov. 28-Dec. 5), 1917, proclaimed Soviet power in Turkestan; the congress elected the Council of People’s Commissars of the krai; the Bolshevik F. I. Kolesov was named the council’s chairman. The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia and the appeal of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR “To All Muslim Toilers of Russia and the East, ” which were published in local newspapers, exerted a marked revolutionizing influence on the working people of Uzbekistan’s indigenous nationalities. Between November 1917 and March 1918 Soviet power was established in all the regions of Uzbekistan belonging to Turkestan Krai. Supported by the English imperialists, the nationalist bourgeoisie and Muslim clergy joined with the Russian White Guards in an armed struggle against Soviet power. The Fourth Extraordinary Regional Muslim Congress, held in Kokand Nov. 26–29 (Dec. 9–12), 1917, proclaimed Turkestan to be autonomous and established a bourgeois nationalist government called the Kokand Autonomy.

In the second half of February 1918 the nationalists, who did not enjoy the support of the toiling masses, were routed by Red Guard detachments. Initially, certain leaders of Soviet Turkestan committed errors concerning the national question, and the indigenous population was not sufficiently represented in the organs of Soviet power. The bourgeois nationalists exploited these mistakes for counterrevolutionary ends. P. A. Kobozev, extraordinary commissar of the Soviet government, visited Turkestan in April and May 1918 in order to help the local Communists implement national policies and strengthen Soviet power.

The Fifth Congress of Soviets of the krai, held in April 1918, was conducted in two languages; indigenous nationalities made up a considerable portion of the delegates. On Apr. 30,1918, the congress proclaimed the formation of the Turkestan ASSR within the RSFSR. Members of the local nationalities were given government posts, thus becoming involved in state administration. The Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars were elected; P. A. Kobozev was named chairman of the former, and F. I. Kolesov was made chairman of the latter. Organization of the Red Army was begun. The land, bodies of water, industrial enterprises, banks, and railroads were nationalized, and the eight-hour day was introduced. In May 1918 the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR allocated 50 million rubles for irrigation projects and for improving the economic condition of the peasants. In October 1918, the Sixth Congress of Soviets ratified the first Constitution of the Turkestan ASSR.

The political and economic measures of Soviet power encountered resistance from the displaced exploiters, who were actively supported by the imperialists of the Entente. The underground group known as the Turkestan Union of Struggle Against Bolshevism, which united the forces of counterrevolution in the krai, was established in Tashkent. The Basmachi revolt (seeBASMACHI REVOLT), which was centered in the Fergana Valley, played a major role in the struggle against Soviet power in the Uzbek areas of Turkestan. The Fergana Front was formed in July 1918. The Semirech’e Front was established to combat the White Czechs and White Guards. In July the ataman A. I. Dutov captured Orenburg and cut the republic off from Central Russia. The Bukhara and Khiva khanates stepped up their actions against Soviet Turkestan. The republic found itself encircled by fronts. The Communist Party of Turkestan, which had been created in June 1918, mobilized all available manpower and equipment to crush the enemy; party and trade union members and workers were called up. Former prisoners of war of various nationalities joined the struggle against the counterrevolution. The Tashkent Anti-Soviet Revolt of 1919 began in the early morning of Jan. 19, 1919; it was suppressed on January 21 after intense fighting. In the course of the revolt, 14 Turkestan Bolshevik commissars were brutally killed (see).

In August 1919 the southern troops of the Eastern Front were transformed into the Turkestan Front, under the command of M. V. Frunze. The troops of the Turkestan Front began a resolute offensive and routed the southern forces of A. V. Kolchak. On September 13 the troops of the Turkestan Front linked up with units of the Red Army of the Turkestan Republic at the Mu-godhzar railroad station. Nearly all the Fergana Valley was liberated by the spring of 1920.

The task of peacetime construction was now paramount. The government of the RSFSR was cognizant of the complex nature of national and social relations in the krai, the remoteness of the krai from Central Russia, and the international importance of consolidating Soviet power in Middle Asia. In the fall of 1919, therefore, the government of the RSFSR and the Central Committee of the RCP(B) sent to Turkestan the Turkestan Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR. The commission’s primary task was to render all possible assistance to local party organizations and organs of Soviet power.

In February 1920 the people of Khiva overthrew their despotic feudal system with the support of Red Army units; in April 1920 the Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic was proclaimed. Soviet power, was established in Bukhara in September 1920 (seeBUKHARA OPERATION OF 1920); shortly thereafter the Bukhara People’s Soviet Republic was created, thereby eliminating a stronghold of counterrevolution in Middle Asia.

Socialist construction (1921–40). The Civil War wreaked havoc on the economy of Uzbekistan. In 1921 agricultural output was one-third of prewar output. In 1920 the sown area was little more than half that of 1915. The irrigation system had suffered heavy damage. In the Fergana Valley, the main cotton-growing region, the area planted with cotton declined from 288,000 desiatinas (1 desiatina = 1.09 hectares [ha]) in 1915 to 39,700 desiatinas in 1920. The raising of livestock also declined: of the 24 million head of livestock in Turkestan in 1915, only 8 million were left in 1920. Industry and transportation were in a state of nearly total collapse: of the 306 industrial enterprises of Turkestan administered by the Supreme Council on the National Economy, only 82 were operating on May 1, 1922. The population was threatened by famine and epidemic. Despite the grave situation in Russia, the Soviet government provided substantial aid to the working people of Turkestan. In 1920, 33 special trains with seed, grain, textiles, and equipment were dispatched to Turkestan.

The rebuilding of the national economy was made more difficult by the general economic and cultural backwardness of the krai. The existence of precapitalist relations and the influence of the Muslim clergy and the feudal beys provided a breeding ground for the Basmachi revolt, which was supported by the British imperialists. Turkey’s former minister of war, Enver Pasha, who arrived in Bukhara in October 1921, supported the unification of all Muslims in a single Islamic state. He managed to transform unorganized bands of Basmachi into a 16,000-man army and in early 1922 seized a considerable part of the Bukhara People’s Soviet Republic. The Basmachi revolt was threatening the very existence of Soviet power in Turkestan. On Oct. 14, 1921, the Central Committee of the RCP(B) declared the suppression of the Basmachi revolt to be the most important task of the local party and soviet bodies. The Council of People’s Commissars and the Central Committee of the RCP(B) sent Commander in Chief S. S. Kamenev, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, and Sh. Z. Eliava to Tashkent to deal with the Basmachi. In the summer of 1922 the Red Army routed Enver Pasha’s bands. Remnants of the bands took cover in Afghanistan and Iran and repeatedly raided Soviet territory; they were not completely destroyed until 1926.

In the spring of 1921 implementation of the first land and water reform began in Turkestan. The carrying out of the reform was greatly aided by the Koshchi union, which had been established in September 1920, and united the poor and middle strata of the peasantry. The government of the RSFSR allocated large sums to restore the irrigation system and supplied foodstuffs to regions that had suffered from the Basmachi; cotton farms were declared exempt from state taxes for several years.

The restoration of Uzbekistan’s national economy, which had begun when the Civil War was still being fought, proceeded with the assistance of the fraternal republics. Old industrial enterprises went into operation again, and new factories and mills were built; small semicottage enterprises were reconstructed and expanded. By 1925 nine electric power plants had been built. A transport machine shop and a tannery were established in Tashkent, and a foundry was built in Atrek. Equipment, skilled workers, teachers, and doctors were dispatched to the republic from Central Russia, and textbooks were sent for schools.

The successes in economic and cultural construction paved the way for the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia. The Uzbek SSR was created on Oct. 27,1924, by a resolution of a session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR; the new republic included several uezdy (districts) and volosts (small rural districts) of the former Samarkand, Syr Darya, and Fergana oblasts, as well as several raions of the Khorezm and Bukhara soviet socialist republics. Until 1929 the Tadzhik ASSR was part of the Uzbek SSR.

The first Constituent Congress of Soviets of the republic was held on Feb. 13 to 17, 1925. The congress adopted the Declaration on the Formation of the Uzbek SSR, elected the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee (Iu. Akhunbabaev, chairman), and ratified the composition of the Council of People’s Commissars (F. Khodzhaev, chairman). The Uzbek SSR was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at the Third Congress of Soviets of the USSR in May 1925. The formation of the Uzbek SSR accelerated the economic, political, and cultural development of the Uzbek nation. National working-class cadres were created. Under the guidance of the Central Committee of the ACP(B), the Communist Party of Uzbekistan made every effort to include local nationalities in soviet and economic bodies; official business was transacted in both Uzbek and in Russian.

Uzbekistan’s economy developed more rapidly than that of the USSR as a whole. During the prewar five-year plans, more than 500 industrial enterprises of various types were built in the Uzbek SSR, including the Tashsel’mash plant, the Tashkent Textile Combine, and the Chirchik Electrochemical Combine. Petroleum production increased from 13,000 tons in 1913 to 119,000 tons in 1940. New, socialist cities were built around large industrial enterprises, and old cities, such as Chirchik, Bekabad, and Kattakurgan, were modernized. In 1940 the republic had a total of 756,300 industrial and nonindustrial workers, 31 percent of whom were women.

In November 1925 the Second Congress of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Uzbekistan approved a decree on land and water reform that provided for the abolition of feudal relations, the confiscation of surplus lands from the kulaks, and the transfer of water distribution rights to state bodies. The reform was carried out between 1926 and 1929. Approximately 90,000 peasants possessing little or no land received plots. The implementation of the reform and the establishment of a regular system of land allocation fostered an upsurge in agricultural production; in 1928 agricultural output stood at 76 percent of the 1913 level, and the amount of cotton harvested and planted surpassed the 1914 level. The high marketability of agricultural products promoted the development of agricultural cooperation; at the beginning of mass collectivization, 81 percent of peasant farms were cooperative in one form or another.

Government measures to improve irrigation, including the organization of a collective system of water use and the implementation of cooperation, led to the unification of peasant farms into kolkhozes. As of Oct. 1, 1929, Uzbekistan’s kolkhozes represented 3 percent of all farms. In 1930 the percentage of farms that had been incorporated into kolkhozes was as follows: 32 percent in the cotton-growing regions, 30 percent in grain-growing regions, and 19.6 percent in livestock-raising regions. Sixty sovkhozes were established in Uzbekistan in 1929 and 1930. By the end of 1930, 34.4 percent of all peasant farms were collectivized. The kolkhoz movement provoked the resistance of the beys, kulaks, and clergy. Gangs of Basmachi appeared in several regions but were soon eliminated. Between 1928 and 1932 the area planted with cotton rose from 589,200 to 994,800 ha.

Owing to the successful implementation of the first and second five-year plans, the collectivization of agriculture was completed. In 1937 kolkhozes included 95 percent of peasant farms and 99.4 percent of the sown area. Cotton growing became a leading branch of the national economy. In 1937, 1,521,700 tons of raw cotton were harvested, as compared to 860,000 tons in 1933. Receipts from the sale of kolkhoz output increased from 29 million rubles in 1932 to 222 million rubles in 1937.

On the 15th anniversary of the republic in December 1939, the Uzbek SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin for its successes in the development of agriculture, especially cotton growing. The Bol’shoi Fergana Canal, built by a citizen volunteer force, went into service in December 1939, increasing the water supply for more than 500,000 ha of irrigated lands. The cotton harvest of 1940 was 2.7 times greater than that of 1913 and accounted for 62 percent of the cotton output of the USSR. Uzbekistan led the USSR in the production of raw silk, with more than 50 percent of the total. The Kara-Kalpak ASSR became part of the Uzbek SSR under the Constitution of the USSR of 1936.

The kulaks and beys were eliminated in the course of socialist construction, and the new class of the kolkhoz peasantry was formed. The modernization of agricultural equipment and the mechanization of the most labor-intensive processes advanced. A cultural revolution was carried out; illiteracy was eliminated, schools were created with free instruction conducted in the local language, and a system of cultural-educational institutions was established. The standard of living of the working people improved, and their daily life was transformed.

The status of women changed; they obtained rights equal to those of men, and in 1921 polygamy and kalim (bride money) were banned. These reforms were carried out despite the stubborn resistance of the feudal Muslim reaction. In 1927 alone, 203 terrorist acts were committed against female activists. The struggle for the emancipation of women was one of the most important tasks of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Uzbekistan in implementing the cultural revolution. In 1927 the party proclaimed a khudzhum, or offensive, against the parandzha (cloaklike garment) and the old way of life. A special commission on improving the life of working women was established under the Central Executive Committee of the Uzbek SSR. Uzbek women were drawn into social and political life in large numbers.

A Soviet Uzbek intelligentsia was formed during the prewar five-year plans. The Uzbek socialist nation took shape. The building of a socialist society was virtually completed in the Uzbek SSR, as it was throughout the country. As a result of the implementation of the Leninist nationalities policy, Uzbekistan leaped forward from feudalism to socialism, thereby bypassing the capitalist stage of development.

The Great Patriotic War of1941–45 and the subsequent years of the creation of a developed socialist society. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the economy of the republic was put on a wartime footing. Approximately 100 industrial enterprises were moved to Uzbekistan from the front-line regions (including 48 enterprises of heavy industry), along with dozens of military and civilian educational institutions, hospitals, and scientific institutions. Uzbekistan took in more than 1 million evacuees, including 200,000 children. Many large units of the Soviet Army were formed in Uzbekistan, including Uzbek national units. Approximately 1 million Uzbeks fought on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. About 280 were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and 120,000 were awarded orders and medals, with 32 being awarded the Order of Glory, First, Second, and Third Class.

Uzbekistan became an arsenal of the Soviet Army. By the middle of 1942, all plants that had been relocated to Uzbekistan were operating at full capacity. The working people of Uzbekistan donated 316 million rubles to the Defense Fund in 1943. Seven electric power plants were built during the war, including the powerful Farkhad Hydroelectric Power Plant; as a result, the production of electric power more than tripled. Approximately 280 new industrial enterprises were constructed, and the fixed production assets of industry nearly doubled. The first metallurgical plant in Uzbekistan began turning out steel in March 1944. Coal mining developed in the Angren coal deposit. Petroleum production reached 478,000 tons in 1945, a figure four times higher than that of 1940. The gross output of the chemical industry was five times higher than in 1940. Heavy industry, primarily machine building and metalworking, underwent considerable development; in 1943 it accounted for 49 percent of the total gross industrial product. The sowing of grain crops was expanded, and the cultivation of sugar beets was introduced. Ten large irrigation systems and a number of smaller ones were operating by 1944; the area of irrigated land increased by 545,700 ha. After the Great Patriotic War, cotton growing underwent extensive development.

Uzbekistan provided substantial assistance to the liberated western regions of the country in the form of agricultural and industrial products, equipment, and specialists. The republic became the location of 113 military hospitals. The wounded fighting men sent to them for medical treatment were provided with care and attention by the party, the Uzbek government, public health workers, and all the working people of the republic. More than 60,000 Uzbek working people were honored by the state for their feats of labor during the war years.

After the war, hundreds of new, modern plants, mines, factories, and oil fields, all supplied with the latest equipment, were established in the republic. In 1956, Uzbekistan produced twice as much electric power as all of tsarist Russia in 1913. The Golod-naia Steppe was opened up to agricultural development. In 1956, Uzbekistan delivered 2,857,000 tons of cotton to the state. The Uzbek SSR was awarded the Order of Lenin in that year for the second time in recognition of its successes in the development of agriculture. Uzbekistan has become a highly developed industrial and agricultural socialist republic. Together with all the peoples of the USSR, the working people of Uzbekistan, as members of a developed socialist society, are laboring to create a material and technical basis for communism.

The Uzbek national economy and culture continued to advance in the 1960’s and 1970’s. A large chemical industry is being created. During the postwar five-year plans, large gas pipelines running between Bukhara and the Urals and between Middle Asia and Central Russia went into service. The mechanization of agriculture has been increasing at a rapid rate. The extensive development of irrigation has played an enormous role in increasing cotton output.

On Jan. 1,1976, 803 citizens of the republic were awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the USSR, the republic was awarded the Order of Friendship of Peoples on Dec. 29,1972; on Oct. 21,1974, it was awarded the Order of the October Revolution to mark the 50th anniversary of the Uzbek SSR and the Communist Party of Uzbekistan.


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The Communist Party of Uzbekistan is a component part of the CPSU. The first Social Democratic circles and groups in Uzbekistan were created in 1904–05 in Tashkent, Samarkand, Kokand, Novyi Margelan (Fergana), and Chardzhui under the leadership of the banished Social Democrats A. R. Bakhirev, V. D. Korniushin, K. D. Litvishko, M. V. Morozov, and A. V. Khu-dash. RSDLP organizations from industrial regions of Russia and, in particular, the Baku Committee of the RSDLP played an important role in the creation of the first Social Democratic groups in Turkestan. During the Revolution of 1905–07, the Social Democratic committees in Turkestan conducted propaganda work among workers and soldiers and led strikes.

Table 3a. Membership in the Communist Party of Uzbekistan
Year1MembersCandidate membersTotal
1 As of January 2As of February
1925. . . . . . . . . .8,3518,21916,570
1929. . . . . . . . . .21,86014,23336,093
1932. . . . . . . . . .33,81834,67768,495
1941. . . . . . . . . .40,40231,66672,068
1945. . . . . . . . . .52,73329,77282,505
1949. . . . . . . . . .102,90630,012132,918
1959. . . . . . . . . .157,70615,398173,104
1961. . . . . . . . . .199,98223,955233,937
1967. . . . . . . . . .335,96917,872353,841
1970. . . . . . . . . .387,71524,606412,321
19762. . . . . . . . . .467,09021,960489,050
1978. . . . . . . . . .495,11823,232518,350

The First Turkestan Conference of the RSDLP, held in Tashkent in February 1906, united the Social Democrats of the region in the Union of Turkestan Organizations of the RSDLP. The Social Democrats of Turkestan maintained regular contact with the Central Committee of the RSDLP, and their representatives attended the Fourth Congress of the RSDLP (1906). The Social Democratic organizations were crushed during the reactionary years of 1907–10. The Bolsheviks conducted underground work, especially after the arrival of the Bolsheviks V. P. Vakhin, D. V. Poluian, V. N. Finkel’shtein, I. T. Fioletov, and N. V. Shumilov.

After the February Revolution of 1917, unified organizations of the RSDLP were established and recreated in the region. Outstanding party figures included the Bolsheviks E. A. Babushkin, V. P. Bilik, F. D. Dunaev, V. S. Liapin, A. A. Kazakov, P. G. Poltoratskii, A. F. Sol’kin, M. P. Sorokin, V. D. Figel’skii, and A. I. Frolov, as well as representatives of local nationalities, including A. Abdurashidov, A. Babadzhanov, Dzh. Kamalov, and N. Khalmukhamedov. During the period of preparation for the socialist revolution, the Bolshevik and Menshevik factions became

Table 3b. Congresses of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan
First. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 6–12,1925
Second. . . . . . . . . .Nov. 22–30,1925
Third. . . . . . . . . .Nov. 16–24,1927
Fourth. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 17–Mar.2,1929
Fifth. . . . . . . . . .June 4–13,1930
Sixth. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 10–17,1934
Seventh. . . . . . . . . .June 10–17,1937
Eighth. . . . . . . . . .July 1–9,1938
Ninth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 12–16,1940
Tenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 1–4,1949
Eleventh. . . . . . . . . .Sept. 20–23,1952
Twelfth. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 15–17,1954
Thirteenth. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 26–28,1956
Fourteenth Extraordinary. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 7–8,1959
Fifteenth. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 10–12,1960
Sixteenth. . . . . . . . . .Sept. 25–27,1961
Seventeenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 3–5,1966
Eighteenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 2–4,1971
Nineteenth. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 3–5,1976

separate organizations. Independent Bolshevik organizations ensured the preparation and victory of the October Revolution of 1917 in Turkestan.

At the first congress of the region’s Bolshevik organizations in June 1918 it was decided to found the Communist Party of Turkestan, which played a large role in the establishment of the Communist parties of Bukhara and Khorezm. The leaders of the Central Committee of the RCP(B), the Turkestan Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, the Turkestan Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP(B), and the Middle Asian Bureau of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) played a significant part in the consolidation of Communist organizations in Middle Asia. V. V. Kuibyshev, Ia. E. Rudzutak, M. V. Frunze, Sh. Z. Eliava, and the local workers Iu. Akhunbabaev, A. Ikra-mov, T. Ryskulov, N. Tiuriakulov, and F. Khodzhaev accomplished a good deal for the party in Turkestan.

In connection with the national-state demarcation of the Soviet republics of Middle Asia, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP(B) adopted a resolution in 1924 to reorganize the Communist parties of Turkestan, Bukhara, and Khorezm as the Communist parties of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and the oblast party organizations of Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia, and Kara-Kalpakia. The organizational bureau of the CP(B) of Uzbekistan, which was created in October 1924, laid the groundwork for the constituent congress of the CP(B) of Uzbekistan; the congress, held Feb. 6–12, 1925, in Bukhara, formalized the creation of the party. The CP(B) of Uzbekistan was ideologically and organizationally strengthened in the struggle against Trotskyism and national deviationism and for the victory of the principles of proletarian internationalism. The resolution of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) of May 25, 1929, on the activity of the party organization of Uzbekistan was important in improving the work of the CP(B) of Uzbekistan.

The CP(B) of Uzbekistan mobilized the toiling masses for the consolidation of Soviet power, the struggle against the Basmachis and local feudal lords, the implementation of socialist industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution. The Communists of Uzbekistan made great efforts to emancipate Uzbek women, encouraging them to work and take part in public life.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the CP(B) of Uzbekistan conducted intensive economic, organizational, and political work to mobilize all the economic and human resources of Uzbekistan and defeat the fascist German aggressors. Approximately 50 percent of the members of the CP(B) of Uzbekistan went off to the front. The CP(B) of Uzbekistan devoted particular attention to the immediate operation of industrial enterprises evacuated from the frontline regions. Another important task was the quartering of more than 1 million people evacuated from the western USSR, including approximately 200,000 children.

After the victorious conclusion of the war, the CP(B) of Uzbekistan shifted the republic to a peacetime economy and made plans for its further development. The party carried out a series of measures to help normalize the economy of the regions of the USSR devastated by the fascist occupiers. The Communist Party of Uzbekistan led the working people of the republic in a struggle to complete the building of socialism and create a fully developed socialist society. The working people of the republic, led by the party, won significant victories in their campaigns to develop productive forces and raise the standard of living. These successes were examples of the practical realization of the Leninist national policy of the CPSU. The party improved its work methods and increased its role in all areas of communist construction.

Work to increase party membership has improved substantially. In February 1976 the Communist Party of Uzbekistan had more than 489,050 members, more than 73 percent of whom worked in the sphere of material production; representatives of the working class and kolkhozniks made up 61.9 percent. In 1976 there were 12 oblast committees, 26 city committees, nine city raion committees, and 134 rural raion committees. There were seven party committees with the rights of raion committees of the party and more than 15,800 local party organizations. The party includes representatives of approximately 90 nationalities and ethnic groups living in Uzbekistan. Organizationally and ideologically firm, united around the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Communist Party of Uzbekistan ensures the successful fulfillment of the tasks of communist construction.


KPSS i Sovetskoe provitel’stvo ob Uzbekistane: Sb. dokumentov (1925–1970 gg.). Tashkent, 1972.
Kommunisticheskaia partiia Uzbekistana v rezoliutsiiakh i postanovleniiakh s”ezdov, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1968.
Kommunisticheskaia partiia Turkestana i Uzbekistana v tsifrakh. (Sb. statisticheskikh materialov). 1918–1967gg. Tashkent, 1968.
Ocherki istorii Kommunisticheskoi partii Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1974.
Velikaia sila druzhby narodov: Sb. st. Tashkent, 1973.
Dal’neishee ideino-organizatsionnoe ukreplenie Kompartii Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1976.


The Lenin Komsomol of Uzbekistan is a constituent part of the All-Union Lenin Komsomol. The first revolutionary leagues of working youth of Uzbekistan were established ia 1917–18 in Tashkent, Samarkand, Kokand, and Andizhan by Bolshevik organizations. In April 1919 the Socialist League of Working Youth of Tashkent was renamed the Communist Youth League, and its charter was adopted. The first Communist youth groups were organized with the assistance of the Central Committee of the RCP(B), the Central Committee of the Russian Komsomol, and the krai committee of the Communist Party of Turkestan. The Communist Youth League of Turkestan was created in January 1920 at the first congress of Komsomol organizations of Turkestan in Tashkent. The first constituent congress of the Komsomol of Uzbekistan was held in Samarkand on Apr. 5–8,1925, in conjunction with the formation of the Uzbek SSR in 1924.

Table 4a. Membership in the Komsomol of Uzbekistan
1As of January 2As of February
1925. . . . . . . . . .30,201
1932. . . . . . . . . .175,000
1940. . . . . . . . . .387,895
1956. . . . . . . . . .580,833
1970. . . . . . . . . .990,279
19762. . . . . . . . . .1,630,000
1978. . . . . . . . . .1,917,408

The Komsomol members of Uzbekistan fought for Soviet power during the Civil War and struggled against the Basmachis. They assisted the party in strengthening the organs of Soviet power, carrying out land and water reforms, wiping out illiteracy, and emancipating women; in 1928 alone, more than 800 Uzbek girls were sent by the Uzbekistan Komsomol for training in tech-nicums and specialized schools.

In 1925, 6,690 of the 11,430 industrial workers of Uzbekistan were Komsomol members. The Komsomol of Uzbekistan was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor of the Uzbek SSR in 1928 for its successful work in socialist construction. During the first five-year plans, Komsomol members took part in industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture, and the implementation of the cultural revolution.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), 221,500 persons-more than half the Komsomol members of Uzbekistan—were mobilized into the Soviet Army. The title Hero of the Soviet Union was conferred upon the Komsomol members Dzh. Kara-kulov, K. Pulatov, E. Stempkovskaia, K. Suiunov, M. Tapy-valdyev, and V. Shalandin, among others. During the war, 190,000 people joined the Komsomol and more than 14,000 Komsomol members of Uzbekistan became party members. In 1944, 7,357 frontline youth brigades and units for cotton cultivation worked in the fields. Komsomol members headed 1,275 kolkhozes.

During the postwar years, the Komsomol of Uzbekistan participated in the construction of all large-scale industrial projects and in the development of agriculture. In 1949, 20,000 young men and women went off to develop the Golodnaia Steppe. In the ninth five-year plan (1971–75), the Komsomol of Uzbekistan was the sponsor of 15 all-Union and republic Komsomol shock building projects in Uzbekistan, including the Bukhara cotton combine, the Middle Asia-Center and Bukhara-Urals gas pipelines, the Tashkent subway, and the Andizhan and Tuiamuiun reservoirs. Since 1959 the Komsomol of Uzbekistan has sponsored the introduction of comprehensive mechanization in cotton growing.

Table 4b. Congresses of the Komsomol of Uzbekistan
First. . . . . . . . . .Apr. 5–8,1925
Second. . . . . . . . . .Feb.25-Mar.3,1926
Third. . . . . . . . . .Apr. 6–12,1928
Fourth. . . . . . . . . .May25-June2,1929
Fifth. . . . . . . . . .Dec. 3–11,1930
Sixth. . . . . . . . . .May26-June1,1932
Seventh. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 16–23,1936
Eighth. . . . . . . . . .Oct. 20–28,1937
Ninth. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 13–21,1939
Tenth. . . . . . . . . .Dec. 26–29,1940
Eleventh. . . . . . . . . .Jan.30-Feb.3,1947
Twelfth. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 10–12,1949
Thirteenth. . . . . . . . . .Feb. 26–27,1952
Fourteenth. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 23,1954
Fifteenth. . . . . . . . . .Jan. 20–23,1956
Sixteenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 3,1958
Seventeenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 28,1962
Eighteenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 15–16,1966
Nineteenth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 3–4,1970
Twentieth. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 1,1974
Twenty-first. . . . . . . . . .Mar. 3–4,1978

The Komsomol works extensively toward the communist education of young people. Between 1971 and 1974, in the course of the Leninist examination Carry Out the Resolutions of the Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU!, 2 million young people passed examinations in civic maturity. Student construction detachments have become an important form of labor education for young people. Between 1964 and 1974 they consisted of 122,000 people, who put into operation 125 million rubles worth of capital investments. The Komsomol members of Uzbekistan are united in 12 oblast organizations, 165 city and rural raion organizations, and 19,042 local organizations. The Komsomol of Uzbekistan was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1975 for its active role in communist construction.


Komsomol Uzbekistana ots”ezda k s”ezdu. Tashkent, 1974.
lunost’ moia, komsomol!: Ocherki istorii komsomola Uzbekistana.
Tashkent, 1969. Khamidkhodzhaev, A. Ocherki istorii komsomola Srednei Azii. Tashkent, 1968.


The trade unions of Uzbekistan are a constituent part of the trade unions of the USSR. The first trade unions in Turkestan, in what is now Uzbekistan, were created during the Revolution of 1905–07 by the railroad workers of Turkestan. After the defeat of the revolution, these unions were liquidated. They were reestablished in February 1917. Trade unions were organized on a large scale after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917. During the Civil War (1918–20) the trade unions of Uzbekistan helped mobilize workers for the struggle against the White Guards and the Basmachis. They also helped form Red Army units and volunteer detachments. The Constituent Congress of Trade Unions of Uzbekistan was held in Tashkent on Mar. 21, 1925. By this time, the unions included more than 90,000 industrial and nonindustrial workers, small handicraftsmen, and farm laborers.

During the years of socialist construction, the trade unions of Uzbekistan, under the guidance of party organizations, helped carry out socialist transformations, the industrialization of the country, the collectivization of agriculture, and the cultural revolution. The trade unions made great progress in training and educating national cadres of the working class and the intelligentsia. They also contributed to the emancipation of Uzbek women, involving them in social production and state administration. The trade unions organized socialist competition, the shock worker movement, and the Stakhanovite movement.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), the trade unions of Uzbekistan played an important role in shifting the republic to a wartime economy, expanding military production, receiving and putting into operation the industrial enterprises evacuated to Uzbekistan, and settling evacuated Soviet people.

During the postwar period, the trade unions helped develop the economy and culture of the republic and encouraged socialist competition and a communist attitude toward labor. They struggled to raise labor productivity by organizing campaigns for innovation in production. They exercised state and social control over the protection of labor, safety measures, and the observance of labor legislation. The trade unions continue to demonstrate their concern for the improvement of work and leisure conditions for industrial, nonindustrial, and agricultural workers and accomplish a great deal for the communist education of the working people.

Approximately 89 percent of the industrial and office workers of Uzbekistan took part in socialist competition as of Jan. 1, 1975. Approximately 182,000 people, including more than 133,000 industrial workers, took part in 5,167 permanent conferences on production. More than 110,000 industrial workers, engineers, technicians, and office workers of the republic are members of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators. The Uzbek Republic Council of Trade Unions was elected in November 1948 at the first inter-union conference. In 1976 there were more than 3.6 million trade union members, belonging to 19 specialized unions. On Jan. 1,1976, the trade unions of the republic had 743 clubs and houses and palaces of culture, 950 libraries, 1,361 permanent film projection units, 11,402 recreation and reading rooms, 262 people’s universities, 9,357 amateur artistic groups, and six voluntary sports societies. The budget for state social insurance exceeded 500 million rubles in 1974.

The trade unions of Uzbekistan maintain ties with the trade union organizations of a number of foreign countries.


Gentshke, L. V. Istoricheskii opyt uchastiia profsoiuzov Uzbekistana v sotsialisticheskom stroitel’stve. Tashkent, 1966.
Professional’nye soiuzy Uzbekistana v tsifrakh (1961–1970 gg.). Tashkent, 1972.
Sovet dävläti fäoliyätidä käsäbä soyuzlärining ishtiroki. Tashkent, 1973.


Overview. Modern Uzbekistan is a republic whose economy comprises many branches of industry, as well as a highly developed agricultural sector. In 1974, 67.4 percent of the gross social product was provided by industry and construction, 22.8 percent by agriculture, 3.1 percent by transportation and communications, and 6.7 percent by trade, procurement, and material and technical supply. Capital investment totaled 45.8 billion rubles

Table 5. Growth of industrial output (1940 = 1)
Industry as a whole. . . . . . . . . .
Electric power generation. . . . . . . . . .6.34070126
Fuel production. . . . . . . . . .7.7375886
Machine building and metalworking. . . . . . . . . .6.76191161
Building materials. . . . . . . . . .1.6193452
Light industry. . . . . . . . . .
Food processing. . . . . . . . . .

during the period 1924–74. Light industry and the food-processing industry are well developed in the republic, and heavy industry is growing. Uzbekistan is the greatest cotton producer in the USSR, and its sericulture, fruit growing, viticulture, vegetable growing, and breeding of Karakul sheep are of countrywide importance.

Uzbekistan ranks first in the USSR in the production of cotton fiber, raw silk, kenaf stems, karakul, mechanical cotton harvesters, cotton gins, tractor-propelled cotton planters, cotton-processing equipment, and roving frames; it is second in output of spinning frames, third in electric bridge cranes, cotton and silk fabrics, vegetable oil, rice, and vegetables, and fourth in natural gas.

A number of large production complexes, each involving more than one sector of the economy, have been built in Uzbekistan. The cotton complex, for example, involves land cultivation, livestock raising, and processing operations. There are also complexes for construction and the production of building materials, nonferrous metallurgy, fuel production, electrical energy production, chemical production, machine building and metalworking, and the production of consumer goods and food products. The development of these complexes has promoted specialization of production and a more rational distribution of the productive forces of the republic.

Uzbekistan has established economic ties with all the Union republics, but ties are especially close with Kazakhstan, the republics of Middle Asia, and regions of Siberia. Goods obtained from other Union republics include ferrous metals, petroleum products, machinery and equipment, timber, chemical fertilizer, grain, and consumer goods. In turn, Uzbekistan supplies other regions with gold, nonferrous metals, machines, equipment, natural gas, marble, cotton fiber, raw silk, wool, karakul, fabrics, vegetable oil, vegetables, fruits, and grapes. The products of Uzbekistan are exported to many countries.

Industry. In 1975, total industrial output was 61 times higher than in 1913 and 13 times higher than in 1940. During the years 1941–75, labor productivity in industry grew by a factor of 3.9. As of Jan. 1,1976, the distribution of fixed assets among the various industries, expressed as percentages of total fixed assets, was as follows: electric power generation, 20.6; fuel production, 8.7; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, 8.9; chemical production (including petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals), 11.3; machine building and metalworking, 15.1; production of building materials, 10.7; light industry, 10.1; and food processing, 7.3. The growth in industrial production by branch is given in Table 5; output of the principal industrial products is summarized in Table 6.

There have been fundamental changes in the territorial distribution of production. While in 1913 approximately 70 percent of all industrial enterprises were located in the Fergana Valley, today Tashkent and Tashkent Oblast make up the main industrial region. Great industrial centers have also been created in Samarkand and Bukhara oblasts, and enterprises have been constructed in the southern part of the republic and along the lower

Table 6. Output of the principal industrial goods
Electric energy (billion kW-hrs). . . . . . . . . .0.0030.52.75.918.333.6
Oil (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .13.21191,3421,6031,8051,352
Gas (million cum). . . . . . . . . .0.752.244732,09437,21 1
Coal (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .3.41,4753,4103,7475,263
Steel (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .11.4119297389409.0
Rolled stock, ferrous metals (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .76192321.8354.8
Chemical fertilizers (standard units, thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .1.65221,1214,0916,132
Trailers, tractor-drawn (thousand). . . . . . . . . .6.438.534.9
Tractors (thousand). . . . . . . . . .821.123.0
Cotton harvesters, mechanical. . . . . . . . . .54,6413,1845,9217,572
Cotton planters, tractor-drawn (thousand). . . . . . . . . .
Cultivators, tractor-drawn (thousand). . . . . . . . . ._1.97.810.020.123.7
Compressors. . . . . . . . . .5436962,4485,458
Spinning frames. . . . . . . . . .8704198111,460
Roving frames. . . . . . . . . .382786457710
Excavators. . . . . . . . . .1347001,0251,382
Bridge cranes, electric. . . . . . . . . .1996708711,247
Rotary pumps (thousand). . . . . . . . . .1.35.41211
Armored cable (thousand). . . . . . . . . .261418.7
Gas stoves (thousand). . . . . . . . . .42.5282.1283.6
Refrigerators, household (thousand). . . . . . . . . .6.557.2103
Cement (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .2673561,1903,1963,536
Reinforced-concrete structural units (thousand cum). . . . . . . . . .5392,8713,899
Building bricks (million). . . . . . . . . .773023081,2091,5301,723
Cotton fibre (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .1785346501,0641,3841,659
Raw silk (tons). . . . . . . . . .6937628561,1721,399
Cotton fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .107161235210223
Silk fabrics (million m). . . . . . . . . .59245094
Hosiery (million pairs). . . . . . . . . .8.67.817.030.136.6
Knitwear (million pieces). . . . . . . . . .
Leather footwear (million pairs). . . . . . . . . .3.84.411.418.425.0
Meat, including first-category by-products (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .27319794147
Animal fats (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .
Vegetable oil (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .65142152258294431
Canned goods (million standard cans). . . . . . . . . .0.23973178334538
Grape wine (million decaliters). . . . . . . . . .

course of the Amu Darya. Heavy industry figures prominently.

Electric power generation has been growing at a rapid rate. In 1913 there were six electric power plants, with a total capacity of 3 megawatts (MW). The first hydroelectric plant, Bozsu (near Tashkent), went into operation in 1926; there was large-scale construction of hydroelectric plants during the early five-year plans, especially in Tashkent Oblast, where the Chirchik-Bozsu Hydroelectric System was built. Thermal power plants were also built, the largest being the Kuvasai State Regional Electric Power Plant (capacity 36 MW) and the Tashkent District Heat and Power Plant (43.5 MW). The Farkhad Hydroelectric Power Plant (126 MW), situated on the Syr Darya, went into operation in 1948. The Tashkent State Regional Electric Power Plant, now operating at full capacity (1,920 MW), began providing power in 1963. Other electric power plants that have been built in the republic include the Angren (612 MW), Navoi (830 MW), and Takhiatash state regional electric power plants and the Charvak Hydroelectric Power Plant (600 MW). Construction of the Syr Darya State Regional Electric Power Plant (rated capacity, 4,400 MW) is proceeding at an accelerated rate, and the first four units are already providing power. The total installed capacity of Uzbekistan’s power plants reached 6.7 gigawatts in 1975. The importance of thermal power plants, fueled for the most part by natural gas, in the generation of electric power is rapidly growing, while the proportion of power produced by hydroelectric plants is declining. In 1960, 54 percent of the electric power came from hydroelectric plants, but in 1975 the figure was 8 percent. limestone, sulfur, tailings from nonferrous metallurgy, and byproducts from the processing of raw cotton. Much work has been done on building up the production of mineral fertilizers for the cotton-growing industry. Important enterprises here are the Chirchik Electrochemical Combine (nitrogen fertilizers), the Kokand and Samarkand superphosphate plants, the Fergana Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant, the Almalyk Ammonium Phosphate Plant, and the Navoi Chemical Combine. Uzbekistan is fourth in the USSR (after the RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, and Byelorussian SSR) in the production of mineral fertilizers. The republic also has enterprises for chemical hydrolysis (Andizhan, Fergana, Iangiiu’), and there are plants for the production of chemical fibers and filaments (Fergana), paints and varnishes (Tashkent), plastic articles (Tashkent, Akhangaran, Dzhizak), and rubber footwear.

A diversified machine-building industry has taken shape in Uzbekistan. Growth rates here regularly outstrip those for industry as a whole in the republic. Enterprises number approximately 230. The industry concerns itself mainly with equipment used in the growing and processsing of cotton. Agricultural machine building is represented by the Tashsel’mash, Uzbeksel’mash, Chirchiksel’mash, and Tashkent tractor plants and by the Tashkhimsel’mash plant. Electrical equipment is produced by the Tashkentkabel’ plant, the Tashkent Electrical Equipment Plant, the Tashelektromash and Kokandelektromash plants, the Elektroapparat and Elektrodvigatel’ plants (both in Andizhan), and the Chirchik and Namangan transformer plants.

Table 7. Sown areas (hectares)
Total for all crops. . . . . . . . . .2,188,7003,036,5002,803,7003,038,3003,476,0003,722,600
Grain crops. . . . . . . . . .1,539,4001,479,7001,102,000894,8001,159,8001,123,800
wheat. . . . . . . . . .932,2001,012,300782,700512,400663,600513,800
rice. . . . . . . . . .161,10083,10052,80031,20063,30066,000
corn for grain. . . . . . . . . .38,20017,30025,10030,80024,60093,600
Industrial crops. . . . . . . . . .441,6001,022,6001,231,7001,427,9001,740,6001,799,900
cotton. . . . . . . . . .424,600923,5001,098,1001,386,6001,709,2001,772,900
kenaf and jute. . . . . . . . . .9,70018,20019,90021,20015,700
tobacco. . . . . . . . . .2,7005,7005,6007,7009,100
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . .6,50023,50016,20028,10021,20025,300
Vegetables, melons, and gourds. . . . . . . . . .35,10063,80044,80080,800102,600137,200
Feed crops. . . . . . . . . .163,300446,900409,000606,700451,800636,400

Gas constitutes more than 70 percent of the republic’s energy resources. The main regions for the gas industry are Bukhara (28.9 billion cu m in 1975) and Kashkadar’ia (7.7 billion cu m) oblasts. Gazli, the site of one of the largest deposits in the country, is in Bukhara Oblast; other important areas are Fergana, Surkhandar’ia, and Andizhan oblasts. The gas is transported through a system of pipelines.

The main oil regions of Uzbekistan are the Fergana Valley and Bukhara Oblast. Fergana crude oil is light and has a high content of paraffin, benzine, and lube cut; refining is done at the Fergana and Altyaryk plants. Oil is also produced in the south of Uzbekistan in the basins of the Surkhandar’ia and Kashkadar’ia. Coal was first mined on a commercial scale during the Great Patriotic War of 1941^45. The industry was based on the deposits of lignite at Angren, where thick seams could be worked through surface mining. At present, the industry has an experimental underground coal gasification plant in operation. Extraction of coal from the Shargun’ anthracite deposits in Surkhandar’ia Oblast began in the 1950’s.

Ferrous metallurgy is represented by the Uzbek Metallurgical Plant (Bekabad), which uses scrap metal to produce steel and rolled stock. Nonferrous metallurgy, one of the republic’s leading branches of industry, is of all-Union importance. Among the larger enterprises are the Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Combine, the Uzbek Refractory and Heat-resistant Metals Combine (Chirchik), and the Uzbekzoloto Combine. Various ores of nonferrous metals are mined in the republic; concentrates, metals, and nonferrous rolled stock are also produced.

In the late 1960’s, Uzbekistan developed an important chemical industry. The industry uses natural gas, petroleum, coal,

Among the enterprises producing household appliances and equipment for light industry and food processing are the Tashtek-stil’mash and Kokandtekstil’mash plants, the Tashkent Machine-building Plant, the Andizhan Kommunar plant, the Katta-kurgankhlopkomash and Samarkandkhlopkomash plants, and the Tashkent and Samarkand refrigerator plants. Production of machine tools is undergoing development, as is the manufacture of transportation equipment (plants for aircraft production and repair of diesel locomotives in Tashkent). Other divisions of machine building currently under development are instrumentation and the production of road-building equipment and municipal maintenance machinery (Tashkent Excavator Plant, Andizhan Machine-building Plant, Andizhanirmash plant, Samarkand Elevator Plant).

The building-materials industry, which uses local raw materials, produces cement, brick, lime, asbestos-cement pipes, shingles, ceramic products, wall materials, reinforced-concrete members and units, plastic articles, mineral wool, and materials used in sanitary-engineering facilities. Most of the enterprises are in Bekabad, Kuvasai, Angren, Akhangaran, Navoi, and Tashkent.

Light industry in Uzbekistan deals mainly with cotton processing and the production of textiles, clothing (including knitwear), and leather footwear. More than 100 cotton-processing enterprises are located in areas where the cotton is grown; the largest enterprises are the Iangiiul’, Andizhan, Tashlak, Bukhara, and Kattakurgan plants. Bast crops are subjected to preliminary processing in the Chirchik valley. Large textile enterprises include the Tashkent and Fergana textile combines, the Kokand Hosiery-spinning Combine, and the Namangan Silk Fabric Combine. The first stage of the large cotton combine in Bukhara went into operation in 1973. The production of nonwoven materials

Table 8. Areas used for grapes, berries, and other fruits (hectares)
Berries and other fruits. . . . . . . . . .32,50067,000109,800185,400192,100
Vineyards. . . . . . . . . .27,40028,00027,40042,90056,00062,200

organized in Uzbekistan is experiencing rapid growth. The Mar-gilan Combine is among the silk industry’s most important enterprises. There are leather plants in Kokand and Fergana.

The food-processing industry produces vegetable oil, animal fats, butter, cheese, milk, meat, wine, fruits, and vegetables. The division specializing in vegetable oil and animal fats supplied 12.9 percent of the country’s vegetable oil in 1975. The largest enterprises of this division are located in Fergana, Andizhan, Katta-kurgan, Iangiiul’, Leninsk, Kokand, and Namangan. The republic’s canneries provide a significant portion of the country’s total output of canned goods. Large canneries and fruit-processing enterprises have been built in Tashkent, Samarkand, Iangiiul’, Fergana, Namangan, Andizhan, and Shakhrisabz. Muinak is the site of a fish combine. In all, there are 21 wineries (Tashkent, Samarkand, Kitab) and an enterprise producing champagne (Tashkent).

Agriculture. During the years of Soviet power, agriculture has been placed on a highly mechanized, intensive basis. The total area of land used by agricultural enterprises and farms in 1975 was 32.5 million hectares (ha); of this total, 25.5 million ha were used in farming per se, including 3.8 million ha for crop cultivation, 21.4 million ha for hayfields and pastureland, and more than 200,000 ha for orchards, vineyards, and other perennials.

At the end of 1975 there were 572 sovkhozes and 953 kolkhozes. Equipment in use that year in agriculture included 148,000 tractors (23,000 in 1940), 28,700 mechanical cotton harvesters, 6,800 combine harvesters, and 46,100 trucks (5,900 in 1940). The total capacity of the equipment was 16,818,000 horsepower. Consumption of electric energy in agriculture rose from 869 million kilowatt-hours (kW-hrs) in 1965 to 3,847 million kW-hrs in 1975. The use of chemicals in agriculture is increasing. Deliveries of mineral fertilizers to agriculture rose from 2,548,000 tons in 1965 to 4,375,000 tons in 1975; over the same period, deliveries of fodder phosphate rose from 2,200 tons to 9,000 tons. A total of 16.1 billion rubles was spent on improving the material and technical base of agriculture during the period 1924–75, with 7.2 billion rubles of this total going to construction for water use management. Crop cultivation accounted for 75 percent of total agricultural output in 1975; animal husbandry contributed 25 percent.

Since agriculture in the republic is based on irrigation, much attention has been devoted to construction projects for water use management. During the years of Soviet power, new structures have been added to the irrigation system, and old structures have been rebuilt. The largest canals are the U. lusupov Bol’shoi Fergana Canal and the Amu-Bukhara, Eskiankhor, Severnaia Fergana, Iuzhnaia Golodnaia Steppe, Great Andizhan, Kirov, Lenin, and Karshi canals. Reservoirs include the Kattakurgan, Iuzhnyi Surkhan, Chimkurgan, Kuiumazar, Pachkamar, Tiuia-buguz, and Charvak. Uzbekistan has 22 percent of the country’s irrigated land, with 2,915,000 ha irrigated on kolkhozes, sovkhozes, and other state farms in 1974. In that year, the area irrigated through mechanical water-lifting exceeded 700,000 ha. The total area under cultivation was more than 1.5 million ha greater in 1975 than in 1913 (see Table 7). The structure of crop cultivation has also changed. While in 1913 grain crops occupied 70 percent of the sown area, in 1975 they occupied only 30.2 percent; during this same period, the share of industrial crops rose from 20.2 percent to 48.4 percent.

Cotton growing is the specialty of agriculture. Uzbekistan accounted for more than 64 percent of the country’s total harvest of raw cotton in 1975. The harvest in the republic averaged 3,982,000 tons during the years 1966–70 and 4,895,000 tons during the period 1971–75. An increase to 6.5–7 million tons is foreseen. The yield of cotton rose from 12.2 centners per ha in 1913 to 28.3 centners per ha in 1975. Cotton is planted mainly in the Fergana, Chirchik-Akhangaran, Zeravshan, and Surkhandar’ia valleys. Large cotton-growing regions have been developed in the Golodnaia Steppe, along the lower course of the Amu Darya, in the Surkhan-Sherabad steppe, and in the central part of the Fergana Valley. Work is under way to open up the Karshi Steppe.

Uzbekistan’s other industrial crops include kenaf (100 percent of the country’s crop in 1975), produced in Tashkent Oblast; tobacco, grown mainly in the vicinity of Urgut, in Samarkand Oblast; and sugarcane, grown near Denau, in Surkhandar’ia Oblast. The grain crops sown on nonirrigated lands (in Samarkand, Kashkadar’ia, Dzhizak, and other oblasts) are wheat and barley; those grown on irrigated land are rice (more than 14 percent of the country’s harvest), Indian corn, and Sorghum cernuum. The lower course of the Amu Darya has become a major rice-growing region. Kalinin, Ordzhonikidze, and Bostanlyk raions of Tashkent Oblast and Samarkand Raion of Samarkand Oblast specialize in vegetables, melons, and gourds. Approximately 60 percent of the orchards and vineyards of Middle Asia are in Uzbekistan. (The area used for growing berries, grapes, and other fruits is given in Table 8.) Apricots, peaches, apples, pears, cherries, pomegranates, figs, almonds, and various varieties of grapes (the ak-kishmish, kara-kishmish, Charas, and Khusaine) are cultivated. The major fruit-growing regions are the Fergana, Zeravshan, Chirchik, and Akhangaran valleys. (The harvests of the major agricultural crops are given in Table 9.)

Animal husbandry in Uzbekistan is geared toward the breeding of Karakul sheep. The republic is fifth in the country in sheep population (after the RSFSR, Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, and Ukrainian SSR), and it provides more than one-third of all karakul produced in the country. The sheep are pastured in desert and semidesert areas. Cattle are raised for meat, and sheep and goats for meat and tallow in the foothills and mountainous regions of the nonirrigated agricultural zone. In the irrigated zone, there is poultry farming, swine breeding, and the raising of sheep

Table 9. Harvests of the principal agricultural crops (tons)
Raw cotton. . . . . . . . . .517,0001,386,0002,226,0002,824,0004,495,0005,013,000
Grain crops. . . . . . . . . .1,019,000601,000425,000704,000980,0001,079,000
wheat. . . . . . . . . .513,000272,000190,000327,000409,000123,000
rice. . . . . . . . . .210,000126,00062,00058,000185,000291,000
corn for grain. . . . . . . . . .39,00034,00059,00071,00067,000504,000
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . .46,000113,000111,000163,000180,000214,000
Vegetables. . . . . . . . . .129,000311,000162,000377,000781,0001,412,000
Melons and edible gourds. . . . . . . . . .183,000324,000146,000264,000549,000786,000
Fruits and berries. . . . . . . . . .79,000136,000207,000100,000406,000642,000
Grapes. . . . . . . . . .138,000130,00084,000186,000290,000373,000
Table 10. Livestock population1
1 Figures given are for the beginning of each year
Cattle. . . . . . . . . .1,364,0001,672,3001,275,9002,231,7002,906,6003,218,400
cows. . . . . . . . . .489,000621,600397,400873,9001,139,7001,214,000
Swine. . . . . . . . . .4,000102,40059,500387,300296,400305,400
Sheep and goats. . . . . . . . . .4,259,0005,792,0006,673,0008,901,0007,977,7008,234,500
Karakul sheep. . . . . . . . . .3,222,0002,713,0003,326,2005,868,9005,072,1004,960,100

for meat and tallow, as well as the raising of cattle for meat and dairy products. Horses and camels are also bred. (Table 10 gives the republic’s livestock population.)

Sericulture is one of the oldest branches of agriculture in Uzbekistan. All sovkhozes and kolkhozes specializing in cotton growing also engage in sericulture. Uzbekistan accounts for more than 58 percent of all the cocoons produced in the USSR. In recent times, high-quality strains of mulberry trees and new breeds of silkworms have been developed. (The output of the main products of livestock raising is given in Table 11.)

Fur farming is expanding along the lower course of the Amu Darya. Animals include the muskrat, silver fox, blue arctic fox, and mink.

The trend is toward greater specialization and concentration of production in all branches of livestock raising. Complexes for milk production have been constructed, as have facilities for the fattening of cattle and swine. Great importance is attached to improvements in breeding.

Data on state purchases of agricultural products are presented in Table 12.

Transportation. Uzbekistan has a well-developed transportation network. Railroads account for 80 percent of the freight turnover of the republic. The length of the railroad lines tripled during the period 1913–75, reaching 3,400 km, or 7.6 km per 1,000 sq km. Diesel engines supply the traction; the Tashkent operating division, however, is electrified. During the years of Soviet power, the following lines have been built: Fergana-Kyzyl-Kiia, Uchkurgan–Tash-Kumyr, Andizhan–Tentiaksai, Assake–Shakhrikhan, Amudar’inskaia (formerly Samsonovo)–Termez-Denau, Karshi–Kitab, Tashkent–Angren, Tashkent–Charvak, Chardzhou–Kungrad, Syrdar’inskaia–Dzhizak, Samarkand–Karshi, Navoi–Uchkuduk, and Takhiatash–Nukus. The republics of Middle Asia acquired a second outlet to the Caucasus and European part of the USSR when the Kungrad-Beineu line was put into service in 1972.

Over the years 1913–75, the volume of freight transported by railroad rose by a factor of almost 56, and the number of passengers grew by a factor of 6.4; freight turnover rose by a factor of 136, and the volume of passenger traffic rose by a factor of nearly 3.2.

As of 1975, Uzbekistan had 30,100 km of roads; 27,600 km of these roads were paved. The principal highways are the Tashkent–Termez (Great Uzbek Highway), Tashkent–Bukhara–Nukus–Muinak, and Tashkent–Angren–Kokand routes and the Fergana Ring, which links the cities of the Fergana Valley. A circular road has been built in the Kyzylkum. The freight turnover of automotive transport reached 13,563 million ton-km in 1975 (148 million in 1940), while the volume of passenger traffic was 11,504 million passenger-km (70 million in 1940).

There is navigation along the Amu Darya and on the Aral Sea. Pipelines play an important role in the transportation network. The major gas pipelines are the Middle Asia-Central Zone, Bukhara–Urals, and Bukhara–Tashkent–Frunze–Alma–Ata lines. Air transport is well developed, with routes linking Tashkent with Moscow, Leningrad, the capitals of the Union republics, industrial centers of the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East, and health resorts in the Crimea and Caucasus. Within the republic, there are routes linking Tashkent with oblast administrative centers and many other cities and settlements. Tashkent’s international airport has great importance because of the routes passing through it that link Moscow and a number of European capitals with the countries of Southeast Asia. In 1975, 52,000 tons of freight and 4.3 million passengers were transported by air.

Economic regions. The Tashkent region (Tashkent, Syr Darya, and Dzhizak oblasts), with 9.2 percent of the republic’s territory and 29.7 percent of the population, is the most highly developed industrial area. Agriculture here is highly intensive. This region provides more than 40 percent of the republic’s gross industrial output and approximately 22 percent of the gross agricultural output. Heavy industry accounts for nearly two-thirds of the industrial product. The Tashkent region is the republic’s principal area for coal mining (Angren), extraction of nonferrous metals, nonferrous (Almalyk, Chirchik) and ferrous (Bekabad) metallurgy, machine building (Tashkent, Chirchik), chemical production (Tashkent, Chirchik), production of building materials (Tashkent, Akhangaran, Angren, Chirchik), light industry, and food processing. There is also cotton growing, kenaf cultivation, fruit growing, viticulture, sericulture, livestock raising (for meat and dairy products), market gardening of vegetables, melons, and gourds, and dry farming of grain crops. Areas recently opened up to agriculture include the Golodnaia, Dzhizak, and Farish steppes—large cotton-growing regions with the most modern structures for water use management.

The Fergana region (Fergana, Andizhan, and Namangan oblasts), with 4.3 percent of the territory and 27.5 percent of the population, is the most densely populated area of the republic. It is the main region for cotton growing (31.1 percent of Uzbekistan’s harvest of raw cotton) and sericulture (47.1 percent of the cocoons), and there are large vineyards and orchards. The region’s other economic activities include the processing of agricultural products (Kokand, Margilan, Fergana, Andizhan, Namangan), machine building (Andizhan), chemical production (Kokand, Fergana), production of building materials (Kuvasai), oil drilling (near Andizhan and Fergana), and oil refining (Fergana and Altyaryk). The central part of the Fergana Valley has recently been reclaimed for agriculture.

The Samarkand–Karshi region (Samarkand and Kashkadar’ia oblasts) occupies 11.8 percent of the territory and has 18.3 percent of the population. Cotton growing here is highly developed, and fruit growing, viticulture, and sericulture are also important. There is tobacco growing and dry farming of grain crops in the foothills and mountainous regions, and Karakul sheep are raised in the steppes. Electrical equipment (Samarkand, Kattakurgan) and mineral fertilizers (Samarkand) are produced in this region, and there is also light industry and food processing (Samarkand, Karshi, Shakhrisabz, Kitab, Kattakurgan), production of building materials, and mining of nonferrous metals, marble, and

Table 11. Output of the main animal products
Meat (dressedweight thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .898257178208269
Milk (thousand tons). . . . . . . . . .2314513008471,3331,737
Eggs (million units). . . . . . . . . .92133954588601,279
Wool (thousand tons}. . . . . . . . . .5.96.811.723.422.024.2
Table 12. State purchases of agricultural products (tons)
Raw cotton. . . . . . . . . .1,386,0003,746,0004,495,0005,013,000
Kenaf andjute stems. . . . . . . . . .32,900245,100321,500241,300
Tobacco. . . . . . . . . .8009,70016,10024,700
Grains. . . . . . . . . .238,000211,000387,000536,000
rice. . . . . . . . . .52,80067,600131,600226,800
Potatoes. . . . . . . . . .21,00058,00063,00097,000
Vegetables. . . . . . . . . .70,000352,000614,0001,021,000
Melons (including Citrullus). . . . . . . . . .14,500166,000260,800522,000
Fruits and berries. . . . . . . . . .17,00049,00093,000232,000
Grapes. . . . . . . . . .42,000137,000173,000246,000
Livestock andpoultry (liveweight). . . . . . . . . .38,000149,000147,000197,000
Milk. . . . . . . . . .31,000291,000354,000506,000
Eggs (units). . . . . . . . . .154,000,000304,000,000558,000,000
Wool (registered weight). . . . . . . . . .7,90020,40021,50025,000
Cocoons. . . . . . . . . .9,80018,00018,40022,700
Karakul pelts (units). . . . . . . . . .1,002,1002,227,2001,946,8002,431,200

granite. Another industry is the building of machines not requiring large amounts of metal. The Karshi Steppe, an important new area for cotton growing (up to 1 million ha), is being reclaimed.

The Bukhara–Kyzylkum region (Bukhara Oblast), with 32 percent of the territory and 8.2 percent of the population, is a region of natural gas (Gazli) and oil production, nonferrrous metallurgy (Zarafshan), chemical production (Navoi), metalworking, light industry, and food processing (Bukhara, Kagan). It is the main region in Uzbekistan for the raising of Karakul sheep on desert pastureland; there is also cotton growing, fruit growing, and viticulture. The newly created irrigation system built around the Amu-Bukhara Canal has radically improved the region’s water supply, and the circular road in the Kyzylkum (more than 500 km) has similarly improved conditions for Karakul raising and the prospecting of minerals in the desert.

The Lower Amu Darya region (Kara-Kalpak ASSR and Kho-rezm Oblast), with 38 percent of the territory and 10.6 percent of the population, is a cotton- and rice-growing area in which livestock raising (cattle and Karakul sheep) is well developed. Kho-rezm melons and medic (for seeds) are cultivated, and there is fruit growing, viticulture, sericulture, and muskrat farming. Building materials are produced, and there is light industry and food processing, including fish canning. The construction of a second railroad outlet from Middle Asia across the lower course of the Amu Darya to the European part of the country (Chardzhou–Kungrad–Makat–Aleksandrov Gai) stimulated economic development in the region. The linking of the region to the unified power system of Middle Asia and the building of a dam with a bridge across the Amu Darya also added to development.

The Surkhandar’ia region (Surkhandar’ia Oblast), with 4.7 percent of the territory and 5.7 percent of the population, is one of the fine-staple cotton growing, subtropical fruit growing, viticulture, and the early growing of vegetables. The vegetable growing is a specialty of significance to the entire country. Coal and oil are extracted, and there is also light industry and food (fruit) processing. The Surkhan-Sherabad steppe has been reclaimed for agriculture.

Standard of living. The standard of living of the population is steadily rising. The national income was 2.7 times greater in 1975 than in 1960. The payments and benefits received by the population from social consumption funds in 1974 were 4.1 times greater than in 1960 (education, 4.6 times; public health and physical culture, 2.7, times; social insurance, 4.4 times). The amount paid out for pensions rose by a factor of 4.6. On a per capita basis, payments and benefits during this period rose by a factor of 2.7. Retail turnover in state and cooperative trade, including the food service industry, was 7,242 million rubles in 1975, compared with 523 million rubles in 1940. By the end of 1974 accounts in savings banks numbered 2,163,000 (526,000 in 1940) and totaled 1,530 million rubles (18 million in 1940). During the period 1924–75, construction by state and cooperative organizations and enterprises, kolkhozes, and individuals amounted to 115.5 million sqm of floor space, of which 24.8 million sq m were built during the years 1971–75.


Uzbekistan. Moscow, 1967. (In the series Sovetskii Soiuz.)
Sredniaia Aziia: Ekonomiko-geograficheskaia kharakteristika i problemy razvitiia khoziaistva. Moscow, 1969.
Sredneaziatskii ekonomicheskii raion. Moscow, 1972.
Khudaiberdyev, N. D. V edinoi sem’e narodov-brat’ev. (Razvitie proizvoditel’nykh sil Uzbekistana za 50 let). Tashkent, 1974.
Uzbekskaia Sovetskaia Sotsialisticheskaia Respublika. Tashkent, 1974.
Proizvoditel’nye sily Uzbekistana i perspektivy ikh razvitiia, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1974.
Akramov, Z. M. Problemy khoziaistvennogo osvoeniia pustynnykh i gorno-predgornykh territorii. Tashkent, 1974.
Narodnoe khoziaistvo Uzbekskoi SSR za 50 let: Iubileinyi stat. sb. Tashkent, 1974.
Karimov, K. Uzbekistan v sotsialistichekom sodruzhestve. Tashkent, 1975.

Z. M. AKRAMOV, E. B. TASHBEKOV, and K. N. BEDRINTSEV (economic regions)

Medicine and public health. In 1975 the birthrate was 34.5 and the death rate 7.2 per 1,000 inhabitants; the corresponding figures for 1940 are 33.8 and 13.2. The death rate was lower in 1975 than in 1913 by a factor of more than three.

Infectious and parasitic diseases were the main causes of death in prerevolutionary Uzbekistan. Outbreaks of malaria, cholera, plague, smallpox, tuberculosis, typhus, trachoma, helminthiases, and leishmaniases were widespread. By 1926, cholera, plague, and smallpox had been eliminated; visceral leishmaniasis and trachoma were eliminated somewhat later. Malaria is now recorded only in isolated cases, and there has been a sharp decline in the incidence of acute intestinal diseases, tuberculosis, and helminthiases. Sprue and amoebic dysentery, as well as other regional diseases, have been virtually eliminated. Before the October Revolution, illiterate tabibs and sorcerers treated the population. In 1913 there were 139 physicians and 63 hospitals with 1,000 beds in what is now Uzbekistan.

By Jan. 1, 1976, the republic had 1,159 hospitals with 145,600 beds, or 10.3 beds per 1,000 inhabitants. (By comparison, in 1940 there were 380 hospitals with 20,300 beds, or three beds per 1,000 inhabitants.) Specialized hospital beds numbered as follows (in thousands): therapeutics, 30.0; surgery, 15.8; otorhinolaryngol-ogy, 2.3; oncology, 2.4; ophthalmology, 2.8; neurology, 3.3; for pregnant women and women giving birth, 15.0; gynecology, 4.7; and children’s noninfectious diseases (exclusive of specialized hospital beds), 23.6. Outpatient care was provided in 1,848 outpatient polyclinics, 410 gynecological consultation clinics, 565 pédiatric polyclinics and outpatient clinics, 4,905 feldsher-obstetric stations, 39 medical-hygiene units at industrial enterprises, and 283 medical and 1,211 feldsher public health stations. There were 179 first-aid stations and units, 12 airborne health stations, 263 specialized dispensaries, 192 epidemiological stations, and more than 5,000 children’s preschool institutions with 527,000 places. Uzbekistan has 1,230 pharmacies and 3,595 pharmaceutical centers (in 1914 there were 33 privately operated pharmacies).

The republic has 36,500 physicians, or one per 385 inhabitants (in 1940 there were 3,200 physicians, or one per 2,100 inhabitants). There are 6,159 pharmacists and 108,900 paramedical personnel (12,200 in 1940). Medical specialists are trained at four medical institutes (two in Tashkent, one in Andizhan, and one in Samarkand), at a pharmaceutical institute in Tashkent, at 21 medical schools, and at the Institute for Advanced Training of Physicians in Tashkent. More than 250 doctors of medical sciences and approximately 2,000 candidates of medical sciences are on the staffs of the higher medical educational institutions and of the republic’s 13 medical research institutes.

Uzbekistan has 70 sanatoriums with 15,000 beds, including 44 children’s sanatoriums with 8,900 beds. The republic has 16 houses of rest with 3,200 beds, five resort hotels with 655 beds, and 22 other rest institutions with 2,400 beds. The most popular health resorts include the climatic resorts of Shakhimardan and Aktash, the balneological resorts of Chartak, Chimion, Tash-kentskie Mineral’nye Vody, Dzheiran-Khana, and Kyzyl-Tepe, and the balneological therapeutic areas of Iuzhnyi Alamyshik and Palvantash. According to the 1975 state budget, expenditures for public health in Uzbekistan amounted to 477 million rubles (24 million rubles in 1940).


Aripov, U. A. “Razvitie meditsinskoi nauki v Uzbekistane za 50 let.” Meditsinskii zhurnal Uzbekistana, 1967, no. 10. Zairov, K. S. “Vekhi v razvitii zdravookhraneniia Uzbekistana. (K50-letiiu SSSR.)” Ibid., 1972, no. 12.
Physical culture, sports, and tourism. As of Jan. 1,1976, Uzbekistan had 9,845 physical-culture associations with more than 2.5 million members. There were 120 stadiums, 3,700 soccer fields, 1,900 gymnasiums, 94 swimming pools, 83 tennis courts, 736 rifle ranges, 23,300 athletic fields, and 241 children’s and young people’s sports schools with 88,000 pupils and students, including ten schools specializing in sports training. The republic-wide voluntary sports society Pakhtakor, with some 540,500 members, was founded in 1951. Nineteen international-class masters of sports have been trained, as well as more than 300 masters of sports, including those trained in specialized national sports. Ten athletes have won the title of honored master of sports. More than 50 athletes have won the title of champion of the USSR, six the title of European champion, and nine the title of world champion. The champions of the Olympic Games have included five athletes from Uzbekistan.
In 1975 the republic had 114 sports therapy camps and hunters’ and fishermen’s lodges, 22 tourist centers, 21 travel and excursion bureaus, and 38 tourists’ clubs. There were 14 all-Union tourist routes. The main tourist routes pass through Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Urgench (Khiva), and the Fergana Valley. In 1975, Uzbekistan was visited by 385,000 tourists, including approximately 100,000 foreign tourists.
Veterinary services. Under Soviet power, cattle plague, swine fever, epidemic pneumonia of cattle, glanders, equine infectious anemia, and pleuropneumonia of goats have been eradicated in Uzbekistan owing to improved veterinary-sanitary conditions of livestock raising and the implementation of measures of prevention and treatment. A number of diseases have been virtually eliminated, including leptospirosis, sarcoptidosis of cattle, sheep, and goats, smallpox, and necrobacillosis of sheep. There are now only sporadic cases of anthrax, subcutaneous emphysema, malignant edema, tetanus, pasteurellosis of sheep, goats, and cattle, and braxy of sheep. Foci of rabies exist over much of Uzbekistan. Most of the republic’s oblasts will experience outbreaks of echinococcosis, fascioliasis, coenurosis, theileriasis, and other piro-plasmoses. Brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, and theileriasis of cattle are still widespread.
As of Jan. 1, 1975, there were 1,179 veterinary institutions in Uzbekistan, including two republic, 11 oblast, and 83 raion veterinary laboratories, 127 raion and 26 municipal veterinary stations, and three stations for the control of rabies. There were 20 district and nine municipal veterinary hospitals and 20 municipal, border, and other types of veterinary centers. The republic had 178 meat-dairy and food control stations, units for the control of foot-and-mouth disease, mobile units for the control of coenurosis, and other veterinary facilities. In 1974 there were 3,381 veterinarians and 2,499 veterinary feldshers in Uzbekistan. Veterinary specialists are trained at the department of veterinary medicine of the Samarkand Agricultural Institute, at the Samarkand and Andizhan zooveterinary technicums, and at several agricultural technicums, as well as at the Chinaz Sovkhoz-Technicum. The leading research center for veterinary science is the Uzbek Scientific Research Veterinary Institute.


Before Uzbekistan was annexed to Russia, such Muslim religious schools as makatib, madrasas, and korikhons were predominant. Women generally received no education, although the daughters of the feudal aristocracy were admitted to religious schools in exceptional cases. Secular educational institutions were established after Uzbekistan’s annexation to Russia. These included Russian schools, of which six were founded before 1876: three in Tashkent, two in Samarkand, and one in Kattakurgan. The first Gymnasium for boys was founded in Tashkent in 1875, and a Gymnasium for girls was founded later. Other schools included a teachers’ seminary in Tashkent (founded 1879), the Tashkent Realschule (1893), and specialized technical schools, including an agricultural hydraulic engineering school and a railroad engineering school in Tashkent (both 1902) and a school of viticulture and wine-making in Samarkand.

A system of local Russian-language indigenous schools was established to train translators and minor officials from among the local population. To a certain extent, these schools helped reduce illiteracy among the indigenous population and introduced Russian language and culture.

After 1905 the Uzbek bourgeoisie founded schools in Bukhara and some other cities; these schools introduced new methods. Instruction in reading and writing was based on a phonetic method new to the Muslims and was conducted in the native language. However, feudal oppression and the colonizing policies of tsarism hindered the cultural development of the Uzbek people. In 1897, 98 percent of the indigenous population was illiterate. During the 1914–15 academic year, 2 to 3 percent of Uzbek boys were enrolled in the lower grades of the general-education schools. Approximately 500 students were enrolled in technical schools; there were no higher educational institutions.

The October Socialist Revolution of 1917 opened the way to education and the development of the national culture for the Uzbek people. In 1918 the Central Executive Committee of the Turkestan Republic ratified the statute On the Organization of Public Education in Turkestan Krai and adopted a decree on the introduction of universal free instruction in the native language and on the separation of church and school. During the first years of Soviet power the development of education, especially for women, was hindered by the reactionary Muslim clergy, by old customs and vestiges of the past, and by a shortage of teachers from among the local population. The other fraternal republics aided Uzbekistan in training teachers and establishing a system of schools. The University of Turkestan (since 1960 called the University of Tashkent), which played an important role in training teachers from among the Uzbek population, was founded in 1920.

A campaign to eliminate illiteracy among the adult population began in the 1920’s. Particular attention was devoted to the education of women. In 1926 the literacy rate was 11.6 percent: 15.3 percent among men and 7.3 percent among women. The corresponding figures in 1939 were 78.7 percent, 83.6 percent, and 73.3 percent, respectively. In 1928–29 the writing system for the Uzbek language was changed from the Arabic alphabet to a Latinized alphabet, which in turn was changed in 1939–40 to an alphabet based on Russian.

In 1930 the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Uzbekistan and the government of Uzbekistan adopted the resolution On the Introduction of Universal Compulsory Education for Children and Adolescents. The number of schools and of pupils and students increased during the 1930’s. In the 1937–38 academic year there were 939,000 pupils and students enrolled in the republic’s schools (1,219,000 in the 1939–40 academic year). After the war, universal compulsory seven-year education was implemented; universal compulsory eight-year education was introduced in 1959. The literacy rate in 1970 was 99.7 percent (99.8 percent among men and 99.6 percent among women). During the ninth five-year plan, as was the case for the entire USSR, the transition to universal secondary education was essentially completed in Uzbekistan.

During the years of Soviet power, an extensive system of children’s preschool institutions was established. In 1976 there were 560,000 children in 5,200 kindergartens, crèches, and crèche-kindergartens. In the 1975–76 academic year there were more than 3,803,000 pupils and students in 9,700 general-education schools of all types. There were 210,900 teachers on the staffs of the republic’s general-education day schools. Educational and cultural-educational training was also conducted in many extracurricular institutions, including 175 palaces and houses of Pioneers, 241 children’s and young people’s sports schools, and 211 music schools.

Vocational training has been greatly expanded. In the 1975–76 academic year there were 273 vocational-technical schools with 117,000 students, including 88 secondary vocational-technical schools with 43,000 students. There were 185,200 students enrolled in 187 specialized secondary schools in the 1975–76 academic year. Some 246,600 students were enrolled in 42 higher educational institutions, of which the largest were the University of Tashkent, the University of Samarkand, the Tashkent Pedagogical Institute, the Tashkent Medical Institute, and the Tashkent Agricultural Institute. Other important higher educational institutions were a polytechnic institute, an institute of the national economy, the Uzbek Institute of Physical Culture in Tashkent, and the Andizhan Pedagogical Institute of Languages. In 1976, the University of Kara-Kalpakia was founded in Nukus.

In 1975, Uzbekistan had 6,300 public libraries with 39.9 million books and journals. The largest library is the A. Navoi State Republic Library of the Uzbek SSR. As of 1975 there were 31 museums (three in 1913), among which the most important were the Tashkent Branch of the Lenin Central Museum, the Aibek State Museum of the History of the Peoples of Uzbekistan, the State Museum of the Arts of the Uzbek SSR, and the A. Navoi State Museum of Literature. Other major museums were the Republic Nature Museum in Tashkent, the Museum of the History of the Culture and Art of the Uzbek SSR in Samarkand, and oblast museums of local lore in Andizhan, Bukhara, Termez, Karshi, Namangan, and Fergana. The republic also had 3,700 clubs.


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Kocharov, V. T. Iz istorii organizatsii i razvitiia narodnogo obrazovaniia v dorevoliutsionnom Uzbekistane. Tashkent, 1966.
Torzhestvo leninskikh idei kul’turnoi revoliutsii v Uzbekistane. Tashkent, 1970.
Sadykov, S. Vysshaia shkola—kuznitsa podgotovki kadrov. Tashkent, 1973.
Rashidov, Sh. R. Torzhestvo leninskoi natsional’noi politiki. Tashkent, 1974.
Kadyrov, I. K. Ocherki razvitiia obshcheobrazovatel’noi shkoly sovetskogo Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1974.
Radzhabov, S. Uzbekistandä savet mäktäbi tärikhigä dair. Tashkent, 1957.
Amateur arts. Amateur groups expanded greatly during the Civil War and aided in the development of the Uzbek professional theater. These groups were generally affiliated with educational institutions and were headed by members of the new Soviet intelligentsia. Numerous outstanding Uzbek performers, including S. Ishanturaeva, A. Khidoiatov, A. Dzhalilov, S. Alimov, M. Kari-Iakubov, and later Sh. Burkhanov, A. Khodzhaev, and N. Rakhimov began their careers in such groups. Early in 1976 there were 13,933 amateur performing groups affiliated with the republic’s Ministry of Culture and trade unions, including 1,909 choral groups, 3,534 musical groups, 1,038 drama groups, 1,784 dance groups, and 254 groups working in representational arts and decorative applied art. The membership of these groups totaled 259,817. Eighty-seven groups have been awarded the title of people’s amateur group, including 35 theaters, five puppet theaters, 37 song and dance ensembles, two choruses, two variety groups, and three ensembles performing makoms, or lengthy vocal and instrumental works originating in Khorezm.

Natural and technical sciences. Large irrigation systems were constructed in the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, and Zeravshan river basins by the mid-first millennium B.C. The inhabitants of the agricultural oases cultivated barley, rice, wheat, alfalfa, and cotton. They engaged in various crafts and in trade and built cities and roads. In addition to a high degree of practical knowledge in mining, metallurgy, pottery-making, weaving, jewelry-making, and construction, they had a conception of the motion of celestial bodies, a system of reckoning time, and several methods of computation. They produced a number of political, religious, and scientific writings, including the Avesta. The peoples of Middle Asia as a group took part in the formation of the cultures of many states and created and developed a rich and multifaceted culture of their own.

Middle Asia became one of the principal sources of scientific thought in the East during the ninth through 11th centuries. Astronomical observatories, Houses of Wisdom, and libraries were built in Merv, Bukhara, Urgench, Samarkand, Khodzhent, and other cities. Translations of and commentaries on the scientific legacy of ancient Greece and India were written by Middle Asian scholars. Many outstanding scholars who wrote in Arabic lived in Middle Asia (seeARABIC CULTURE). Activity in the exact and natural sciences, such as mathematics, astronomy, geodesy, physics, mineralogy, medicine, and botany, developed considerably during the ninth through 15th centuries. The work of the greatest scholars of the medieval East anticipated the results of research done in later centuries in other countries. These scholars included Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Ahmad al-Farghani, Abu Nasr al-Farabi, Abu-al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, Mahmud Kasgari, Abu Ali Husayn ibn Sina (Avicenna), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Kazi Zadeh al-Rumi, Jamshid al-Kashi, Ulug Beg, and Ali al-Kushchi. The Samarkand school of astronomy, which was founded by Ulug Beg in the 15th century, greatly influenced the development of astronomy and mathematics.

The period from the ninth through 15th centuries was distinguished by substantial technological advances in the construction of cities, by the improvement of pottery-making techniques, and by the extensive manufacture of stained glass and high-quality paper. Such cities in Mavera-un-Nahr and Khwarazm as Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench, and Kiat were renowned for woven goods (cotton, wool, and silk fabrics) and for silver, copper, and gold articles and coins.

Numerous civic, religious, and engineering structures were built in the 16th and 17th centuries; these structures demonstrate the high technical and artistic level of Middle Asian architecture. Numerous handicrafts were developed in Bukhara, Samarkand, Khiva, and other cities. Iron, gold, turquoise, marble, building stone, and sulfur were mined or quarried in what is now Uzbekistan; cast iron was used, and crude petroleum was employed in military engineering.

The study of the territory of Uzbekistan by Russian travelers, staff members of the embassies of the Russian tsars in Khiva and Bukhara, and individual expeditions began in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The expeditions included those led by A. Bekovich-Cherkasskii in 1717, N. N. Murav’ev in 1819 and 1820, G. I. Danilevskii in 1842, and A. I. Butakov in 1848 and 1849.

In the second half of the 19th century, after Middle Asia was united with Russia, the territory and natural resources of the region were studied by, for example, N. A. Severtsov, P. P. Seme-nov-Tian-Shanskii, A. P. Fedchenko, 1. V. Mushketov, and A. F. Middendorf. Mushketov and G. D. Romanovskii compiled the first geologic map of Turkestan, which was published in 1884. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, various programs of the Russian Geographical Society for the study of Turkestan were implemented. In accordance with these programs, the Aral Sea was investigated by L. S. Berg, and important contributions to the study of the glaciers of Turkestan were made by G. B. Leonov, N. L. Korzhenevskii, and V. G. Gorodetskii. In addition, studies were made of the fauna of Turkestan by V. F. Oshanin and N. A. Zarudnyi, of the flora by B. A. Fedchenko, O. A. Fedchenko, and V. L. Komarov, and of seismic processes by B. Ia. Korolenkov. Important surveying projects were carried out by military topographers of the Turkestan Military Topography Department, which was established in 1867. Comprehensive pedo-logical, botanical, and hydrological studies were performed by expeditions of the Department of Land Improvement and the Resettlement Administration of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia between 1912 and 1915.

In the second half of the 19th century, the following were established in Tashkent; a weather station (1867), a statistical committee (1868), an astronomical observatory (1873), the Administration of Agriculture and State Property of Turkestan Krai (1897), the hydrometric section of the administration, the Turkestan Agricultural Experiment Station (1898), and an entomological station. In the early 20th century, the Seismological Commission of the Russian Geographical Society established seismological stations in Tashkent (1901), Samarkand (1914), Dzhizak, and Kokand.

Prior to the Great October Socialist Revolution, scientific work was carried out sporadically in Uzbekistan, primarily through the efforts of nonpaid scholars, amateurs, and various scientific societies. As many as 15 scientific societies existed in the krai, including branches of all-Russian scientific societies. The societies made substantial contributions to such fields as geology, geography, zoology, botany, economics, and medical science. In addition to Turkestan sections of the Russian Geographical Society (1896), the Russian Technical Society, and the Society of Lovers of Natural Science, Anthropology, and Ethnology (1870), the societies included the Middle Asian Scientific Society (1870), the Turkestan Agricultural Society, the Fergana Medical Society (1892), the Society of Natural Scientists and Physicians of Turkestan Krai (1908), and the Samarkand Society of Physicians (1913).

FROM THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION TO 1946. In 1920, by a decree of V. I. Lenin, a higher educational institution—Turkestan State University—was founded in Tashkent. The university, which was the first scientific institution in the Soviet East, had research institutes for soil science and geobotany, chemistry, zoology, geophysics, and other fields. Since 1960 the university has been called the V. I. Lenin University of Tashkent. Independent higher educational institutions and scientific research institutions were established on the basis of the university’s departments and laboratories; the university organized expeditions to many regions of Middle Asia.

The formation of the Uzbek SSR in 1924 opened up new opportunities for the development of science. Institutions organized in the middle and late 1920’s include the Central Board of Water Use Management of Middle Asia and an affiliated special institution for the siting and planning of water management installations (1924; now the Middle Asian Institute for the Designing of Water Works Projects, with branches in the other Middle Asian republics and Kazakhstan); the Middle Asian Division of the Geological Committee (1926); the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Cotton Growing (1929), together with five central experiment stations and a number of specialized stations in the other Middle Asian republics and southern Kazakhstan; the Middle Asian Cotton-irrigation Polytechnic Institute (1929); and the Research Institute of Sericulture (1929). Institutions established in the early 1930’s include the Middle Asian Geological Prospecting Institute (1930; now the Biruni Tashkent Polytechnic Institute), the Ulug Beg Kitab International Latitude Station (1930), the Scientific Research Institute for Hydrometeorology (1931), the Complex Research Institute of Natural Science in Kara-Kalpakia (1931), a solar engineering laboratory in Tashkent, and a number of medical institutes, such as the Tashkent and Samarkand state medical institutes, the Institute of Tropical Studies in Bukhara, and the Pharmaceutical Institute.

By 1933 there were 37 scientific research institutes and 45 scientific stations. A committee on the sciences was organized under the Central Executive Committee of the Uzbek SSR in 1932 in order to coordinate and direct scientific projects. In 1932 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR held a conference in Leningrad devoted to the productive forces of Uzbekistan. The First Middle Asian Congress of Scientific Research Institutes was held in Tashkent in 1933. In the 1930’s the scientists of Uzbekistan dealt with problems associated with the development of the national economy, public health, and education.

The minerals of the Fergana Valley and Almalyk were studied under the direction of A. E. Fersman; photosynthesis under arid conditions was studied under the direction of S. P. Kostychev. E. N. Pavlovskii directed the study of regional infectious and parasitic pathology, and L. I. Prasolov directed the study of the nitrogen cycle of soils and the effect of salinization on soil biody-namics. N. I. Vavilov directed the breeding of cotton and other plants. The following were among the Russian scientists, engineers, teachers, and physicians who went to Uzbekistan in the 1920’s and contributed greatly to the training of the first scientific specialists and the development of science in Uzbekistan: V. I. Romanovskii, S. N. Naumov, L. V. Oshanin, A. A. Semenov, A. S. Uklonskii, N. L. Korzhenevskii, D. N. Kashkarov, A. L. Brodskii, M. G. Popov, M. V. Kul’tiasov, E. P. Korovin, and I. A. Raikov.

The scientific research institutions of Uzbekistan made substantial contributions to the achievement, in the late 1920’s, of the USSR’s self-sufficiency in cotton. The foundations of Uzbekistan’s power supply were laid with the construction of the Bozsu Hydroelectric Power Plant and of hydroelectric systems in irrigation networks. The first data for making generalizations about the geology and ore content of the republic were obtained in 1936. Deposits of many minerals were discovered, and the prospects of the Almalyk area for copper mining were demonstrated. The presence of oil in the Fergana Valley and southern Uzbekistan was established. New minerals were discovered, including the vanadates of copper volborthite and calciovolborthite.

Regional geological research was carried out under the direction of A. S. Uklonskii, A. V. Korolev, and B. N. Nasledov. Projects in the field of lithology were directed by V. I. Popov, and K. P. Kalitskii directed projects in petroleum and gas geology. O. K. Lange directed hydrogeological projects. The Scientific Research Institute of Geology was established in Tashkent in 1938. In the late 1930’s, Tashkent became a center for the development of the theory of geologic formations. The Geology of the Uzbek SSR (vols. 1–3) was published between 1937 and 1939, and a composite geologic map of southeastern Middle Asia was published in 1941. Research was conducted in geophysics.

Important contributions were made in astronomy by M. F. Subbotin, B. V. Kukarkin, and N. F. Flori; in solar engineering by A. M. Titov; in mathematics by V. I. Romanovskii; in power engineering by I. Ia. Kaminskii; in organic chemistry by G. V. Lazur’evskii, A. S. Sadykov, S. N. Naumov, and I. P. Tsuker-vanik; and in silicate chemistry and technology by I. S. Kantse-pol’skii.

Irrigation systems were rebuilt, and their use was improved. Salinization and bog formation were combated. G. S. Zaitsev, A. I. Avtonomov, and S. S. Kanash contributed to the development of high-yield varieties of cotton, including fine-fiber varieties. Such botanists as E. P. Korovin and I. I. Granitov studied desert and high-altitude flora; other botanists searched for valuable vegetative raw materials. M. M. Kononova, F. Iu. Gel’-tser, and O. G. Elkina contributed to microbiology; N. V. Dani-lov and A. Iu. Iunusov, to animal and human physiology.

The Uzbekistan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was established in 1940. Its institutes studied deposits of nonferrous metals, carried out the geological survey of the Severnyi and Iuzhnyi Fergana canals, and compiled soil maps. In 1940 the Uzbek Geology Board conducted a hydrogeological survey of the desert-meadow areas of the Kyzylkum Desert. The first volume of The Flora of Uzbekistan was published in 1941.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, the Uzbek Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the scientific research institutes of various sectors of the economy carried out their work in collaboration with the scientific institutions of Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia that had been temporarily evacuated to Uzbekistan. The Institute of Power Engineering was organized in 1941. The Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, consisting of five research institutes and several other scientific institutions, was established in 1943 on the basis of the Uzbek Branch. Scientific research concentrated on searching for new resources for industry and expanding agricultural output. A comprehensive evaluation of the Angren brown coal deposit was carried out. The extraction of tungsten ores, gold, tin, and other minerals was begun. A subterranean-water cadastre and composite hydrogeological maps of the entire territory of the republic were compiled. Preliminary scientific work was carried out for the construction of the Farkhad Hydroelectric Power Plant and the Severnyi Tashkent Irrigation Canal. A new classification of the soils of Uzbekistan was developed.

POSTWAR PERIOD. The training of national scientific specialists in many areas of science, which was aided by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, contributed to the expansion of research. Scientific schools and areas of concentrated work took shape during the 1940’s and 1950’s. Important contributions were made, for example, in mathematics by V. I. Romanovskii, T. A. Sarym-sakov, N. N. Nazarov, N. P. Romanov, and T. N. Kary-Niiazov; in petrology and metallogeny by Kh. M. Abdullaev; in petroleum geology by L. G. Zhukovskii and K. A. Sotiriadi; in the earthquake resistance of structures by M. T. Urazbaev; in electronics by S. V. Starodubtsev and L. N. Dobretsov; in power engineering by N. N. Shchedrin, Kh. F. Fazylov, G. R. Rakhimov, and M. Z. Khamudkhanov; in solar engineering by A. M. Titov; and in aeromechanics and hydromechanics by Kh. A. Rakhmatullin.

The postwar years were characterized by the further development of geology and prospecting. Deposits of copper, lead, and zinc at Almalyk, Altyn-Topkan, and elsewhere and deposits of gold and rare metals were prospected and studied. The Bukhara-Khiva Oil-Gas Region, including the Gazli deposit, was discovered. The discoverers of the Gazli deposit received the Lenin Prize in 1960.

The Institute of Structures was founded in 1947; it is now called the M. T. Urazbaev Institute of Mechanics and Earthquake Resistance of Structures. The Institute of Botany and the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR were established in 1950. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, the Institute of Botanical Chemistry, and the Institute of Water Problems were organized in 1956. The Middle Asian Institute of Geology and Mineralogical Raw Materials, the Uzbek Branch of the All-Union Oil Institute, and the Institute of Mathematics’ Computing Center (now the Institute of Cybernetics and Computing Center of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR) were founded in 1957. The Kara-Kalpak Scientific Research Institute of Land Cultivation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR was organized in 1958. The Kara-Kalpak Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR and the Institute of Geology and the Exploration of Oil and Gas Deposits of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR were founded in 1959; the institute is now part of the Ministry of Geology of the Uzbek SSR. Seismo-logical stations were established in Fergana and Namangan, and a high-altitude station for cosmic ray research was set up.

In the 1960’s and early 1970’s, special attention was given to integrated research in problems of, for example, cotton growing, irrigation, power engineering, and nonferrous metallurgy. Hydroelectric power systems with both automatic and remote control were developed, along with new dam structures, horizontal and vertical drainage systems, and an improved cotton-cultivation techniques. Important contributions to these advances, which made it possible to put into agricultural use substantial areas of, for example, the Fergana Valley and the Golodnaia, Dal’verzin, Sherabad, and Karshi steppes, were made by A. N. Askochenskii, V. V. Poslavskii, R. A. Alimov, B. D. Korzhavin, and S. T. Altunin. A Lenin Prize was awarded in 1972 for the successful solution of the problems associated with the development of the virgin lands of the Uzbek and Tadzhik parts of the Golodnaia Steppe. The training of scientific specialists, especially Uzbek specialists, in many fields of science with the aid of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR has made it possible to broaden the areas of scientific research and to establish a number of new scientific institutions.

Mathematics. The main centers for mathematics are the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, the V. I. Lenin University of Tashkent, and the Alisher Navoi University of Samarkand. In probability theory and mathematical statistics, a series of papers has been published by T. A. Sarymsakov and S. Kh. Sirazhdinov on limit theorems of probability theory and applications of the theory. T. A. Sarymsakov has developed a theory of topological semifields. M. S. Salakhitdi-nov, I. S. Arzhanykh, I. S. Kukles, and A. N. Filatov have investigated differential and integral equations. T. N. Kary-Niiazov has studied the history of the development of mathematics in the medieval Near and Middle East.

Physics. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR and at thé University of Tashkent, research has been carried out in nuclear physics and in high-energy particle physics by S. V. Starodubtsev and S. A. Azimov and in activation analysis by E. M. Lobanov and U. G. Guliamov. Research in physical electronics (U. A. Arifov), dielectric electronics, optoelectronics, and microelectronics (E. I. Adirovich) has been carried out at the Institute of Electronics (founded 1967) of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, the University of Tashkent, the Tashkent Polytechnic Institute, and the Bukhara Pedagogical Institute. Research in molecular physics, in the spectroscopy of fluids and solutions (A. K. Atakhodzhaev), and in other fields has been conducted at the University of Samarkand and the Nizami Tashkent Pedagogical Institute. Many solar devices for distilling and heating water and for other applications have been studied theoretically and developed, mainly by G. Ia. Umarov.

Astronomy. Variable stars have been studied, and the right ascensions of stars determined, at the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, which was founded in 1966 on the basis of the Tashkent Astronomical Observatory. Observations under the programs of the All-Union Solar Survey and Time Service have been carried out by V. P. Shcheglov. A branch of the institute, the Ulug Beg International Latitude Station at Kitab, has studied the variability of the geographic latitudes of the earth’s poles; in 1974 the station, together with the Central Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, began long-term observations associated with the study of continental drift.

Mechanics and control processes. Research in economic and engineering cybernetics, information theory, and computer technology has been carried out at the Institute of Cybernetics and Computing Center (founded 1966) of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. V. V. Kabulov has helped develop general algorithmic methods of studying complex systems, as well as methodological principles for the creation of a republic-wide automated control system. Problems of, for example, data transmission over high-frequency power-line channels are being studied. In power engineering and automation, Kh. F. Fazylov has contributed to the theory and methods of calculation of the performance of complex electrical systems, and M. Z. Khamudkhanov has conducted research in the automation of electric drives. Work has also been done on a cadastre of renewable energy sources, on the characteristics of such sources, and on the automation and remote control of irrigation installations.

The Institute of Mechanics and Earthquake Resistance of Structures and the Tashkent Zonal Scientific Research and Design Institute for Standard and Experimental Civil Engineering (founded 1964) have investigated problems of earthquake-resistant construction, including the construction of underground structures, and soil mechanics. M. T. Urazbaev has contributed to the theory of elasticity. Kh. A. Rakhmatulin and D. F. Faizul-laev have developed a theory of the motion of multiphase media in conduits; the theory has been used in the design of pipelines and in the control of river channels. Kh. Kh. Usmankhodzhaev has contributed to the theory of machines for picking cotton.

Geology, geophysics, and geography. Geological institutes have carried out systematic mineralogical and geochemical studies of almost all the ore deposits of Uzbekistan. A. S. Uklonskii has developed a geochemical classification of minerals, and V. I. Popov has contributed to the development of the theory of geological formations. Metallogenic and petrological research has been conducted, and metallogenic and prognostic maps have been compiled. Kh. M. Abdullaev and I. Kh. Khamrabaev have studied the relationship between mineralization and magmatism.

The Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology (founded 1960) of the Ministry of Geology of the Uzbek SSR has carried out large-scale research in hydrogeology, land-reclamation hydrogeology, the study of loesses, and geodynamic processes. G. A. Mavlianov and N. A. Kenesarin have done much research on geodynamic processes. The Research and Production Hydrogeological Association of the Ministry of Geology of the Uzbek SSR was established in 1971. Scientific principles of oil and gas exploration, which have led to the discovery of the largest gas deposits in Uzbekistan, were developed at the Institute of Geology and Oil and Gas Exploration by A. M. Akramkho-dzhaev and A. G. Babaev.

The Institute of Seismology (founded 1966) of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR includes a branch in Andizhan, 11 seismological stations, and an ionospheric station. Research has been conducted in gravimetry, electrical geophysical exploration, and seismology, including the detection of foreshocks and the delineation of earthquake zones for all of Uzbekistan and for its large cities, industrial centers, and hydraulic engineering installations. The earth’s crust and upper mantle have been studied in Uzbekistan.

Methods of short-term forecasting of jet streams in the lower stratosphere over the southern part of the USSR have been developed. Research on statistical methods of weather forecasting has been conducted. Problems of modifying meteorological processes have been studied, including hail suppression.

The division of the Turan physicogeographical province into natural regions on the basis of landscapes has been completed. An agricultural evaluation of the natural conditions of Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Turkmenistan has been made in connection with the problem of the diversion of Siberian waters to the basin of the Aral Sea. Uzbekistan has been divided into geobo-tanical, soil climatic, and pasture climatic zones; the Middle Asian republics have been divided into agroclimatic zones. The rivers and lakes of Middle Asia have been studied at the University of Tashkent and the Department of Geography at the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. Systematic glaciological research is being conducted.

Chemistry and chemical technology. At the Institute of Botanical Chemistry and the Department of Biochemistry (founded 1973) of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, A. S. Sady-kov and S. Iu. Iunusov have carried out research in botanical chemistry, primarily in alkaloid chemistry. Highly effective dry and liquid mixed fertilizers have been obtained; M. M. Nabiev developed the technology for producing them. Defoliants, herbicides, and pesticides have also been developed. Projects have been undertaken in the development and use of surface-active agents in soil aggregation. K. S. Akhmedov has conducted research on geological exploratory drilling, and Kh. U. Usmanov has studied the chemistry of cotton cellulose. I. S. Kantsepol’skii has worked on problems of producing high-quality cements. At the Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Refining (founded 1964) of the Ministry of the Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry of the USSR, A. S. Sultanov has studied the theory of synthesizing an aluminosilicate catalyst for cracking petroleum distillates.

Biological and agricultural sciences. Work in the biological and agricultural sciences has been carried on at the research institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, at the universities, and at a number of pedagogical institutes. The Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR published The Flora of Uzbekistan in six volumes between 1941 and 1962 and Map of the Vegetation of Uzbekistan in 1973. The ten-volume Guide to the Plants of Middle Asia is being published; the first four volumes appeared between 1968 and 1974. An ecological classification of the vegetation of Middle Asia has been developed. D. K. Saidov has substantiated and applied in practice land reclamation methods that involve the planting of vegetation. In addition, he has developed and applied agricultural techniques that increase the productivity of desert, semidesert, and foothill pastures; methods of cultivating various plants used in industry, such as the licorice and geranium, have also been employed for this purpose. At the Central Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR (founded 1943 on the basis of the botanical garden of the Middle Asian University) in Tashkent, F. N. Rusanov has helped introduce and acclimatize plants and has helped select species for local conditions. Such work has also been done at the branch of the central garden in the city of Nu-kus.

T. Z. Zakhidov has conducted an integrated study of the animal life of the deserts at the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. The ecology of venomous snakes has also been investigated at the institute, and a serpentarium has been established. Work has been done on the ichthyofauna of bodies of water; the ichthyofauna of the Aral Sea is studied at the Kara-Kalpak Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. Recommendations have been formulated for increasing the amount of fish in bodies of water and for breeding valuable varieties of fish. The first three volumes of The Fauna of the Uzbek SSR were published between 1953 and 1961. The study of human and animal parasites has continued. Methods of controlling dangerous diseases have been developed by A. T. Tula-ganov, M. A. Sultanov, and R. A. Alimdzhanov. Biological and multiple-approach methods of combating agricultural pests have been studied. A. M. Muzafarov has formulated recommendations for the mass culture of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and other algae as stimulants in the feeding of farm animals, including fowl and silkworms.

Biochemical and biophysical research in the chemistry of hormones, nucleic acids, proteins, and zootoxins is conducted at the Institute of Experimental Plant Biology, which was established in 1964 on the basis of the Institute of Genetics and Plant Physiology (founded 1956); such research is also carried on at the Institute of Biochemistry (founded 1967) of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. Ia. Kh. Turakulov has investigated the biochemistry and pathologic chemistry of the thyroid gland. The Institute of Physiology (founded 1975 on the basis of the Department of Physiology) of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR directs work in physiology. Scientists at the institutes of physiology, biochemistry, and regional medicine have studied the physiological mechanisms by which individual systems of the body adapt to hot climates. A. Iu. Iunusov has studied tissue processes, and K. A. Zufarov and D. Kh. Khamidov have studied such processes at the molecular and submolecular levels. The biophysics of membranes and active ion transport have been investigated.

Fundamental work on the classification of Uzbekistan’s soils, the division of the soils into climatic zones, and soil mapping has been carried out. Irrigated soils were classified as an independent type in the 1960’s. S. N. Ryzhov has developed the concept of the level of fertility of irrigated soils. A. S. Sadykov has synthesized growth stimulants and other compounds from cotton. Kh. A. Rakhmatulin and U. A. Arifov have developed mechanical and aerochemical methods of denuding cottonseed for precision sowing.

Research in the agricultural sciences has been carried on at 19 scientific institutions. S. S. Sadykov has studied the effects of temperature and light in accelerating the maturation of cotton and increasing the cotton harvest. N. N. Nazirov has investigated the radiochemical principles of mutagenesis in cotton. A. I. Ima-maliev and S. Kh. Iuldashov have studied the physiology and technology of cultivation. New high-yield varieties of cotton that are suitable for machine picking have been bred. Five cotton strain changes have been carried out, the first in 1929 and the last in 1973. All the cotton-sowing farms of Uzbekistan have been supplied with the wilt-resistant Tashkent strains that were developed by, for example, S. M. Mirakhmedov. There have been bred 20 high-yield varieties of rice and more than 50 varieties of vegetables including melons and gourds. More than 60 varieties of fruit and berry crops and grapes have been developed at research institutes of horticulture, viticulture, and land cultivation. Highly productive varieties of the Asiatic silkworm have been obtained, and progressive methods of silkworm raising have been developed. Breeds of dairy cattle have been improved, and highly productive breeds of Karakul sheep with colored lamb pelts have been developed.

Medical-sciences. The Institute of Medical Parasitology has conducted research on the control of malaria and the guinea worm. I. K. Musabaev has contributed to the combating of typhoid fever. M. I. Slonim and N. I. Khodukin have worked on the control of kala azar. Research has also been carried out on combating infectious hepatitis and brucellosis. E. I. Atakhanov has developed methods of diagnosing diseases of the digestive tract. U. A. Aripov has studied the effect of several gossypol derivatives on immunosuppression of organ and tissue transplants, particularly kidney transplants.


Social sciences, PHILOSOPHY. Social and philosophical thought in Uzbekistan originated in remote antiquity and was closely associated with the philosophical traditions of Middle Asia and the East. Cultural, ethnic, and territorial proximity resulted in a certain unity and interpretation of philosophical ideas in these areas.

The emergence of philosophical thought in Uzbekistan was associated with the Avesta, or the collection of the sacred books of Zoroastrianism, a religion that was based on a belief in an eternal struggle between light and darkness and between good and evil. The development of the natural sciences during the ninth and tenth centuries led to the emergence of materialist views concerning nature that were in opposition to the predominant Muslim ideology. The founders of natural science in Middle Asia were al-Farghani and al-Khwarizmi. The pantheist world view of al-Farabi was one of the sources of the world view of Avicenna, who greatly influenced medieval philosophy and science. The scholar and encyclopedist ai-Biruni, who believed that science should seek to study nature by means of experiments, developed ideas of spontaneous materialism.

Sufism expanded in the second half of the tenth and the early 11th century. In the 12th century, Sufism was represented by the school of Yusuf Hamadhani, which was divided into several groups. The first and most important group was associated with the doctrine of al-Gijduvani. The founder of a second group was Ahmed Yasavi, who advocated renunciation, asceticism, humility, and submission to fate.

The onslaught of Genghis Khan in the 13th century led to a decline in Uzbek culture, which did not revive until the late 14th and the early 15th century. A new branch of Sufism was founded by Muhammad Nakshbendi, who opposed asceticism and mysticism and extolled the joys of life, labor, and knowledge.

In the 15th century, science and philosophy developed in Uzbekistan during the reign of Ulug Beg, who made an important contribution to Uzbek science and scholarship. Ulug Beg’s approach to nature—spontaneous materialism—was combined with civic views that were progressive for his times and that influenced his methods of governing. Alisher Navoi, an outstanding poet, statesman, and thinker, was a younger contemporary of Ulug Beg. A pantheist, Navoi opposed the mysticism of the Sufi ascetics and affirmed the value of earthly life.

The thinkers Turdy and Mashrab were instrumental in advancing freethinking and anticlerical views in Uzbekistan in the 17th and 18th centuries. The pantheist doctrine of Bedil became highly influential in Middle Asia. Recognizing that nature was eternal and had not been created, Bedil developed a theory of a unity of matter, spirit, and divine substance that was “diffused” throughout the world. Bedil’s progressive views were expressed in his criticism of Islam’s doctrine of predestination. In the 17th century the philosopher Karabagi affirmed the idea of the unity of existence.

The second half of the 19th century witnessed a new stage in the development of Uzbek culture. Uzbekistan’s annexation to Russia led to important political, economic, and social changes for the Uzbek people. The humanist, democratic thought that developed under the influence of progressive Russian culture was in contrast to feudal ideology and to Jadidism, the ideology of the emerging local bourgeoisie. The progressive thinkers Furkat and Mukimi advocated popular education and the preservation of national traditions as well as the study and assimilation of Russian and European culture. The ideological successors of Furkat and Mukimi were the satirist U. Zavki, the poet and humanist Avaz Omar-ogly, S. Aini, and Kh. Khamza Niiazi.

Marxist ideas were first propagated in Uzbekistan in the late 19th century by Social Democrats exiled from central Russia. The first illegal Social Democratic circles were founded in Tashkent in 1903 and and in Samarkand in 1904. After the October Revolution of 1917 and the establishment of Soviet power in Uzbekistan, a new stage in the development of philosophical thought began with the dissemination of Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Marxism-Leninism was established after a victorious struggle against Islam, Pan-Islam, and Pan-Turkism. Those contributing to the success of this struggle included P. A. Kobozev, Sh. A. Eliava, V. V. Kuibyshev, A. E. Rudzutak, and M. V. Frunze, as well as A. Ikramov and F. Khodzhaev.

Marx and Engels’ Communist Manifesto and V. I. Lenin’s works on nationalism, colonialism, and the state were published in Uzbek in the early 1920’s. Works on the theoretical heritage of Marxism-Leninism and on dialectical and historical materialism, logic, atheism, and the history of philosophy were published in the 1920’s by K. Erzin, N. Saidi, N. Khakim, R. Khalmuradov, and A. Shunosi. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, D. M. Babaev, N. M. Miroshkhina, and Kh. G. Rasulov conducted research on the history of Marxist-Leninist philosophy in Uzbekistan. The publication of Marx’ Das Kapital, of Engels’ Anti-Dühring, and of Lenin’s Selected Works (1947–53) in Uzbek were important events in the intellectual history of Uzbekistan.

Since the 1950’s, Uzbek philosophers have been trained and philosophical research has been conducted in the subdepartments of philosophy of the Middle Asian University in Tashkent (now the University of Tashkent) and of the University of Uzbekistan (now the University of Samarkand). The Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR was founded in 1958; research in philosophy is also conducted in almost 50 subdepartments of higher educational institutions in Uzbekistan.

The Uzbek thinker I. M. Muminov has written important studies on dialectical and historical materialism and on the history of philosophy. In the field of dialectical materialism, research is conducted on the interrelationship of the categories of dialectics, on the theory of reflection, and on philosophical issues associated with the natural sciences and with logic by L. E. Garber, B. I. Is-mailov, G. P. Lem, V. N. Moroz, Dzh. Tulenov, and A. F. Faiz-ullaev. In the area of historical materialism and scientific communism, issues under study include the generalizing of the achievements of socialist construction and party leadership through developing the economic, cultural, and ideological life of Uzbekistan. Further subjects under study include the national question, the theory of noncapitalist development, the cultural revolution, and the decreasing differences among the classes of socialist society. These issues are dealt with by R. Kh. Abdushu-kurov, A. S. Agaronian, A. Akhtamov, A. K. Valiev, Kh. P. Pu-latov, S. Tursunmukhammedov, and E. Iu. Iusupov.

Research on the social consequences of the scientific and technological revolution, on the formation of a communist attitude toward labor, and on a communist culture and way of life is being conducted by N. G. Gaibov, K. S. Sadykov, O. P. Umurzakova, and S. Sh. Shermukhamedov. Scientific atheism and atheistic and moral upbringing are being studied by A. A. Artykov and A. Bazarov. Research is being conducted on the history of Eastern philosophical and social thought and of Marxism-Leninism in Middle Asia; critical studies on the reactionary bourgeois and revisionist doctrines disseminated in the Near and Middle East are being written. Scholars working in these areas include Dzh. Babaev, M. B. Baratov, Kh. P. Vakhidov, V. Zakhidov, and M. M. Khairullaev. Since 1961, articles on philosophy have been published in the journal Obshchestvennye nauki v Uzbekistane (The Social Sciences in Uzbekistan).


HISTORIOGRAPHY. Information on the early history of Uzbekistan is provided by materials excavated at archaeological sites, by folklore, by the Avesta, and by the inscriptions of the Achaemen-ids. Works by Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Armenian historians contained information on the peoples of Uzbekistan. Many such early writings were lost during the Arab conquests of Middle Asia.

Works written from the ninth to 11th centuries that dealt with Uzbek history included al-Tabari’s Annals of Prophets and Kings, Ferdowsi’s narrative poem Shah-Nameh, al-Biruni’s Chronology of Ancient Nations, Beyhaqi’s History ofMasud, and Gardizi’s The Ornamentation of Chronicles. Works on geography written in the late tenth century included The Boundaries of the World. Mahmud Kaçgari dealt with the ethnology and history of the Turkic tribes in his Dictionary of Turkic Dialects. The Arabic and Persian authors Ibn al-Athir and wrote about the Mongol invasion.

Surviving historical works from the epoch of Tamerlane and the Timurids included Giyasaddin Ali’s Diary of Tamerlane’s Campaign Into India, Nizamaddin Shami’s Book of Victories, and works by Sharafaddin Yezli, Hafiza Abru, Abd al-Razzak of Samarkand, Mirkhwand, and Khondemir. Memoirs and works of historiography were written in the 16th century in Tadzhik and Uzbek by Ruzbehan of Isfahan, Benai, Muhammad Salikh, Ba-ber, and Hafiz Tanysh Bukhara. Muhammad Haidar’s Tarikh-i-Rashidi provided valuable information on the origins and early history of the Uzbeks and Kazakhs. Important works on the Bukhara and Khiva khanates included Abulgazi’s Family Tree of the Turkic Peoples and works by Mirmuhammad Amin Bukhara and Muhammad Yusuf (Munshi).

Uzbek historiographers of the first half of the 19th century included Muhammad Yakub, Mulla Ibadulla, Mulla Muhammad Sharif, Mirza Shems Bukhara, Shirmuhammad Mirob (Munis), and Muhammad Riza Agahi. Historical works by Muhammad Hakim, Avaz Muhammad, Niyaz Muhammad, and Mulla Alim Mahmud-Hadji were written after the establishment of the Kokand Khanate; Muhammad Salikh’s New History of Tashkent dealt with Russia’s annexation of the khanate. Akhmad Donish, who dealt with the history of Bukhara, was an outstanding Middle Asian historian of the second half of the 19th century.

In the late 19th century, Russian research institutions inaugurated the study of Middle Asia’s history and archaeology. This work was begun by the Archaeological Commission in the 1880’s, by the Eastern Division of the Russian Archaeological Society in the 1890’s, and by the Russian Committee for the Study of the History, Archaeology, Linguistics, and Ethnology of Middle and Eastern Asia in 1903. V. V. Bartol’d wrote outstanding works on the history of Middle Asia; M. A. Terent’ev’s History of the Conquest of Middle Asia was a valuable study, although it was written from a monarchist and colonialist standpoint. The historians V. V. Radlov, A. L. Kun, and A. A. Divaev studied the ethnology of Middle Asia (including Uzbekistan) and of Kazakhstan. Works on cotton cultivation, trade, industry, handicrafts, and the peoples of Middle Asia were published in the late 19th and the early 20th century by V. I. Masal’skii, O. A. Shkapskii, V. N. Ogloblin, and P. I. Pashino. The first archaeological excavations in Uzbekistan were conducted by N. I. Veselovskii and V. L. Viatkin.

After the victory of the October Revolution, the works of V. I. Lenin, Lenin’s theoretical legacy, and party documents aided greatly in the establishment and development of Uzbek historiography. Marxist historians conducted research at the Middle Asian Communist University (founded 1921) and at the Division of Party History of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Turkestan (1922). Universities and research centers in Moscow and Leningrad also trained Uzbek historians. The Turkestan Eastern Institute, founded in Tashkent in 1918, became part of the University of Turkestan in 1920; from 1923 to 1960 the institute was part of the Middle Asian University. Orientalists conducting research at the university included A. E. Shmidt, P. A. Falev, and E. D. Polikanov. The Samarkand Higher Pedagogical Institute (now the Alisher Navoi University of Samarkand) was founded in 1927.

The scholars M. S. Andreev, Divaev, P. I. Zarubin, and P. P. Kvanov made ethnologic maps of the peoples of Turkestan and collected ethnologic materials and examples of oral folk art. The archaeologists M. E. Masson, B. P. Denike, and A. Iu. Iaku-bovskii excavated the areas of ancient Termez, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khwarazm, and the valley of the Chirchik River; the resulting finds aided considerably in the study of the ancient and medieval history of Uzbekistan. Eastern manuscripts and official documents were collected and analyzed. The work of Bartol’d and his students on the history of feudalism in Middle Asia greatly influenced the development of Soviet Uzbek historiography.

In the 1920’s, Uzbek historians focused on the modern and contemporary history of Uzbekistan, the revolutionary and national liberation movements, the October Revolution and the Civil War, party history, and the colonial policies of tsarism. Scholars working in these fields included S. Aini, P. G. Antropov, P. G. Galuzo, D. I. Manzhara, S. D. Muraveiskii, L. Reztsov, T. R. Ryskulov, and F. Khodzhaev. Scholarly conferences were held on the Middle Asian Uprising of 1916 (1926) and the Revolution of 1905–07 (1930). Studies were made by A. Ikramov and E. Zel’kina on the agrarian question, on the class stratification of the Uzbek dekhkanstvo (peasantry), on the agrarian transformations carried out by Soviet power, and on the emergence of socialist relations in the kishlak (hamlet).

Departments of history were established in Uzbek higher educational institutions in the mid-1930’s, a period that also witnessed the founding of the Institute of Language, Literature, and History of the Uzbek Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1943 the institute became the Institute of History and Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. The archaeologist S. P. Tolstov conducted the Khorezm Archaeological and Ethnologic Expedition of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and the Uzbek Archaeological Expedition was led by Ia. G. Guliamov and V. A. Shishkin. Ethnologic research was conducted on the ethnogeny and ethnic composition of the Uzbek and Kara-Kalpak peoples.

Studies of Eastern manuscripts and of official documents by A. A. Semenov, O. D. Chekhovich, R. G. Mukminov, and R. M. Nabiev focused on the genesis of feudal society; works on the history of sociopolitcal thought were published by I. M. Mu-minov and M. M. Khairullaev. Comprehensive studies on the revolutionary and national liberation movements, the October Revolution, and the Civil War were made by V. B. Kastel’skaia and A. V. Piaskovskii. These works provided the basis for a major study, the History of the Peoples of Uzbekistan (vols. 1–2, 1947–50).

The 1960’s witnessed many important achievements by Uzbek historiographers. Numerous archaeological finds dating from the Stone Age were discovered in Uzbekistan. Studies of the Za-man-Baba culture, which was discovered by Ia. G. Guliamov, clarified the economic relations between early land-cultivating communities and stock-raising tribes. Uzbek scholars also published works on the history of irrigation. The study of valuable archaeological finds of the 1950’s and 1960’s at Varakhsha, Kuva, Khalchaian, and Afrasiab resulted in the publication of major works by G. A. Pugachenkova and L. I. Rempel’ on the early culture and art of Uzbekistan and on the role of Middle Asian civilization in world culture.

The historians T. A. Zhdanko, N. A. Kisliakov, S. Mirkha-silov, and K. Shaniiazov have focused on the ethnic composition of Uzbekistan and the changes taking place in the life of the working class and the kolkhoz peasantry. Studies on Uzbekistan’s political, economic, and cultural ties with Russia are being conducted by A. M. Aminov, B. V. Lunin, S. K. Kamalov, R. Kosbergeneov, A. S. Sadykov, Iu. A. Sokolov, N. A. Khalfin, and G. A. Khidoiatov. Monographs on the history of the revolutionary movement and of the CPSU have been written by P. A. Kovalev and Kh. T. Tursunov. The history of the October Revolution has been the subject of monographs by I. K. Dodonov, M. G. Vakhabov, Ia. M. Dosumov, K. E. Zhitov, Kh. Sh. Inoia-tov, V. P. Kharin, and D. I. Soifer. The historians A. I. Ishanov, G. P. Makarova, K. Mukhammedberdyev, and G. Nepesov have published monographs on the history of popular revolutions in Khorezm and Bukhara.

Works on the defeat of foreign and domestic counterrevolutions have been written by Iu. N. Aleskerov, A. Kh. Babakho-dzhaev, A. I. Zevelev, M. Kh. Nazarov, R. A. Nurullin, and Sh. A. Shamagdiev. The historians M. A. Akhunova, L. V. Gentshke, L. G. Teteneva, and A. F. Iatsyshina have focused on the working class of Uzbekistan. Sh. A. Abdullaev and Y. Ia. Nepomnin have analyzed the achievements of socialist construction in the republics of Middle Asia. Agrarian transformations and kolkhoz construction have been the subject of works by R. Kh. Aminova, I. M. Davydov, O. B. Dzhamalov, A. Iu. Ibra-gimova, L. Z. Kunakova, A. Razzakov, and G. R. Rizaev. V. Sh. Bagdasarov and Sh. N. Ul’masbaev have published studies on industrial development, and K. A. Akilov, A. K. Valiev, I. N. Kary-Niiazov, and T. Irnazarov have written works on the cultural revolution. The historians T. D. Dzhuraev, Zh. Kalymbetov, and V. I. Efimov have focused on Uzbekistan during the Great Patriotic War.

Major works and monographs on the history of the Communist Party have been published by Kh. Guliamov, M. Musaev, K. Khasanov, Kh. Tursunov, and V. M. Iakovlev. The soviets and state construction have been the subjects of studies by A. Agzamkhodzhaev, D. Allamuradov, G. Rashidov, Sh. Z. Urazaev, and M. K. Khakimov. The second, enlarged four-volume edition of the History of the Uzbek SSR was published in 1967–68, the History of the Uzbek SSR (vol. 1) and the History of the Kara-Kalpak ASSR (vols. 1–2) in 1974, the History of Samarkand (vols. 1–2) in 1969–70, and the History of Bukhara in !976.

The leading center for the study of party history in Uzbekistan is the Institute of Party History of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan; the institute is affiliated with the Uzbek Branch of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The Institute of Party History has translated and published in Uzbek the fourth edition of the Works of V. I. Lenin and has begun publication in Uzbek of Lenin’s Complete Collected Works. The institute has also prepared for publication The CPSU in Resolutions and has published Karl Marx’ Das Kapital in Uzbek, as well as the resolutions and decrees of the congresses of the Communist parties of Uzbekistan and Turkestan.

Scholarly cooperation among the historians of the republics of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan is increasing. In 1967 the historians of Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia, Turkmenia, and Kazakhstan published the joint works The Victory of Soviet Power in Middle Asia and Kazakhstan and The History of the Communist Organizations of Middle Asia. Scholars from these republics are preparing a history of the working class, of agrarian socialist transformations, and of cultural progress in Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. Uzbek historians are helping prepare major works on the history of the USSR and in historiography. Many international and all-Union scholarly meetings, conferences, and symposia have been held in Tashkent and Samarkand.


ECONOMICS. Before the October Revolution of 1917, economic research was conducted in the territory of Uzbekistan by individual scholars and at institutions of the Russian Empire. Economic research essentially served the interests of tsarist colonial policies and of the Russian bourgeoisie in Turkestan. Numerous reports by the Turkestan governor-generals that were published beginning in late 1860 provided a certain amount of information on the development of cotton cultivation, irrigation, and industry, as well as on agrarian relations, the economic development of new lands, and the exploitation of raw materials. A survey of Turkestan Krai that was conducted by K. K. Païen was the subject of a report published from 1909 to 1911 in 19 volumes. Further pre-revolutionary works on the economic development of Uzbekistan included An Economic Survey of the Turkestan Region Served by the Middle Asian Railroad (parts 1–3,1913) by S. I. Gulishamba-rov, The Industry and Trade of Turkestan (1914) by V. N. Oglob-lin, and Industrial Enterprises of Turkestan Krai (1915) by V. V. Zaorskaia and K. A. Aleksander. Information on the economic development of Uzbekistan was also contained in statistical weeklies dealing with the Fergana, Samarkand, and Syr Darya oblasts.

The study of economics in Uzbekistan expanded during the years of socialist construction. Economic research was conducted at a number of scholarly centers founded in the 1920’s. They included the Research Seminars on Economics and on the Organization of Agriculture (founded 1921) of the department of agriculture of the Middle Asian State University, the Bureau of Finance and Economics of the People’s Commissariat of Finance of the Turkestan ASSR (1922), the Commission for the Study of the Kishlak [Hamlet] and Aul [Village] in Middle Asia Under the Auspices of the Commissioner of the Council of Labor and Defense (1925), the Economics Research Bureau of the Department of Soviet Economy and Law of the Middle Asian State University (1926), the Institute of Economic Research (1927) of the Middle Asian State Planning Committee (Gosplan), and the Research Institute of Economics (1928). These research centers were headed by the economists G. N. Cherdantsev, N. N. Kazhanov, and N. K. Iaroshevich; their staffs included Iu. I. Poslavskii, A. I. Golovin, V. V. Rusinov, V. S. Batrakov, M. A. Stetsenko, and S. F. Arkhangel’skii. Topics studied at the centers included the socioeconomic development of the regions of Turkestan, including Uzbekistan, changes taking place in the village, the restoration of agriculture and industry, and the economic regionalization and economic consolidation of the republics of Middle Asia.

The economists of the Turkestan ASSR conducted demographic, agricultural, and industrial censuses in 1920 and published the collection The Middle Asian Economic Region, edited by Poslavskii and Cherdantsev (1922). A series of ten monographs under the collective title The Contemporary Kishlak of Middle Asia (1926–27) aided greatly in the implementation of land and water reforms in the Middle Asian republics and in laying the foundation for the socialist reorganization of agriculture. Studies were published on the implementation of the tax and credit reforms of 1930–31, on industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture, and on the rational distribution of productive forces.

After World War II (1939–45), several different approaches to economics emerged in Uzbekistan, all concerned with the theory and practice of communist construction and with the building of socialism in Uzbekistan without an intermediary stage of capitalism. The publication of monographs on these topics was directed by A. M. Aminov and O. B. Dzhamalov.

During the 1960’s and the first half of the 1970’s, Uzbek economists analyzed the branches of Uzbekistan’s national economy and helped develop methods for establishing close relations between the two forms of socialist property, for increasing efficiency in production, and for eliminating substantial differences between city and countryside. Studies are presently being conducted on the development of Uzbekistan’s productive forces and of major territorial production complexes.

A plan for the long-term development and distribution of the republic’s productive forces has been prepared by the Council for the Study of Productive Forces and the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR in cooperation with other organizations. Studies have been published on the comprehensive development of the Fergana Valley, the Angren-Alma-lyk Mining and Industrial Region, and the Bukhara-Navoi and Lower Amu Darya territorial production complexes. The cycle of works The Productive Forces of Uzbekistan During the Last Fifty Years and Their Comprehensive Development was published by the economists K. N. Bedrintsev, I. I. Iskanderov, K. I. Lapkin, Z. M. Akramov, Sh. N. Zakirov, and B. A. Pal’min.

Uzbek economists are resolving key problems of improving the balance method in planning and are developing ways of determining the effectiveness of capital investments, fixed capital stock, and new technology. Analyses of socialist reproduction, of the balance of the national economy, and of scientific and technological progress have made it possible to prepare long-range forecasts of rates of development and ratios of the sectors of Uzbekistan’s national economy. These studies include S. K. Ziiadul-laev’s Uzbekistan’s Industry and the Basic Economic Problems of Its Development (1967), The Planning and Development of the Economy of the Uzbek SSR (1972), I. I. Iskanderov’s Economic Problems of the Development of the Textile Industry in Uzbekistan (1969), The Textile Industry of Uzbekistan (1974), and the collective monographs The Economics of the Chemical Industry of Uzbekistan (1968) and The Reproduction of the Gross Product in the Industry of the Uzbek SSR (1972).

In agriculture, Uzbek economists are focusing on a number of problems, including the further development of cotton cultivation in the national economy, increases in agricultural production, the distribution of agricultural products, specialization in agriculture, the effectiveness of capital investments, the further implementation of mechanization and of chemical processes, and the improvement of material incentives. A group of economists directed by K. I. Lapkin has developed an efficient system that embraces agricultural regionalization, specialization in agricultural production, and optimal sizes of agricultural enterprises. These economists have prepared forecasts of the development of the republic’s agriculture and have published the joint monograph Systems of Managing the Agriculture of the Uzbek SSR (1973). Uzbek economists also deal with the irrigation and development of virgin lands, the planning of prices for agricultural products, and the profitability of agricultural production on kolkhozes and sovkhozes.

Important studies have been made in the 1970’s on the principles and regional characteristics of the reproduction of the population and of labor resources, on the results achieved by scientific research, and on the republic’s socioeconomic development. A long-range comprehensive plan for the socioeconomic development of Tashkent is being compiled, as are comprehensive plans for the socioeconomic development of the Uzbek republic’s major enterprises in industry and construction and of kolkhozes and sovkhozes.

The centers for economic research in Uzbekistan are the Institute for Economics of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR (founded 1943), the Middle Asian Scientific Research Institute of the Economics of Agriculture (1958), a branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the Study of the Demand for Consumer Goods and of Market Conditions of the Ministry of Trade of the USSR (1966), a branch of the Central Institute for the Scientific Organization of Labor and Management (1968), the Tashkent Institute of the National Economy (1931), and the V. V. Kuibyshev Samarkand Cooperative Institute (1936). Economic research is also conducted at more than 60 subdepartments of economics of higher educational institutions and at 45 divisions of economics of research institutes specializing in fields other than economics. Articles by Uzbek economists are published in the journals Ekonomika i zhizn’ (Economics and Life, since 1959) and Obshchestvennye nauki v Uzbekistane (The Social Sciences in Uzbekistan, 1961), as well as in numerous collections of learned transactions published by higher educational institutions and research institutes.


JURISPRUDENCE. Legal scholarship in Uzbekistan began developing only after the Great October Socialist Revolution. A department of socioeconomics with divisions of law and economics was established in Tashkent in 1918 as part of the Turkestan People’s University. The law division became a research institute of law when the Turkestan State University was founded in September 1920. In 1930, subdepartments of law had been established at a number of other higher educational institutions, and the first Uzbek works on law and the state had been published. The founding of the Middle Asian Communist University, which had a division of Soviet construction and law, aided greatly in the development of Uzbek legal scholarship.

The Scientific Research Institute of Soviet Construction and Law of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Uzbek SSR was founded in 1931, and the Tashkent Institute of Law (now the department of law of the V. I. Lenin University of Tashkent) was established in 1938. After the Great Patriotic War, the Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR was established. During the postwar years the Higher School of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and a research institute of expert legal testimony were founded in Tashkent; subdepartments of law were established at several higher educational institutions in Uzbekistan. As of 1976, some 130 doctors of sciences and candidates of sciences were conducting legal research in Uzbekistan.

Uzbek legal scholars have published important monographs on current issues of law and the state, including the joint works The History of the Soviet State and Law of Uzbekistan (vols. 1–3, 1960–68) and State Construction and Law in the Uzbek SSR (1974). Kh. S. Sulaimanova’s Collected Works (vols. 1–3, 1967–71) was an important contribution to the development of legal scholarship in Uzbekistan. Studies on the national Soviet state system of the peoples of Middle Asia have included Sh. Z. Uruzaev’s V. I. Lenin and the Building of the Soviet State System in Turkestan (1967), A. I. Ishanov’s The Bukhara People’s Soviet Republic (1969), and A. A. Agzamkhodzhaev’s The Emergence and Development of the Uzbek SSR (1971). Additional works on the subject are M. Kh. Khakimov’s The Development of the Soviet National State System in Uzbekistan During the Transition to Socialism (1965) and M. S. Vasikova’s Legislation in the Uzbek SSR (1973).

Other works of Uzbek legal scholarship have dealt with civil law, including Kh. R. Rakhmankulov’s Treaties on Commodity Exchange Between Industry and Agriculture (1969). Studies on land and water law have included I. D. Dzhalilov’s The Emergence and Development of Soviet Land Law in Uzbekistan (1970). Ia. E. Pesin’s The Development of Family Law Guarantees of the Rights of Women in Uzbekistan (1971) deals with family and marital law. Works on criminal law and procedure include G. P. Sarkisiants’ The Defense Lawyer in Criminal Procedure (1971) and G. A. Akhmedov’s The Jurisdiction of the Union Republic inthe Area of Criminal Legislation (1972). Scholarly research is conducted in close cooperation with legal scholars from the other Middle Asian republics and with the support of the major legal scholars and research centers of the RSFSR.


Scientific institutions. An extensive network of scientific institutions has been created in Uzbekistan during the Soviet period. By the beginning of 1976, there were 195 scientific research institutions in the republic, including higher educational institutions, as compared with a total of 94 scientific research institutions in 1940. The leading scientific center is the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, which comprises seven divisions, a branch in the Kara-Kalpak ASSR, and 30 scientific institutions.

On Jan. 1, 1976, there were about 31,000 scientific workers in Uzbekistan, of which 745 were doctors of science and 10,505 were candidates of science; by comparison, the number of scientific workers was 3,000 in 1940 and 10,300 in 1960. The scientific workers in the republic included one academician and one corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, two academicians and two corresponding members of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, one academician and five corresponding members of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, four academicians and five corresponding members of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and 45 academicians and 51 corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR.

Scientific work is coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR in the natural and social sciences and by the Middle Asian Division of the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (since 1972) and the Coordinating Council for Combating Cotton Wilt in the agricultural sciences. The scientific institutions maintain close ties with the institutions of fraternal Union republics. Joint research programs are conducted with the Academies of Sciences of the Kazakh, Turkmen, Tadzhik, and Kirghiz SSR’s in seismology, the development of desert and semidesert regions, the cultivation of crops used as industrial raw materials, the development and allocation of productive forces, history, and literary theory and criticism.

Regular contacts with the scientific institutions of foreign countries are being strengthened. The scholars and scientists of Uzbekistan take part in international congresses and conferences and, within the framework of programs of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, conduct scientific research in alkaloid and sterol chemistry and the cultivation of algae. They also take part in international programs, such as the International Geophysical Year, the International Year of the Quiet Sun, the study of the earth’s upper mantle, and latitude measurements. Joint projects have been conducted with the USA in the field of solar engineering and with India in the chemistry of natural compounds, irrigation, and the study of the cultures of the peoples of the East.

The all-Union journals Geliotekhnika (Solar Engineering) and Khimiia prirodnykh soedinenii (Chemistry of Natural Compounds) have been published by the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR since 1965 and are issued in English translation in the USA.


Sadykov, A. S. “Nauka Sovetskogo Uzbekistana.” In Lenin i sovremennaianauka, vol. 2. Moscow, 1970.
Sadykov, A. S. “Istoki i razvitie nauki Sovetskogo Uzbekistana.” In Nauka Soiuza SSR. Moscow, 1972.
Nauka v Uzbekistane, vols. 1–2. Tashkent, 1974.
Istoriia Uzbeksoi SSR. Tashkent, 1974.
Iz istorii rasprostraneniia marksistsko-leninskikh idei v Uzbekistane. Tashkent, 1962.
Muminov, I. M. Vydaiushchiesia mysliteli Srednei Azii. Moscow, 1966.
Istoriia filosofii v SSSR, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1968–71.


Prior to the October Revolution of 1917, there were 25 small printing presses and lithography studios in Uzbekistan, essentially serving the Russian administration. In 1913, 56 book titles totaling 118,000 copies were published; these included 33 titles in Uzbek, totaling 79,000 copies. The Turkestan State Publishing House, the first in the Soviet East, was formed in 1920; after the national-state demarcation in 1924, various publishing houses of the Middle Asian republics branched off from this enterprise. In 1925,334 book and pamphlet titles totaling 1,508,000 copies were published.

In 1925, Uzgosizdat published an Uzbek translation of V. I. Lenin’s speech at the Third Congress of the Komsomol, and in 1926 it published a collection of Lenin’s works on the national question. Book publication reached 11.2 million copies in 1940 and approximately 20 million copies in 1960.

There were seven book publishing houses operating in Uzbekistan as of 1975: the Uzbekistan Publishing House, the G. Guli-am Publishing House of Literature and Art, Ukituvchi (Teacher), Esh Gvardiia (Young Guard), Fan (Science), Meditsina (Medicine), and Karakalpakistan (Karakalpakia). In addition, the main editorial office of the Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia Publishing House and the Newspaper and Journal Publishing House of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Uzbek SSR are located in the republic. Various publishing houses put out 2,280 book, pamphlet, journal, and other titles (not including newspapers), with a total of more than 47 million copies in 1975. Six volumes of the Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia (1st ed., 15 vols.) had come out by 1975. Major publishing enterprises also include the Middle Asian Division of the central publishing house Vnesh-torgizdat and the Tashkent division of Progress Publishers, which puts out political and literary writings in Arabic, Persian, and other Eastern languages.

The first Uzbek-language newspaper came out as a supplement to the government newspaper Turkestanskie vedomosti (1870). Beginning in 1883 it was published separately as Turkiston viloia-lining gazeti (the Turkestan Native Newspaper), with an average circulation of 500–600. Private newspapers were published in Russian in the late 19th century. A Bolshevik press appeared with the emergence of the Social Democratic movement in the region. Beginning in 1904, the Social Democrats first published leaflets; in 1905 they began to publish the illegal newspapers Rabochii and Soldatskii listok—Pravda, and by 1907 they had shifted completely to newspapers. The newspapers Russkii Turkestan and Samarkand became the legal organs of the Bolsheviks. Fourteen newspapers were published in 1914, including one in Uzbek.

The first Uzbek-language newspaper dealing with party and soviet affairs was Ishtirokiiun (Communist), first published in 1918. Sixteen newspapers in local languages came out in 1924. The newspapers Kambagal dekhkon (The Poor Dekhkan), Ishchi (Worker), and Kolkhoz iuli (Kolkhoz Path), among others, were founded during the period that saw the implementation of land and water reforms, industrialization, and collectivization. In 1975, 256 newspaper editions came out, of which 15 were republic-wide, 22 oblast-wide, four with circulation throughout the autonomous republic, and 143 city- and raion-wide; there were also 72 local and kolkhoz newspapers. Total circulation was 881.1 million. The republic also has 169 Uzbek-language newspapers.

Republic-wide newspapers include the Uzbek-language Sovet Uzbekistoni (Soviet Uzbekistan, since 1918), Esh leninchi (Young Leninist, since 1925), Uzbekistan madaniiati (Culture of Uzbekistan, since 1956), Ukituvchilar gazetasi (Teacher’s Gazette, since 1931), and Lenin uchkuni (Leninist Iskra, since 1929). The republic’s Russian-language newspapers with republic-wide circulation are Pravda Vostoka (since 1917), Komsomolas Uzbekistana (since 1926), and Pioner Vostoka (since 1927). One newspaper published in both Uzbek and Russian is Kishlok khakikati (Sel’skaia pravda, since 1974).

The republic also has the Tadzhik-language newspaper Khakikati Uzbekiston (Uzbekistan Pravda, since 1924) and Lenin bairaghy (The Leninist Banner, since 1957), which is published in the Crimean Tatar language.

Journals dealing with the party, socipolitical matters, youth, literature, science, technical fields, and satire are also published. They include Kommunist Uzbekistana (in Uzbek since 1925; in Russian since 1960), Partiinaia zhizn’ (in Uzbek and Russian, since 1958), Shark iulduzi (Star of the East, since 1933), Gulistan (Flower Bed, since 1925), and Mushlum (Fist, since 1923). In 1975, there were 141 periodicals with a total yearly circulation of 134.4 million copies, including The Propagandist’s Referral, 41 magazines and journals, 48 transactions and scholarly works, and 38 bulletins.

The offices of the Uzbek Information Agency (UzTAG) are located in Tashkent. In accordance with Lenin’s instructions, the first radio station in Middle Asia was built in Tashkent in 1921; in 1922 it began conducting test broadcasts. The first radio station capable of reaching a wide audience began broadcasting Feb. 11, 1927. The republic’s three radio stations daily broadcasted an average of 35 hours in 1975. Broadcasts are in Uzbek, Russian, Tadzhik, Kazakh, Kara-Kalpak, Tatar, and Uighur. Broadcasts from Moscow total 32 hours a day. Broadcasts from Tashkent for foreign listeners have been conducted since 1947 (seven hours a day in 1975), in English, Farsi, Arabic, Hindi, Urdu, Uighur, and Uzbek.

Regular television broadcasts began in 1956. In 1974, three television stations broadcast in Uzbek, Russian, and Kazakh; republic-wide television programs were broadcast 11 hours a day. Television broadcasts are relayed from Moscow, Frunze, and Dushanbe and total as much as 15 hours a day. A television center, a radio and recording studio, and the professional association UzbektelefiPm are located in Tashkent.


Ernazarov, T. E. Rastsvet narodnoipechati v Uzbekistane. Tashkent, 1968.
Iuldashev, Z. I. Razvitie knigoizdatel’skogo delà v Uzbekistane. (Tashkent, 1969).
Safarov, R. A. Pressa Uzbekistana v kommunisticheskom stroitel’stve. Tashkent, 1973.
Esin, A. F. Radio i televidenie Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1975.
Ernazarov, T. E., and A. I. Akbarov. Istoriia pechati Turkestana. Tashkent, 1976.


Folktales are of great importance in the abundant and diverse oral literature of the Uzbek people, including animal tales, fairy tales, and tales dealing with everyday life. Among the last, the liatifa (anecdote) is of particular interest; cycles of liatifas were recited by the jesters Aldar Kose, Kal the Bald, and the folk sage and wit Nasreddin Afandi. The folk variants of the liatifa have many elements of social satire. The epic genre of the dastan also became widely popular. More than 200 dastans with 80 plots have been recorded as recited by 50 professional narrators. They include the heroic epic Alpamysh, the heroic romantic epic Ker-ogly, with more than 40 plots, the war narrative Yusuf and Akhmed, and romantic dastans in the form of fairy tales and short stories of adventure. Folkloric dastans include Takhir and Zu-khra, Shirin and Shakar, and the Rustamkhon cycle. There are also literary dastans, whose plots were generally borrowed from traditional works in Arabic, Persian-Tadzhik, or Old Uzbek; among such dastans are Farkhad and Shirin, Leyla and Mejnun, and Yusuf and Zulaikha. Unlike the early dastans, modern dastans depict actual historical events, as in Khasan the Farm Laborer and The Dzhizak Uprising.

Uzbek written literature was greatly influenced by the classic Farsi-language literature that developed in Middle Asia until the 11th century. The pre-Islamic culture of the Turkic peoples produced a few written works in the ancient Turkic languages, among them the Orkhon-Enisei inscriptions (seventh to 12th centuries) and the Penitential Prayer of the Manichaeans (fifth century), which was written in the ancient Uighur alphabet. Owing to the similarities among the Turkic languages, such works are of cultural interest for all the Turkic-speaking peoples. Didactic works that appeared later were influenced by Islamic ethics; they included Yusuf Balasaghuni’s Knowledge Which Gives Happiness (1069) and Akhmad Iugnaki’s Gift of Truths (late 12th and early 13th centuries). A notable work of the 11th century was the Dictionary of Turkic Dialects (1072–74), compiled by Mahmud Ka§gari.

Uzbek literature underwent an intensive development beginning in the 14th century. Many genres flourished, including lyric and epic poetry, elegies, romantic dastans, prose reminiscences, and historical works. Secular themes entered literature, as seen in Durbek’s romantic narrative love poem Yusuf and Zulaikha (late 14th and early 15th centuries), which originated in a biblical legend that became known in the East through the Koran. Many works of literature were translated from Farsi to Uzbek and from Uzbek to Farsi.

Samarkand became a cultural center in the late 14th century. Many poets and scholars lived there and the outstanding poets Jami (1414–92) and Alisher Navoi (1441–1501) studied there. Herat was a second cultural center of Middle Asia and Khurasan in the 15th century; its scholars conducted important philological research and collected rare literary manuscripts.

Turkic-language literature became increasingly important in the 15th century. A brilliant poet of the period was Lutfi (c. 1367–1465), who extolled ideal love in the narrative poem Gul and Navruz (1411). The poetry of Navoi was of particular importance. Navoi arranged his Turkic-language lyrics in four divans (collections), whose allegorical titles were The Wonders of Childhood, Youth’s Curiosities, The Wonders of Middle Age, and Exhortations of Old Age. The collections included Navoi’s best works, among them qasidas, ghazals, qitas, and rubais. Outstanding among Navoi’s rich poetic heritage was his Quintuplet, the first Turkic-language literary response to Nizami Ganjevi’s work of the same name. Navoi gave brief descriptions of the major poets of the 15th century in the anthology A Gathering of Refined Men (1491–92). He dealt with aesthetics and the theory of literature in many of his works and contributed greatly to the development of Turkic versification in the treatise The Balance of Meters. Uzbek literature became known worldwide because of Navoi’s works.

Uzbek literature of the period from the 16th century to the first half of the 19th century was marked by two trends: that of panegyric court literature and that of democratic literature. Groups of ascetic hermits that were widespread in Middle Asia and that were associated with the dervish movement opposed the existing system of government. Poets belonging to these groups wrote mystic verse and disseminated Sufism.

Historical events of the 16th century were reflected in the heroic narrative poem Sheibani-name (1506) by Muhammad Salikh (1455–1535) and in the writings of Zahir al-Din Muhammad Ba-ber (1483–1530), whose surviving works are a short lyric divan and the autobiographical Babur-name. However, Salikh and Ba-ber often dealt with historical events in a tendentious manner. The khan of Khiva, Abulgazi (1606–63), wrote Turkmen Genealogy and The Family Tree of the Turkic Peoples (unfinished), which contained valuable information on the history of the Turkmens, Uzbeks, Kara-Kalpaks, and Kazakhs, as well as many folk legends, tales, proverbs, and sayings. The short stories “The Key of Justice” and “The Flower Bed” by Khodzha (Posh-shokhodzha) were important contributions to 16th-century Uzbek literature.

During the period of the independent Bukhara, Khiva, and Kokand khanates, the outstanding democratic poets Turdi (17th and early 18th centuries) and Babarakhim Mashrab (1657–1711) condemned the tyranny of feudal rulers, thus reflecting a popular trend in literature. The influence of folklore on literature increased, and the interrelationships among the literatures of Middle Asia were intensified. Medzhlisi’s Kissai Saifulmuliuk (early 16th century) was an adaptation of amorous adventures from the Arabian Nights. Between 1793 and 1796 the poet Saikali wrote the dastan Bakhram and Gulandam and a dastan about amorous adventures, Khamro and Khurliko, which became widely known among the Turkmens as Khiurlukga and Khamra. Sayyodi, a poet of the 17th and 18th centuries, wrote a literary adaptation of the outstanding folkloric dastan Takhir and Zukhra, which is popular among many peoples of Southwest and Middle Asia.

The main centers of Uzbek literature in the 18th and 19th centuries were the Fergana Valley, Khwarazm, and Bukhara. The poet and historian Ravnak Pakhlavonkuli, whose works expressed pessimism, was renowned in the Khiva khanate. The poetry of Nishati Khorezmi, who was influenced by Navoi and the Azerbaijani poet Fizuli, also reflected disenchantment.

The poets Nadira (1791–1842), Uvaisi (1780’s to c. 1850), and Makhzuna, whose traditional love poetry was marked by mastery of form, were prominent in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In the first half of the 19th century the works of the poets Muhammad Sharif Gulkhani (late 18th and early 19th centuries), Makhmur (died 1844), and Agakhi (1809–74) reflected progressive social trends. Gulkhani’s Stories About the Owl, or Sayings, written in the form of a folktale and based on Language of the Birds, a work by the 12th-century poet Attar, was a brilliant attack on the ruling feudal lords, the reactionary clergy, and the morally deficient courtiers. Makhmur’s satirical writings were popular as well. The verse works of the poet and historian Munis Khorezmi (1778–1829) became masterpieces of Uzbek classical literature. Khorezmi’s other works included the Treatise on Literacy (1804) and an unfinished chronicle, the Paradisiacal Garden of Happiness; it was completed by Khorezmi’s nephew Agakhi, who also wrote the lengthy divan Talisman of the Lovers.

Uzbek literature of the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century was increasingly influenced by Russian culture, a process facilitated by Russia’s annexation of Middle Asia. Works of Russian literature were translated into Uzbek. Progressive Uzbek poets extolled Russian culture and attacked ignorance, stagnation, and conservatism. The poets Mukimi (1851–1903), Zakirdzhan Furkat (1858–1909), Zavki (1853–1921), Avaz Otar (1884–1919), Dilshad (1800/180r–1905/1906), and Anbar-Atin (1870–1915) were outstanding representatives of the progressive democratic trend in Uzbek literature. They introduced sociopolitical issues into their works and inaugurated realism in Uzbek literature.

The democratic trend in Uzbek literature was established after a successful struggle with Jadidism, a Middle Asian bourgeois nationalist movement of the late 19th century. Because of the originally humanist orientation of Jadidism, many members of the Uzbek intelligentsia, including writers, aligned themselves temporarily with the movement. Later, however, most of them left Jadidism and supported the October Revolution. These writers included the founders of Soviet Uzbek literature, Khamza Kha-kimzade Niiazi (1889–1929) and Sadriddin Aini (1878–1954). Aini, who was a Tadzhik, is also considered to be the founder of Soviet Tadzhik literature.

Khamza was influenced by Russian writers, particularly Russian playwrights and democratic poets. He wrote plays dealing with Uzbek life and in 1915 founded a young actors’ theater company. Aini began writing during the period of the Bukhara Khanate, in which early literary traditions were maintained. During the early 20th century the prose epistle was the only literary genre written in prose; Aini was the first to use colloquial Uzbek in this genre. He welcomed the October Socialist Revolution in the poem “March of Freedom” (1918).

The October Revolution engendered a true cultural renaissance in Uzbekistan and revealed new vistas for the growth of folk talent. The most advanced representatives of the prerevolutionary intelligentsia—Khamza, Aini, and Abdulla Kadyri (1894–1940)—were the founders of Soviet Uzbek literature. Many young writers began their literary careers at the time of the Revolution, including Aibek (1905–68), Gafur Guliam (1903–66), Abdulla Kakhkhar (1907–68), Khamid Alimdzhan (1909–44), Uigun (born 1905), and Kamil’ Iashen (born 1909). These writers helped lay the cornerstone of Soviet Uzbek literature, which at the time was devoted mainly to the achievements of the Revolution and to socialist life. The emancipation of women, which had been dealt with in prerevolutionary literature, remained a topical theme, and rural issues became prominent in literature.

Works of political and topical satire attacked the reactionary Muslim clergy, the antipopular policies of the beys, and the profiteering bourgeoisie. Writers of both the older generation, such as Aini and Kadyri, and of the younger generation, for example, Kakhkhar and Gafur Guliam, published their works in the satirical journal Mushtum (The Fist; founded 1923). Literature reflected the struggle of the masses and their heroism in the building of socialist society. The hero of literary works was now depicted as the builder of a new life, in contrast to the heroes of earlier literary works, who were portrayed as victims of social injustice. Socialist realism became the new literary method of depicting life.

However, socialist realism was not immediately established in Uzbek literature. Many writers continued”to extol abstract love. Uzbek literature was somewhat influenced by futurism and ur-banism, although these literary trends were not widespread. The ideological and aesthetic struggle in literature led to the establishment of organizations whose aim was to unite the followers of socialist realism. In 1928 the Uzbek Association of Proletarian Writers was founded in Tashkent. Writers in Samarkand, who were mainly pro-Soviet in orientation, formed the Kizil Kalam (Red Pen) society. Both organizations were instrumental in establishing Soviet Uzbek literature.

The Writers’ Union of Uzbekistan was founded in 1934. Its first congress was held in May 1934, the second in April 1939, the third in August 1954, the fourth in October 1958, the fifth in May 1965, the sixth in April 1971, and the seventh in April 1976.

Increased attention was devoted to Uzbek folk literature after the October Revolution. The most outstanding Uzbek folk poets, including Pulkan-shair (1874–1941), Ergash Dzhumanbul’-bul’-ogly (1868–1937), Fazyl Iuldash-ogly (1872–1955), and Islam Nazar-ogly (1874–1953), from the earliest years of Soviet power depicted revolutionary events, condemned the opponents of the Soviet system, and upheld the new way of life.

The main trend in Soviet Uzbek poetry of the 1920’s and 1930’s was closely associated with the rich traditions of classical Uzbek poetry. However, young poets often went beyond these limitations. Owing to the conflict between the partisans of the old classical poetic forms and new forms, the syllabic barmok system of folk poetry replaced the quantitative aruz system. The subjective lyric gave way to the civic lyric; abstract lyric images and symbols were replaced by a portrayal of actual life. The theme of labor became important. Unlike the poets of the past, who depicted joyless, exhausting labor, the Soviet Uzbek poets extolled emancipated labor. The depiction of the lyric hero changed as well, as seen in the poetry of Gairati (1905–76), Maksud Sheikhzade (1908–67), Abdulla Sabir (1905–72), Mirtemir (born 1910), and Zul’fia (born 1915).

The writing of prose developed extensively during the Soviet period. In the early 20th century the main prose genres were short stories and novellas, such as those of Khamza and Kadyri. In the 1920’s and 1930’s the first Uzbek historical novels and novels of everyday life were written; examples were Kadyri’s Days Past (1925) and Scorpion From the Altar (1929), Kakhkhar’s Mirage (1937), and Kh. Shamsa’s The Enemy (1939). Writers sought to create new heroes and to achieve a mastery of prose. However, the works of some authors of the 1930’s were not free of clichés and stereotyped, oversimplified plots.

Topical poetry predominated during the Great Patriotic War (1941–45). Verses that became popular at this time included Ga-fur Guliam’s poems “You Are Not an Orphan” and “I Am a Jew, ” Alimdzhan’s collections Mother and Son (1942) and Faith (1943), and the poetry of Uigun and Sheikhzade. Some works of poetry were written at the war front. The principal prose genres were the sketch and the short story; writers of sketches depicted the heroic labor of the Uzbek people on the home front. Writers also turned to history, as seen in Alimdzhan’s historical verse drama Mukanna (1942–43) and Aibek’s historical biographical novel Navoi (1945).

Postwar Uzbek literature was marked by a variety of themes, genres, and forms. To a certain extent the short stories and journalism written during the war prepared the way for the postwar depiction of the military heroism of the Soviet people in epic prose genres—the novella and the novel. These genres underwent extensive development after the war and particularly during the 1950’s and 1960’s. The war was the subject of the novels Real Love (1957) by Ibragim Rakhim (born 1916), The Sun Will Not Dim (1958) by Aibek, The Years in Trench Coats by Shukhrat (born 1918), and The Horizon by Said Akhmad (born 1920). The labor of the Soviet people during the war was depicted in the novel The Mighty Wave (1964) by Sharaf Rashidov (born 1917).

Uzbek prose writers also wrote major works about contemporary Uzbek rural life, for example, Aibek’s novel Wind of the Golden Valley (1950), Kakhkhar’s novel Lights of Koshchinar (1951–52) and novella of conflicts The Little Bird (1958), Ra-khim’s novel Devotion (1958), and Rashidov’s novella The Victors (1951) and novel Stronger Than the Storm (1958). The theme of revolutionary history was foremost in the novels The Great Road (1967) by Aibek, The Light (1958) by Khamid Gu-liam (born 1919), Fergana Before Dawn (1958; 2nd ed., 1966) by Mirza-Kalon Ismaili (born 1908), and Khorezm (1960–69) by Dzhumaniiaz Sharipov (born 1911). The novel Sisters (1954) by Askad Mukhtar (born 1920) dealt with the origins of the working class in Uzbekistan; Mukhtar’s novel Birth (1961) was devoted to ethical problems. Mukhtar’s interest in the continuity of revolutionary and progressive cultural traditions was vividly manifested in his novel The Plane Tree (1970).

The inner world, daily life, and labor of Uzbek youth were the themes of a number of novels, including Three Roots (1958) and Black Eyes (1966) by Primkul Kadyrov (born 1928), It Is Hard to Be a Man (1965) by Adyl Iakubov (born 1926), and Umid (1969) by Mirmukhsin (born 1921). The novel His Majesty, Man (1969) by Rakhmat Faizi (born 1918) was imbued with the idea of proletarian internationalism. Many novellas were written in the 1960’s by Kakhkhar, Said Akhmad, Mukhtar, Aibek, Ul’mas Umarbe-kov (born 1934), Kadyrov, and Iakobuv. Memoirs published during that decade included Childhood (1962) by Aibek, Tales of the Past (1965) by Kakhkhar, and The Day of Curses and the Day of Hopes (1970) by Nazir Safarov (born 1905).

Soviet Uzbek poetry reached maturity after the war; its varied genres reflect the rich inner resources of Soviet man. The lyrics of Gafur Guliam, Uigun, Zul’fia, Sheikhzade, Mirtemir, and Saida Zunnunova are marked by a lofty civic spirit and refined, versatile talent. Excellent narrative poems, particularly lyric narrative poems, have been written by Mirmukhsin, Khamid Guliam, Er-kin Vakhidov (born 1936), and Turab Tula (borm 1918).

Uzbek dramaturgy dates from the early 20th century, when Khamza and Kadyri wrote lyric dramas and socially oriented dramas of everyday life in Uzbek. The works of Soviet Uzbek playwrights have always been socially oriented. Khamza’s dramas were marked by directness and a diversity of approach. He maintained close contact with the theater and gained fame with The Bey and the Farmhand (1918), the first Soviet Uzbek drama, the comedy The Escapades ofMaisara (1926), and particularly the drama The Secrets of the Yashmak (1926). K. Iashen, who began writing in the 1920’s, was the author of the plays Deaf (1926), Lolakhon (1927), and Two Communists (1928; reworked as The Rout, 1934).

The main themes in Uzbek dramaturgy of the 1930’s were the Revolution and the struggle against the bourgeois nationalists and the kulaks. The theme of the emancipation of women remained topical. The tragedy of the entire nation during the war was the subject of Iashen’s plays Death to the Occupiers (1942) and Aftobkhon. A number of important historical biographical plays were also staged, including Alisher Navoi (1940) by Uigun and Izzat Sultanov (born 1910) and Mukanna (1942–43) by Alimdzhan.

After the war and through the 1960’s, Uzbek playwrights presented a more extensive depiction of contemporary Uzbek rural life and of the rich inner resources of the creators of the wealth of the country. Plays with these themes included Tuigun’s Love (1946), Uigun’s Navbakhor (1948; staged 1949), Kakhkhar’s Silk Siuzane (1950; staged 1952), and Iakubov’s Loyalty (1958). The comedies Secrets of the Heart (1953) by B. Rakhmanov (born 1915) and Aching Teeth (1954) by Kakhkhar dealt with modern Uzbekistan and the struggle against vestiges of the past. The heroic history of the Uzbek people was depicted in the postwar plays The Dawn of the East (1948) by N. Safarov (born 1905), Guiding Star (staged 1957, published 1958) by Iashen, and The Unknown (1963) by Sultanov. Topical issues were dealt with in Uigun’s plays Khurriiat (staged 1958, published 1959) and Friends (1961), in Sheikhzade’s historical and biographical tragedy Mirza Ulug Beg (1961), and in Sarvar Azimov’s Bloody Mirage (1964) and Drama of the Century (1968).

The Writers’ Union of Uzbekistan has a section of Russian literature that unites Russian writers whose works are devoted to Uzbekistan. The trilogy of historical novels Stars Over Samarkand (1953–72) by S. P. Borodin deals with Uzbekistan. The novel The Limits of Endurance (parts 1–2, 1964–68) by A. A. Udalov (born 1914) is devoted to prerevolutionary Turkestan. The history of the peoples of Middle Asia and their annexation by Russia are depicted in the trilogy Oppression (1957–62) by A. V. Almatinskaia (1884–1973), and the establishment of Soviet power in Middle Asia is portrayed in the novel The Tocsin (books 1–2, 1958) by M. I. Sheverdin (born 1899). Sheverdin also wrote the historical novels Sandzhar the Invincible (1946) and Shadows of the Desert (1963). The works of B. S. Parmuzin (born 1924) and V. A. Kostyria (born 1921) deal with contemporary Uzbek life.

The Writers’ Union of Uzbekistan also has a section of Crimean Tatar literature. Novels on the Crimean Tatars have been written by Sh. Aliadin (born 1912) and Iu. Bolot (born 1909), novellas by N. Umerov (born 1930), and short stories by E. Umerov (born 1940) and S. Iziddinov (born 1932). Poets associated with the section of Crimean Tatar literature include E. Shem’ia-zade (born 1908) and R. Murad (born 1915). The Crimean Tatar newspaper Lenin bairaghy (The Leninist Banner) is published in Tashkent.

The first works of Uzbek literary theory and criticism were published in the 1920’s and included studies by A. Khashimov, A. Sharafutdinov, and S. Khusainov. Literary scholarship underwent extensive development in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Studies on Uzbek literature and monographs on Uzbek writers have included I. Sultanov’s The Features of Historical and Literary Development in the Republics of Middle Asia (1955) and Soviet Uzbek Literature at a New Stage (1961), L. Kaiumov’s The Singer of October (1964), M. Koshchanov’s A. Kadyri’s Mastery of Depiction (1966) and Lessons of Literary Mastery (1973), and Kh. Abdusamatov’s Soviet Uzbek Satire (1968) and Problems, Traditions, and Innovation (1974).

Additional works of Soviet Uzbek literary scholarship have been Kh. lakubov’s Ideology and Literary Mastery in the Work of Aibek (1966), E. Karimov’s The Development of Realism in Uzbek Literature (1975), and N. Mallaev’s Alisher Navoi and Folk Art (1974). Studies on the history of Uzbek literature have included Soviet Uzbek Literature by S. Azimov and Iu. Sultanov, The Kokand Literary Milieu of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1961) by A. Kaiumov, From the History of Uzbek Literature (1961) by V. Zakhidov, and Uzbek Poetry in the First Half of the Fifteenth Century (1963) by E. Rustamov. The literary scholars V. Abdullaev, G. Karimov, and Abdugafurov deal with classical Uzbek literature.


Zhirmunskii, V. M., and Kh. T. Zarifov. Uzbekskii narodnyi geroi-cheskiiepos. Moscow, 1947.
Vladimirova, N. V., and M. M. Sultanova. Uzbekskii sovetskii rasskaz. Tashkent, 1962.
Tursunov, T. Formirovanie sotsialisticheskogo realizma v uzbekskoi dramaturgii. Tashkent, 1963.
Rustamov, E. R. Uzbekskaia poeziia v pervoi polovine XV v. Moscow, 1963.
Abdumavlianov, A., and A. Babakhanov. Istoriia uzbekskoi literatury. Tashkent, 1966.
Istoriia uzbekskoi sovetskoi literatury. Moscow, 1967.
Kor-Ogly, Kh. Uzbekskaia literatura, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1976.
Ozbek ädäbiyati mäsäläläri, parts 1–2. Tashkent, 1959–62.
Äbdughäfurav, Ä. Ozbek demakrätik ädäbiyatidä sátira. Tashkent, 1961.
Zahidav, V. Ozbek ädäbiyati tärikhidän. Tashkent, 1961.
Ozbek ädäbiyati tärikhi, parts 1–3. Tashkent, 1963–66.
Ozbek savet ädäbiyati tärikhi, parts 1–3. Tashkent, 1967.
Ozbekistan mätbuati 50 yil ichidä. Tashkent,1967.


Ancient period. The earliest art remains found in what is now Uzbekistan are the Mesolithic wall paintings on rock at Zaraut-Sai. The Neolithic is represented primarily by remains of the Kel’-teminar culture. In the Bronze Age elaborate architectural complexes were erected in settlements of southern Uzbekistan, for example, Sappali-Tepe, and high-quality bronze and silver articles and pottery with geometric designs were made. During the early Iron Age, cities were built with rectangular plans, for example, Kyzyl-Tepe and Bandykhan-Tepe, and circular plans, for example, Kuchuk-Tepe. The marble capital of a column from Sul-tanuizdag and gems from Afrasiab closely resemble Achaemenid art of Iran. Various small bronze sculptures of the middle of the first millennium B.C. bear features of the animal style of Central Asian nomadic tribes.

The settlements built in what is now Uzbekistan from the fourth century B.C. through the fourth century A.D. as a rule had regular layouts and were encircled by thick walls with towers and fortified gates; typical examples are Dal’verzin-Tepe, Termez, and Toprak-Kala. Arches and beams were used, sometimes on wooden columns or supports with stone details, and stone decorative blocks and slabs were also employed. The structures themselves were of mud brick and pakhsa (beaten clay).

During the Greco-Bactrian and Kushana kingdoms the compositional schemes of palaces came to include a central hall or small courtyard enclosed by a corridor and surrounding rooms; a columned iwan protruded from the facade. Buddhist religious structures appeared in southern Uzbekistan in the first centuries of the Common Era, notably the monasteries of Kara-Tepe and Faiaz-Tepe and the Zurmal stupa in Termez.

Greco-Bactrian coins provide some idea of fine arts from the fourth century B.C. to the fourth century A.D.; they testify to the merging of ancient Greek traditions with local traditions. The art of the Kushana kingdom is represented by monumental painting and sculpture, mainly bas-reliefs and high reliefs executed in clay. Sculpture from Khalchaian features expressive portraits of rulers and their entourages. Buddhist plastic arts from Dalver-zin-Tepe and Faiaz-Tepe, notably a frieze from Airtam (first-second centuries; the Hermitage, Leningrad), reveal a stylistic and thematic kinship to the art of Gandhara. A free style of painting and elegant draftsmanship are characteristic of the wall paintings of southern Uzbekistan, for example, in Khalchaian, Dal’verzin-Tepe, and Faiaz-Tepe; the mural painting of Toprak-Kala is distinguished by vivid local color.

Terra-cotta statuettes, mainly of goddesses and horsemen, were widely prevalent, as well as appliqués on ceramics and reliefs on medallions. Artifacts of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, the Kushana kingdom, Sogd, and Khwarizm provide information on the art of Uzbekistan of the ancient period and the early Middle Ages.

Sixth to early 20th centuries. The major structures in monumental architecture from the sixth to early eighth centuries were the fortress, keshk (fortified tower-shaped dwelling), and fortified country estate and, in the city, the temple, palace, and wealthy urban residence. Very low reliefs, decorative in nature, predominated in carved and molded clay, wood, and plaster ornamentation in the palaces of Afrasiab, Varakhsha, and Dzhumaliak-Tepe. Flatness, complexity of design, and richness of color combinations characterized early Sogdian wall painting, for example, in Balalyk-Tepe, Afrasiab, and Varakhsha. Toreutics and the art of making female figurines continued to develop in Sogd.

Cities grew rapidly beginning in the eighth century, and their centers shifted from the shahristans (urban centers) to the rabads (suburbs). Building techniques developed anew; for example, fired brick was introduced in the ninth and tenth centuries and domed structures were built. Ornamental brickwork was employed on facades, along with the traditional carved ganch (a mixture of burned gypsum and clay) and wood. Beginning in the 12th century, terra-cotta, glazed bricks, and faced tiles were used on facades, and ornamental wall paintings in the interiors. Beginning in the 12th century, the main decorative motifs in architecture were the girikh pattern, which combined polygonal and star-shaped figures, and Arabic calligraphy, written in the angular kufic script from the tenth century and the flowing neskhi script in the 11th and 12th centuries.

Various types of medieval religious and public structures developed between the ninth and 12th centuries, principally mosques, minarets, madrasas, mausoleums, caravansaries, and covered markets. Various types of mosques appeared, mainly with numerous pillars and domes and consisting of simple monumental forms or centered on a courtyard. Often rich ornamentation was used on their facades, for example, Magaki Attar in Bukhara (12th century), or on the main wall with the mihrab (prayer niche), for example, Namazga-hin Bukhara (12th century). Mausoleums of various types were built: with a central dome plan (Ismail Samani in Bukhara), with a portal-dome plan (Arab ata in the village of Tim, 977–978), or in the form of paired vaulted and domed burial vaults (the ensemble of Sultan-Saadat in Termez, begun in the 11th century). Minarets were constructed as cylindrical towers crowned with lanterns and decorated with ornamental bands (Kalian in Bukhara, the minaret in Babkent) or with connected semicolumns, creating the effect of corrugation (the minaret in Dzharkurgan; 1108, architect Ali ibn-Muhammad of Serakhs).

The consolidation of Islam accounted for the predominance of ornamental motifs in the fine arts, for example, geometric patterns, calligraphic inscriptions, and stylized foliate designs. The rare figure motifs, for example, animals and birds, were integrated into the general composition of the pattern. The decorative and applied arts included toreutics, glass-making, and weaving. Decorative pottery was particularly outstanding, especially when embellished with painting, staining, and the use of colored glazes.

Great strides were made in architecture in the late 14th century and the first half of the 15th century. Advances in city-planning theory were reflected in the straightening of major urban thoroughfares and the provision of the streets with amenities, as well as the creation of regular or picturesquely varied ensembles, including squares, streets, and necropolises; Registan Square and the Shah-i-Zindah Mausoleum in Samarkand are especially notable. Fired brick was the most common building material in monumental architecture. Unprecedented splendor was achieved with the introduction of polychrome ceramic mosaics on facades, with a predominance of pale and dark blues, and painted and gilded ornamental compositions in interiors; thematic compositions were also encountered in Tamerlane’s palaces.

A typical religious structure of the 14th and 15th centuries was the courtyard-type mosque with four iwans, for example, Bibi Khanum in Samarkand and Kalian in Bukhara. Madrasas had a protruding portal and a system of khudzhur cells around a rectangular or square courtyard with two to four iwans, for example, the madrasas of Ulug Beg in Bukhara (1417) and in Samarkand (1420). The architecture of mausoleums evolved from simple cubic dimensions, such as Shah-i-Zindah in Samarkand, to elaborate structures with a central hall and a complex of adjoining rooms, notably Dorus-Siadat in Shakhrisabz (14th century) and Ishrat Khan in Samarkand (1464).

Individual book miniatures from the era of Tamerlane and Ulug Beg also have survived. Crafts flourished, mainly the making of delicate fabrics, magnificently decorated pieces of embroidery, stamped vessels, and richly ornamented weapons and jewelry. A new style in ceramic vessels evolved under the influence of Far Eastern porcelain, consisting in a free manner of painting dark blue foliate patterns on a snow-white background.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Uzbek architects employed space and layout in the manner of preceding centuries, continuing to improve and elaborate on vaulted and domed structures; for example, peltate and meshed pendentives, intersected and cusped arches, and the richest of stalactite ornament were used.

Impressive architectural ensembles were built, such as Regis-tan Square in Samarkand and Poi Kalian and Chor Bakr in Bukhara. Large mosques of the courtyard type were consructed with a main domed hall and a vaulted iwan on a central axis, for instance, Kok-Gumbez in Karshi (late 16th century). Other structures included small mosques serving each of the city’s living quarters, with winter rooms and an open columned iwan, for example, Baliand in Bukhara (16th century). Madrasas were built with four-iwan courtyards that were surrounded by arched loggias and spacious auditoriums (darskhana) and were spacially distinguished by a monumental peshtak and corner minarets, for example, Kukeltash in Bukhara and Tashkent (16th century) and Shir Dor in Samarkand (1619–36). Other building types included multidomed market buildings and the sardoba, a structure for storing water consisting of a cylindrical cistern covered by a dome. The quality of facade tiles declined somewhat, but interior decor remained elegant and diverse.

The arts of calligraphy and book-binding made considerable advances in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Middle Asian school of miniatures flourished in Samarkand and especially in Bukhara. Two trends developed in this school in the 16th century. One school, linked with the traditions of K. Behzad, was characterized by refined draftsmanship, opulent landscape and architectural backgrounds, and a preference for compositions with numerous figures; outstanding painters of this school included Mahmud Muzahib and Chagry Muhassin. The second school was marked by a restrained use of color and a limited number of figures. Muhammad Murad of Samarkand, who worked in the mid-16th century, was known for the vivid emotions expressed in his works and for his particularly bold use of color. Other masters, such as Abdullah of Bukhara, displayed a heightened interest in genre compositions.

Miniaturists of the 17th century included Avaz Muhammad, Mullah Behzad, and Muhammad (or Khodzha) Mukim; some continued the same stylistic trends, while others worked in an emphatically expressive manner. Certain miniaturists of the 17th century revealed similarities to the Mogul school of painting. Traditional forms of the decorative and applied arts also continued to develop.

Cities destroyed in the first half of the 18th century by internecine wars and the incursions of nomads were rebuilt, beginning in the late 18th century. The religious structures of the traditional type and the rulers’ palaces that were built, for example, Tash-Khauli (1830–38), Kurnysh-khan (1804–06), and Nurullabai (1904–12) in Khiva and Khudoiar Khan (1871) in Kokand, were distinguished by the use of the compositional elements from traditional Uzbek dwellings, such as small inner courtyards, columned iwans, and particularly splendid ornament.

Between the 1860’s and 1880’s, after the unification of Uzbekistan with Russia, the principles of Russian city planning were used in plans for new cities, such as Skobelev (present-day Fergana), as well as the newly developing districts of old cities, including Andizhan, Samarkand, and Tashkent. Straight streets were laid out and were planted with trees and provided with amenities. However, the old sections of the cities still retained unplanned medieval networks of streets with houses of the traditional type. Several schools evolved in traditional Uzbek residential architecture between the 18th and early 20th centuries. The houses of Fergana were characterized by sliding walls and shutters, decorative niches, carved ganch, and ceiling paintings, while Samarkand houses were characterized by iwans with patterned columns, wall paintings, and carved ganch. The houses of Khiva, which were decorated with rich wood carving, had small enclosed courtyards faced by semi-enclosed iwans on slender carved columns. Rural estates in many parts of Uzbekistan often imitated the forms of fortress architecture.

The traditional decorative and applied arts continued to develop in Uzbekistan in the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century. The most important motif in ornamental design, which was marked by musically flowing line, was the islimi, a fluttering flowering sprout. Other decorative elements included various plant motifs, calligraphy, geometric shapes (diamonds, triangles), cosmological symbols (the sun, moon, stars), zoo-morphic motifs (the stylized feet and tracks of animals and birds, as well as animal horns), and everyday objects (teapots, pialas [a type of drinking vessel], musical instruments, and other symbols of hospitality).

The crafts prevalent in various regions of Uzbekistan included the weaving of cotton, half-silk, and silk fabrics, sometimes in solid colors and sometimes striped with abrovyi rainbow patterns. Other important crafts were the printing of cloth, embroidery of skullcaps and other articles of clothing, suzani embroidery (varying motifs of a luxuriantly flowering garden), and gold embroidery. Also important was the making of napped carpets with a bordered central field repeating a diagonal colored pattern. Palasy were woven with a usually unbordered pattern distributed in rows or bands. Leather was tooled and ornamented with stamped designs, chain stitching, appliqués of colored leather, metal studs, and various stones. Decorative metalware was made, especially copper utensils with stamped, fretted, and engraved patterns, and jewelry was decorated with openwork, applied or inlaid filigree, granulation, basma stamping, niello, engraved and carved designs, enamel, and gilt. Ceramic vessels were made with underglaze designs, primarily dark blue, turquoise, and manganic paints on a white background.

The decorative and applied arts of Uzbekistan declined during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Easel painting was first practiced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by I. S. Kazakov, S. P. Iudin, and other artists. These works, remarkable as ethnographic chronicles rather than as works of art, are passive, contemplative scenes of daily life.

Soviet period. The first major structures erected after the establishment of Soviet power in Uzbekistan were connected with the rehabilitation of the national economy, especially the development of cotton cultivation. They included Uzbekistan’s first electric power plants and industrial enterprises. Some structures of the 1920’s retained features of prerevolutionary eclecticism, while others were created in the constructivist style. Still other buildings were attempts at combining the forms of modern architecture with elements of medieval Middle Asian architecture; a notable example is the presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR in Tashkent (1928, architect G. N. Svarichevskii.

During the 1930’s architects drew up master plans for the reconstruction of cities, including Andizhan, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, and Fergana, and for the founding of new cities of the socialist type, for example, Chirchik and the housing complex of the Tashkent Textile Combine. Public buildings employed elements of constructivism and neoclassicism, for example, the Government House in Tashkent (1931–32, architect S. N. Polypanov) and the Tashkent Pedagogical Institute (1938–40, architects A. A. Zhmuida and E. A. Zhmuida). Elements of monumental medieval architecture were used by K. V. Babievskii, and characteristics of traditional Uzbek dwellings by A. A. Sidorov. Masters of decorative folk art were engaged in numerous projects for designing facades and interiors. A southern type of multistory apartment building was developed by A. P. Babakhanov and N. S. Bulatov. The Architects’ Union of the Uzbek SSR was established in 1934.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), industrial construction was especially intense, as a result of the evacuation of enterprises from the country’s central regions and the sharp increase in Uzbekistan’s population. Master plans were designed for Tashkent and the new industrial centers of Almalyk, Angren, Akhan-gran, and Bekabad. A shortage of metal and timber was made up for by the extensive use of various local structural components, for example, Uzbekistan arches. The architecture of the A. Navoi Uzbek Theater of Opera and Ballet in Tashkent (1938–47, architect A. V. Shchusev), which combined classical forms with traditional Middle Asian ornament, had a considerable influence on the development of Uzbek architecture of the 1940’s and the first half of the 1950’s.

In the 1960’s and the first half of the 1970’s, Uzbek architects and engineers applied industrial methods of construction and assimilated principles of building large-panel and large-block frame structures, which made it possible to erect higher buildings. The republic’s hot climate and high seismicity were taken into consideration in many different ways in the design of various structures. Model architectural complexes were often picturesquely diverse as a result of the juxtaposition of buildings of varying height, particularly works by S. R. Adylov and Iu. G. Miroshnichenko. This device was used in the erection of new cities, such as Navoi (master plan, 1960’s; architects A. V. Korotkov and others) and the reconstruction of old ones, such as Samarkand and Tashkent.

The new principles of Soviet architecture have been clearly expressed in the restoration and reconstruction of Tashkent since the earthquake of 1966, for example, the Tashgiprogor Institute and other organizations. The city rapidly reached the level of modern city planning with the aid of architects and builders of other Union republics.

Uzbek public buildings of the 1960’s and 1970’s, monumental in scale, are clearly functional in their use of space. Prominent examples in Tashkent are the Palace of Arts (1962–64, architects V. E. Berezin and S. I. Ishankhodzhaev), the building of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek SSR (1965–67, architects B. S. Mezentsev and E. G. Rozanov), the Tashkent branch of the V. I. Lenin Museum (1970, architect E. G. Rozanov), the exhibition pavilion of the Uzbek SSR (1974, architects F. Iu. Tursukhov and R. Kh. Khairutdinov), and the Hotel Uzbekistan (1974, architect I. A. Merport). Monumental painting and sculpture and decorative folk motifs have been used extensively in the design of public structures.

Agitational-mass art genres were important for the development of Soviet Uzbek art after the October Revolution of 1917 The staging of mass revolutionary spectacles and the design of posters and satirical drawings were especially important. Uzbek posters of the 1920’s and the first half of the 1930–s were distinguished by a narrative quality and the use of striking visual images (L. L. Bure), pointedly satirical depictions (M. I. Kurzin), and sometimes monumental force and laconically expressive color effects (A. N. Volkov).

In the second half of the 1920’s, a group of artists headed by V. L. Rozhdestvenskii was associated with the journal Mushtum. These artists, including I. Ikramov, Kurzin, A. V. Nikolaev, S. A. Mal’t, and M. Khakimdzhanov, played a leading role in the development of Uzbek graphic arts in newspapers, journals, and books. Prominent painters of the 1920’s included P. P. Ben’kov, known for the freshness of his plein-air paintings and his chiaroscuro effects, and Volkov, whose works were characterized by diverse experiments in style, rich colors, and a passion for Uzbek folk art, old Russian icons, and, to some extent, cubism.

Other painters of note were O. K. Tatevosian, who embraced the artistic principles of the World of Art and the Blue Rose, and Nikolaev, a master of tempera works noted for refined color schemes and iconography. The painters N. G. Karakhan and U. Tansykbaev sought to develop a distinctly Uzbek style.

In the 1930’s, Soviet Uzbek artists assimilated the methods of socialist realism, turning more and more often to historical themes of revolution and to the image of the new Soviet man. They sought to create in more varied ways an impression of the socialist transformation of traditional Middle Asian life. Other genres that developed in this period included thematic painting and portraiture (Ben’kov, Z. M. Kovalevskaia, Tatevosian, V. I. Ufimtsev), landscape painting (Karakhan, Tansykbaev), satirical art for newspapers and magazines, and easel portraiture and graphic arts for books (V. E. Kaidalov, S. A. Mal’t, Rozhdestvenskii). The organizational committee of the Artists’ Union of the Uzbek SSR was established in 1932.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–45), artists of Uzbekistan created the agitational poster series Okna UzTAGa (Windows of UzTAG), posters and satirical drawings, and paintings devoted to the heroic accomplishments of frontline soldiers and the rear guard.

Genre scenes on contemporary themes and landscapes have predominated in Uzbek painting since the first half of the 1950’s. Along with Volkov, Ben’kov, N. V. Kashina, Tansykbaev, and other masters of the older generation, successful artists include A. Abdullaev, L. Abdullaev, S. Abdullaev, R. Akhmedov, M. Kuzybaev, V. I. Evenko, T. A. Ogantsov, Iu. I. Elizarov, M. Nabiev, M. Saidov, V. I. Zhmakin, and V. A. Fadeev.

Other major genres include monumental painting (Ch. Akh-marov), sculpture (F. I. Grishchenko, A. I. Ivanov, N. K. Krymskaia), and the graphic arts, including book illustration. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, Uzbek painters organically combined typically Uzbek characteristics with universal themes, and their works reflected all the leading trends in contemporary Soviet painting. Painters tended toward decorative and emotionally expressive color schemes and rhythmic composition. The graphic arts, including satirical magazine illustration, flourished and employed a diversity of techniques. Young artists also turned to small-scale and monumental sculpture.

Well-known artists of Uzbekistan include the painters G. Abdurakhmanov, V. I. Burmakin, Iu. I. Taldykin, G. I. Ul’-ko, Sh. Umarbekov, and R. Charyev; the sculptors A. Akhmedov, M. Musabaev, and D. Ruzybaev; and the graphic artists K. Basharov, I. M. Vasil’eva, G. G. Zhirnov, M. Kagarov, Iu. M. Pavlov, V. S. Parshin, and A. N. Tsiglintsev.

The main genres of traditional Uzbek decorative and applied arts were reestablished in the 1920’s and 1930’s, including the crafting of woven articles, carpets, embroidery, ceramics, stamped copper articles, jewelry, gold needlework, and carved and painted wood and ganch. Textile patterns combined elements of Uzbek folk art and the achievements of Russian textile printing and silk weaving. The 1960’s and the first half of the 1970’s saw a rebirth of the applied arts in Uzbekistan. Numerous local schools of ceramics appeared during this period in Gizhdu-van, Samarkand, Gurumsarai, Khiva, Khanka, Shakhrisabz Ki-tab, Denau, and Urgut. Thematic scenes, full of vivacity and ingenuousness, displayed more variety. particularly in works by A. Mukhtarov and S. F. Rakova.

Of special interest are abrovyi silks with their fanciful cheerful patterns, notably those of the Atlas firm in Margilan and the Namangan Combine for Silk Fabrics. Numerous kinds of skullcaps continued to be embroidered; for example, chustkie have a white floral design on a black background, while iroki from Shakhri-sabz feature rich colors reminiscent of carpets. Motifs of bouquets and sun-shaped flowers predominated in hand- and machine-made suzani embroidery. Masters of gold needlework create everyday articles, such as skullcaps, as well as monumental panels. The art of making carpets, palasy, and Uzbek musical instruments is developing. Important examples of carved wood, marble, and ganch, as well as murals, are primarily used for architectural ornament.


Pugachenkova, G. A., and L. I. Rempel’. Istoriia iskusstv Uzbekistana s drevneishikh vremen do serediny deviatnadtsatogo veka. Moscow, 1965.
Iskusstvo Uzbekiskoi SSR. (Album; written and compiled by A. R. Umarov.) [Leningrad, 1972.]
Kadyrova, T. F., K. V. Babievskii, and F. Iu. Tursunov. Arkhitektura Sovetskogo Uzbekistana. Moscow, 1972.
Taktash, R. Kh. Izobrazitel’noe iskusstvo Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1972.
Taktash, R. Kh. Sovremennaiagrafika Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1973.
Fakhretdinova, D. A. Dekorativno-prikladnoe iskusstvo Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1972.
Iskusstvo Sovetskogo Uzbekistana, 1917–1972. Moscow, 1976.


Cultural artifacts found in Uzbekistan and surviving written sources attest to the ancient origins of the Uzbek musical heritage. This heritage, which embraces a diversity of genres, includes both vocal and instrumental music; although solo performance practice predominates, choral and instrumental ensemble forms are also common. The various genres derive from a popular, purely folkloric tradition and a tradition of professional, monodic vocal music. The musical heritage of the Uzbeks consists of works divided into four groups, based on the shared ethnic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions in the oblasts of the Uzbek SSR: the Khorezm (Khwarazm), Bukhara (and Samarkand), Fergana-Tashkent, and Surkhan Dar’ia (and Kashkadar’ia) groups.

Songs are classified by subject matter into four categories: everyday songs, which include lullabies, children’s songs, lyrical and humorous songs, and songs celebrating nature; songs connected with family and ritual; work songs; and historical songs.

Songs and instrumental pieces are classified according to function and manner of performance into those performed at a particular time and under particular circumstances and those that may be performed at any time. The first category includes wedding music, such as the yar-yar and kelin sälom; funeral music, notably the yigi and sädr; work music—the mäydä and yezi; and lullabies, which include the ällä. The second category includes the koshuk, or solo music of varied content; the lapar, which includes play, humorous, satirical, or romantic songs, often performed in dialogue form; the yällä, which is varied in content and may be given solo, unison, or choral performance, accompanied by dances and games; the äshulä, or long solo pieces; and dastans, or folk legends. The dastans from the cycle Gurugli, Alpomish, and Kuntogmish are especially popular.

As a rule, songs and instrumental works are in couplet form with short melodies of a relatively limited range. Songs of the äshulä genre and, to some extent, of the yällä genre, as well as instrumental works, often display more complex melodies with a wider range.

Uzbek folk music is primarily diatonic, although elements of chromaticism and the use of changing modes in a single piece may be found. The melodies of folk songs progress in small tonal increments; wide jumps in range are comparatively rare within the melodic structure and never exceed an octave. The main melodic line of folk songs is highly embellished with such melismata as kachirim (grace notes and gruppetti) and contains numerous types of glissandi, such as the nalish, malish, and käshish. Folk songs are rhythmically quite diverse. Long, vocal melodies are characterized by a strictly defined rhythm and rich syncopation. Improved melodies, or yavvoi (“unrestrained”), are associated with the song genres of the kättä äshulä, or pänys äshulä (literally, “songs performed with a tray”), sometimes called the “large” song. These songs are native to the Fergana Valley and represent professional music in the oral tradition.

In Tadzhikstan and many countries of the non-Soviet East, professional music in the oral tradition emerged in the first centuries of the Common Era and reached a high level of development both in composition and performance. The theoretical foundations of professional music were set forth in the treatises of scholars of the Middle East, including al-Farabi (ninth-10th centuries), Avicenna (10th—11th centuries), ibn Zaila (11th century), Khorezmi (11th century), Safi ad-din Urmavi (13th century), Abdul Kadir Maragi (14th century), and Abd al-Rahman Jami (15th century), and subsequently in the work of Darvesh Ali Changi (17th century). Professional folk musicians studied with renowned masters, who banded together in corporations, each with its own rules, or risäla. Although notation was rarely used, some special systems of notation were developed, as in the treatise of ash-Shirazi and the Khorezm notation of the third quarter of the 19th century, which was used to record a cycle of Khwarazm makom —large-scale vocal and instrumental works comprising many sections.

The makom are classified according to local characteristics as Bukharan (a shared heritage of the Uzbeks and Tadzhiks) or Khwarazmian. Individual sections of makom were disseminated throughout the Fergana Valley. The Bukharan makom cycle, the Shashmakom, contains six makom—Buzruk, Rost, Navo, Dugo kh, Segokh, and Irok—performed to verses by classical Eastern poets, such as Khafiz, Bedil, Navoi, and Jami. Each makom contains an instrumental section (mushkilai) and a vocal section (nasr), each comprising several parts that constitute a cycle.

Folk instruments include the gidjak, sato, and koboz, which are bowed; the dombra, dutar, tanbur, and rubab (Kashgarian and Afghan), which are plucked; the chang, a stringed percussion instrument; the sibizik, gadjir-nay, nay, kosh-nay, bulaman, surnay, and karranay, which are winds; and the doira, nagara, safoiV, and kashik, which are percussion instruments. Performance practice led to the creation of instrumental ensembles that played a single melodic line in unison. These ensembles were made up of instruments, such as the karranay, surnay, and nagara, that produced loud, piercing sounds; they played outdoors and performed primarily military music and holiday and ceremonial melodies. Other ensembles used various combinations of instruments producing softer sounds but always included the doira.

The instrument complement of ensembles began changing in the 1870’s after Middle Asia became part of Russia. Uzbekistan was exposed to new kinds of music, and Russian societies of music lovers sprang up in the cities. The Tashkent Society of Music was established in 1884 with the assistance of the conductor A. F. Eikhgorn; V. I. Mikhalek became the society’s conductor in 1895. In 1898 the Tashkent choral society, Lira, was formed under the direction of the military conductor V. V. Leisek. The Margelan Society of Music, directed by D. I. Mikhailov, and the Samarkand Society of Music were established in the 1890’s. Concerts were offered by Russian symphony orchestras, chamber ensembles, opera companies, and touring artists, both Russian (L. V. Sobinov, A. V. Nezhdanova, and F. I. Chaliapin) and foreign. Military brass bands were also important in the development of Uzbek music.

The first attempts to arrange Uzbek melodies for European instruments date from this period. Leisek wrote arrangements for brass bands, and N. S. Klenovskii wrote arrangements for symphony orchestras. In the 1870’s and 1880’s, Eikhgorn, F. Pfennig, and others notated Uzbek melodies and melodies of other Middle Asian peoples. Eikhgorn also assembled a collection of musical instruments from Middle Asia and Kazakhstan that was exhibited in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Vienna. Such projects were carried out through private initiative and did not receive government support.

The establishment of Soviet power in Uzbekistan opened up enormous opportunities for the development of musical culture, and several government measures were enacted to promote the development of Uzbek music. People’s conservatories were established in Tashkent and Samarkand in 1918, and a system of music schools was created in the 1920’s. The Higher School of Music was founded in Tashkent in 1934 and became a conservatory in 1936. The Musical and Ethnograpic Commission for Recording and Studying the Musical Heritage of the Peoples of Middle Asia carried out important work between 1920 and 1923. The commission was headed by the composer V. A. Uspenskii, who made a major contribution to the development of Uzbek musical culture. The Samarkand Scientific Research Institute of Music and Choreography (INMUZKhORUZ), which was founded in 1928 and directed by the composer N. N. Mironov, was also involved in collecting and recording folk music. In 1931 the institute was moved to Tashkent and later renamed the Khamza Khakimzade Niiazi Institute for Art Studies.

In Tashkent in 1939 the Uzbek Theater of Opera and Ballet and the Mukimi Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy (now called the Mukimi Uzbek Music Theater) were created from the First Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama (founded 1929). Many oblast theaters were established in the late 1920’s and 1930’s. A philharmonic society (1936), a house of people’s arts (1937), and the Composers’ Union of the Uzbek SSR (1938) were also established.

The cultural activity of the early years of Soviet power contributed to the development of a national music. Uzbek music assimilated new genres and means of expression, primarily through the Russian and Western European musical classics. Work on the reconstruction of folk instruments began in the 1930’s, and produced instruments with tempered tuning and greater resonance. Orchestras with the modernized instruments expanded their artistic horizons, partly through the performance of polyphonic works. Such orchestras were directed by A. I. Petrosian and, later, by S. A. Aliev in the Philharmonic Society and by D. Zekirov on radio and television broadcasts.

The work of Khamza Khakimzade Niiazi, the father of Soviet Uzbek poetry and drama, was of crucial importance in the development of musical culture. Niiazi composed the first Uzbek revolutionary songs in 1918 and 1919. Professional folk musicians, including Ota Dzhalol Nasyrov, Ota Giias Abduganiev, Levi Babakhanov, Khodzhi Abdulaziz Rasulev, Domulla Khalim Iba-dov, Mulla Tuichi Tashmukhamedov, Usta Alim Kamilov, Tokhtasyn Dzhalilov, and Iunus Radzhabov, were active in the musical and public life of the republic and contributed to the development of young musicians. They widely disseminated the finest works of their musical heritage, and many of them composed monodic instrumental works and songs on contemporary themes and wrote or coauthored the first works of musical drama. Their collaborative efforts with Russian composers were most fruitful. Russian composers also arranged Uzbek melodies for various performance groups and composed the first symphonies and works for the musical stage based on national melodies.

Works for symphony orchestra of this period included Musical Pictures of Uzbekistan (1931) by M. M. Ippolitov-Ivanov, Fergana Holiday, (1931) by V. A. Zolotarev, the suite Lola (1937) by A. F. Kozlovskii, and the musical dramas Giul’sara (1936) by R. M. Glière (with T. Dzhalilov and T. Sadykov) and Farkhad and Shirin (1937) by V. A. Uspenskii (with Sh. Shou-marov and G. A. Mushel’).

The first creative efforts of the Uzbek composers M. Ashrafi, T. Sadykov, M. Burkhanov, and S. Iudakov, which include songs and works for instrumental groups, date from the 1930’s. The first national operas, written in collaboration with Russian musicians, were also composed during this period; they included The Blizzard (1939) by Ashrafi and S. N. Vasilenko, Leili and Mejnun (1940) by Glière and Sadykov, and The Great Canal (1941) by Ashrafi and Vasilenko.

The cooperation of composers of various nationalities was strengthened during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45. The song attained its highest level of development during this period, and many patriotic songs were written by such composers as Ashrafi, Burkhanov, Kozlovskii, Sadykov, and Iudakov. During the war many composers turned to the musical drama, a genre that had emerged as early as the 1920’s and that now was used to portray the heroic deeds of Soviet men and women. Important examples included Kurban Umarov, Davron-ota, Vengeance (all 1941), The Sword of Uzbekistan (1942), and Kochkar Turdyev (1942), as well as other works by Kozlovskii, B. B. Nadezhdin, Ashrafi, Sadykov, Vasilenko, and Mushel’ in collaboration with the folk professional musicians Dzhalilov, Iu. Radzhabov, and others. Musical drama contributed to the development of the Uzbek opera. Important operas written on historical themes included Kozlovskii’s Ulug Beg (1942).

Symphonic works inspired by the Great Patriotic War included the Symphony No. 1 (the “Heroic Symphony, ” 1942) and Symphony No. 2 (“Glory to the Victors, ” 1944) of Ashrafi, the Symphony No. 3 (1943) of Mushel’, Symphonic Rhapsody (1942) by M. O. Shteinberg, and works on historical themes, such as Us-penskii’s Mukana (1944) and the Symphony No. 2 (1942) of Mushel’. Composers also turned their attention to the concerto; an outstanding example was the Piano Concerto No. 2 (1943) of Mushel’.

At the end of the 1940’s and in the 1950’s, Uzbek composers achieved new successes. Several new performing groups were created, including the Uzbekistan Radio and Television Folk Orchestra (1947) and The Chorus (1949). These groups performed polyphonic works, such as the choral works of M. Burkhanov, a founder of Uzbek polyphonic music, works by I. Akbarov, S. Babaev, and B. Umedzhanov, and cantatas and oratorios by Ashrafi, Iudakov, D. Zakirov, I. Khamraev, and Burkhanov. Musical dramas, such as M. Leviev’s The Golden Lake (1949), Dzhalilov and G. Sabitov’s Nurkhon (1952), Babaev’s Love of the Mother Country (1957), and I. Akbarov’s The Maternal Field (1955), paved the way for Uzbek composers to write independent operatic works, for example, Glière and T. Sadykov’s Giul’sara (1949). Modern operas of note included Ashrafi’s Dilorom (1958) and The Poet’s Heart (1962 and 1967), Iudakov’s Maisara’s Pranks (1959), Babaev’s Khamza (1961), and R. Khamraev’s Light From Darkness (1966).

Major symphonic compositions were written in the 1960’s and early 1970’s. Uzbek composers made use of folk intonational structures and coloring and, most important, a melodic development typical of Uzbek folk music and the makom, exemplified in such works as Akbarov’s Symphonic Tales (1972), R. Khamraev’s Symphony No. 1 (1965), M. Makhmudov’s symphonic composition Navo (1966), and M. Tadzhiev’s Symphony No. 3 (1972). Distinguished concerti composed during this period included the Piano Concerto, No. 4 (1950) of Mushel’ and concerti by Akbarov and D. Saidaminova. Creative successes were also achieved in chamber music, notably the string quartets of Akbarov and B. F. Gienko.

Uzbek composers have also turned to the fraternal republics for inspiration, producing works on Tadzhik themes (Iudakov and Burkhanov), Tatar themes (Ia. Sh. Sherfedinov), Korean themes (Pak Endin), and Uighur themes (Sh. Shaimardanova). Russian composers working in Uzbekistan have included R. D. Vil’danov, B. I. Zeidman, V. E. Kniazev, F. M. Ianov-Ianovskii and A. A. Berlin. Many Russian composers, including Kozlovskii, Mushel’, Gienko, and Ianov-Ianovskii, have made important contributions to the development of Uzbek music.

Musical activity in Uzbekistan took on new life in the 1960’s and the first half of the 1970’s. New performing groups were created, including chamber orchestras and estrada (variety stage) ensembles, such as the Radio and Television Symphonic Variety Orchestra (1974).

Prominent Uzbek conductors include People’s Artist of the USSR M. Ashrafi, People’s Artist of the Uzbek SSR F. Sham-sutdinov, and Honored Art Worker of the Uzbek SSR Z. Khaknazarov. Outstanding singers include People’s Artists of the USSR Kh. Nasyrova and S. Kabulova; People’s Artists of the Uzbek SSR N. Khashimov, K. Zakirov, S. Iarashev, S. Ben’iaminov, V. A. Grinchenko, R. B. Laut, B. D. Davydo-va, K. Ismailova, and B. Zakirov; and Honored Artists of the Uzbek SSR A. Azimov, M. Shamaev, and Iu. Turaev. Academician Iu. Radzhabov and Honored Art Worker of the Uzbek SSR F. Sadykov have been recognized as experts on the makom.

The history and theory of Uzbek music have been treated in works by V. M. Beliaev, V. A. Uspenskii, E. E. Romanovskaia, N. N. Mironov, T. S. Vyzgo, Ia. B. Pekker, I. R. Radzhabov, F. M. Karomatov, and S. M. Veksler.

Music institutions active in 1976 included the A. Navoi Bol’shoi Opera and Ballet Theater in Tashkent, the Samarkand Opera and Ballet Theater (founded 1964), the Mukimi Uzbek Music Theater in Tashkent (1939), the Operetta Theater in Tashkent (1971), the Kara-Kalpak Theater of Music and Drama in Nukus (1930), the Khorezm Theater of Music and Drama in Urgench (1924), the Kashkadar’ia Theater of Music and Drama in Karshi (1925), the Akhunbabaev Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy in Andizhan (1927), the Fergana Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy (1928), the Bukhara Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy (1930), the Namangan Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy (1931), the Surkhandar’ia Theater of Music and Drama in Termez (1935), the Dzhizak Theater of Music and Drama (1950), and the Syr Darya Theater of Music and Drama in Gulistan(1975).

Other institutions active in 1976 included the Philharmonic Society, which embraces the State Symphony Orchestra of the Uzbek SSR (1938), the T. Dzhalilov Folk Orchestra (1938), a string quartet (1952), The Chorus (1949), and the song and dance ensembles Shodlik (1936) and Liazgi (Khorezm, 1958). The organization Uzbekkontsert was founded in 1966, and the Tashkent Music Hall was formed in 1970 from an estrada orchestra that had been established in 1958. Other ensembles include the Tatar variety ensemble Khaitarma, the Korean ensemble Kaiagim (1965), and the vocal and instrumental ensembles Ialla (1972) and Sintez (1974).

Institutions for music education include the Khamza Khakim-zade Niiazi Institute for Art Studies (1928), the Tashkent Conservatory (1936), the Tashkent Institute of Culture (1973), and music schools in Tashkent, Bukhara, Namangan, Samarkand (art school), Fergana, Nukus (art school), Urgench, Termez, Andizhan, Bekabad, Karshi, and Gulistan. Cultural-educational tech-nicums and cultural technicums are located in Tashkent, Nukus, Bukhara, Karshi, and Namangan. Uzbekistan also has 211 children’s music schools, a special music school in Tashkent, three ten-year music schools, and the composers’ unions of the Uzbek SSR and the Kara-Kalpak ASSR (1967).


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Dances connected with everyday life, religious rites, and holidays have existed since ancient times among the peoples inhabiting Middle Asia, as indicated by drawings on rock walls depicting dancing figures. Professional dancers from Samarkand, Bukhara, and Tashkent were widely known in many states of the East between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C. Historical chronicles refer to the popularity and high level of development of dance between the ninth and 12th and 14th and 16th centuries. Contemporary Uzbek dance has many genres, forms, and schools, including the classical Uzbek. In contrast to the classical dances of other peoples of the East, which mainly tell a story by means of gestures, facial mimicry, and pantomime, Uzbek classical dance is devoid of concrete imagery; the dance movements themselves express emotion. Classical Uzbek dances deal with generalized themes and emotions, for example, happiness and grief, joy and sorrow, life and death, and delight at the beauties of nature and the grandeur of the elements. Uzbek folk dances, which deal with themes of labor and war, also use movements of the classical Uzbek school.

Uzbek classical dance eventually formed three schools—those of Fergana, Khorezm, and Bukhara, each of which had its own dance idiom, as well as a developed system of training. Dances were joined in distinctive suites: the kattauiin in Fergana, makom ufar in Khorezm, and makom raksi in Bukhara. The Fergana school, because of historical conditions, was the most highly developed.

Despite the former high level of professional dance, by the beginning of the 20th century Uzbek folk dance had nearly ceased to exist, since it was prohibited by adat and sharia. Dance continued to develop only among professionals, who danced in solo performances, while the common people did not dare dance, even on national holidays.

In 1918, Uzbek national dance developed almost as a new mass folk art, embodying the emotions and rhythms of the revolutionary years and the traditions of classical Uzbek choreography. The first such dances were marches, created in agitational brigades and performed by professional dancers. The reborn traditional dance was endowed with new content.

In 1923, Kari Iakubov formed a troupe including well-known musicians and the young dancer Tamara Khanum. The First Traveling Ethnographic Troupe, organized in 1926, included well-known musicians, singers, and dancer-choreographers. In 1928 the troupe made up the core of the first Experimental Musical Theater, which in 1929 became the first Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama. The new genre of stage dance, which later gained wide recognition, was developed in the company. The theater also operated a studio. The Uzbek Song and Dance Ensemble, established in Tashkent in 1936, assimilated the best traditions of folk and classical Uzbek choreography; known as Shodlik since 1956, it has as its principal choreographer People’s Artist of the Uzbek SSR I. Akilov. The Bakhor Ensemble, directed by M. Turgunbaev, was founded in 1957, and the Liazgi Khorezm Song and Dance Ensemble, directed by People’s Artist of the Uzbek SSR G. A. Rakhimova, was established in 1958.

In 1928, Tamara Khanum arranged for the studio of the ethnographic troupe to teach young boys and girls the basic principles of European classical ballet; the studio’s teacher was K. A. Bek. Later, N. K. Egorov, V. N. Gubskaia, A. I. Vil’tzak, and P. K. Iorkin taught classical dance at the first Uzbek Musical Theater. In 1933 the first Uzbek ballet, R. A. Raslavets’ Pakhta (Cotton), was staged in this theater by Bek and U. A. Kamilov. The production, which proved the company capable of taking on full-length ballets, combined folk dances of the Fergana school with narrative pantomime. The ballet Shakhida, with music by F. Tal’, was staged with considerable success in 1939 by A. R. Tomskii, Kamilov, and Turgunbaev. The Tamara Khanum Uzbek Republic Ballet School opened in Tashkent in 1935; it was here that E. K. Obukhova taught European classical dance.

In 1939, after the opening of the Uzbek Theater of Opera and Ballet, choreographers experimented with dance forms for Uzbek ballets. In 1940 two new works entered the repertoire: E. G. Brusilovskii’s Guliandom, staged by I. I. Arbatov, Tamara Khanum, Kamilov, and Gubskaia, and A. M. Balanchivadze’s Heart of the Hills, staged by E. N. Baranovskii. The ballet school graduated a class of students in 1941, after which it closed. Students accepted into the theater included several talented dancers, notably G. B. Izmailova.

S. N. Vasilenko’s ballet Akbiliak, based on Uzbek folk tales, was staged in 1943 by Kamilov and Turgunbaev, on the initiative of choreographer F. V. Lopukhov. A ballet studio was created under the theater’s auspices in 1944. In 1947, Iorkin staged L. Delibes’s Coppélia with Izmailova as Swanilda, and in 1948 he staged Swan Lake and The Fountain of Bakhchisarai. The Sverd-lov Russian Opera and Ballet Theater in Tashkent also staged ballets; a former people’s conservatory, the theater opened in 1918, although prior to 1925 it staged only operas. In 1948 the ballet companies of this theater merged with the Navoi Uzbek Theater of Opera and Ballet.

In 1947 the Uzbek Choreographic School opened, and in 1954 its graduates made up the core of the new theater’s ballet company. In 1953, Gubskaia, I. Iusupov, and other Uzbek ballet figures graduated from the department of choreography of the Luna-charskii State Institute of Theatrical Arts. In 1953, Gubskaia re-staged A. E. Spadavekkii’s The Happy Coast, based on V. P. Burmeister’s choreography, and in 1963, Iusupov restaged K. A. Karaev’s Path of Thunder after K. A. Sergeev’s choreography.

Uzbek composers and choreographers collaborated on numerous ballets: I. Abkarov’s The Dream (1959, choreographed by Izmailova), L. V. Feigen’s Forty Maidens (1967, choreographed by A. V. Kuznetsov), M. Leviev’s Sukhail’ and Mekhri (1968, choreographed by Z. I. Akilova and I. Akilov), and M. Ashrafi’s The Amulet of Love (1969, choreographed by Izmailova and A. L. Andreev), Timur Malik (1970, choreographed by Iusupov), and Love and the Sword (1974, choreographed by N. S. Markar’iants).

Choreographers and leading dancers of the company developed new forms of classical dance in Uzbek ballets, organically combining methods of European classical technique with Uzbek traditional classic dance and modern folk dance.

The Samarkand Theater of Opera and Ballet opened in 1964. It was headed from 1965 to 1969 by principal choreographer T. Dusmetov, and from 1969 by A. Muminov.

Leading Uzbek dancers include People’s Artists of the USSR M. Turgunbaeva, G. B. Izmailova, and B. R. Karieva, People’s Artists of the Uzbek SSR K. Iusupova, Kh. A. Kamilova, R. Tanguriev, and V. A. Vasil’ev, and Honored Artists of the Uzbek SSR V. Ia. Proskurina, S. R. Tangurieva, S. Sh. Burkhanov, and G. R. Khamraeva. Leading choreographers include P. K. Iorkin, People’s Artists of the USSR Tamara Khanum, M. Turgunbaeva, and G. B. Izmailova, People’s Artists of the Uzbek SSR U. A. Kamilov and V. N. Gubskaia, and Honored Artists of the Uzbek SSR I. Iusupov and N. S. Markar’iants. The division of theater, motion pictures, and choreography of the Khamza Khakimzade Niiazi Institute of Art Studies offers courses in the study of the history of Uzbek ballet. L. A. Avdeeva is the republic’s leading scholar of the ballet.


Avdeeva, L. A. Narodnaia artistka SSSR Tamara Khanum. Tashkent, 1959.
Avdeeva, L. A. M. Turgunbaeva. Tashkent, 1959.
Avdeeva, L. A. Tantseval’noe iskusstvo Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1960.
Avdeeva, L. A. Tanets Bernary Karievoi. Tashkent, 1973.
Avdeeva, L. A. Balet Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1973.
Avdeeva, L. A. Galiia Izmailova. Tashkent, 1975.
Korsakova, A. Uzbekskü teatr opery i baleta im. Alishera Navoi. Moscow, 1959.

In medieval Uzbekistan, religious ceremonies, rituals, folk games, and calendar feasts contained theatrical elements. Wide popularity was gained by the comical and satirical repertoire of the theater of maskharabozy and kyzychki, who for centuries were the spokesmen of popular ideology and who played an important role in the ideological and aesthetic development of the people.

Russian professional and amateur troupes toured Turkestan beginning in the 1870’s, and various Russian actors performed there, including N. I. Sobol’shchikov-Samarin, S. L. Kuznetsov, M. V. Dal’skii, the Adel’geim brothers, P. N. Orlenev, and V. F. Komissarzhevskaia. These tours had great significance for the emergence of a national theater. No less important were the performances of Tatar and Azerbaijani troupes that came to Uzbekistan. A movement for the creation of an Uzbek theater of the European type originated among the progressive Uzbek intelligentsia in the early 20th century. Khamza Khakimzade Niiazi took the first steps to create democratic plays and found a democratic theater. In 1915 he organized a semiprofessional troupe in Kokand. It staged several plays, including Khamza’s Poisoned Life. The troupe founded in Tashkent in 1914 by the poet and en-lightener A. Avloni also made a valuable contribution to the development of democratic theater.

The Uzbek theater developed rapidly after the victory of the October Socialist Revolution. In 1918, Khamza founded the first Soviet Uzbek theater in Fergana, the Regional Traveling Political Troupe, which performed on the fronts during the Civil War and in the cities of the republic. Plays by Khamza, including Landowner and Farmhand and the tetralogy Fergana Tragedies, were staged; actors included M. Kari-Iakubov, Kh. S. Islamov,. and M. A. Kuznetsova. Later, Khamza helped found Uzbek theaters in Kokand and Andizhan in 1919, in Khiva in 1922, and in other cities. The K. Marx Uzbek Theater Company was founded in 1919 under the direction of M. Uigur; actors included Ia. Babadzhanov, M. Mukhamedov, A. Khidoiatov, and M. Karieva.

Soviet Russian theaters opened in Tashkent and Samarkand in 1918–19, and amateur theatricals were organized in clubs, various educational institutions, and units of the Red Army. In 1920 some of the actors of Khamza’s group merged with the K. Marx company to form the Model Regional Drama Company. In 1924 many of its gifted actors, headed by Uigur, were sent to study at the theater studio of the Uzbek House of Cultural Enlightenment in Moscow, along with a group of talented actors from amateur theater groups in other cities. In 1925 another group of young actors began studying at the M. F. Akhundov Theater Technicum in Baku.

Many graduates of the Moscow and Baku studios joined the Central State Theater Company in Samarkand. In 1929 the Samarkand company was reorganized as the Uzbek State Drama Theater, now known as the Khamza Uzbek Drama Theater, which has been located in Tashkent since 1931. This theater became the center of Uzbek theatrical life and contributed to the development of other theater groups in the republic. The network of professional theaters developed further in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s in Uzbekistan; new groups were organized in Samarkand, Bukhara, and Fergana, and kolkhoz and sovkhoz theaters were organized as well. Many of the productions staged in Uzbek theaters in the 1930’s and early 1940’s testified to the growing skill of the leading actors and their mastery of the principles professed by K. S. Stanislavsky. These plays included K. Iashen’s We Burn (1931) and Honor and Love (1936), Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1935) and Othello (1941), K. A. Trenev’s Liubov’ larovaia (1937), A. N. Ostrovskii’s The Thunderstorm (1938), Khamza’s Landowner and Farmhand (1939), M. Gorky’s Egor Bulychov and the Others (1939), all of which were performed at the Khamza Theater, and A. E. Korneichuk’s Platon Krechet (1935), which was staged at the Samarkand Theater.

Artistic successes achieved during the period of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45) included productions of I. Sultanov’s Eagle’s Flight (1942), Iashen’s Death to the Occupiers (1942), Kh. Alimdzhan’s Mukanna (1943), M. Sheikhzade’s Dzhalaletdin (1944), and Uigun and Sultanov’s Alisher Navoi (1945; new version, 1948). The ties between the Uzbek theater and the theaters of other peoples of the Soviet Union were especially strengthened during these years, when many evacuated theaters from Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Kharkov, and other cities operated in Uzbekistan. The greatest masters of the Soviet stage contributed a great deal to the Uzbek theaters by assisting in the staging of plays and by giving acting classes.

Uzbek playwrights wrote new works during the postwar years, and the repertoire of theaters expanded substantially. Uzbek theaters staged works by playwrights of other republics and difficult foreign plays. They also met various other professional challenges, thus gaining valuable experience. Landmarks in Uzbek theater during the late 1940’s and 1950’s included stagings of Pogodin’s The Kremlin Chimes (1947), Uigun’s Novbakhor (1949), Iashen and A. Umari’s Khamza (1949), N. Safarov’s The Dawnof the East (1951), M. Gorky’s Smug Citizens (1951), A. Kakhkhar’s Silk Siuzane (1952), N. V. Gogol’s The Inspector-General (1952), Popov’s Family (1952), Nazim Hikmet’s Legend of Love (1953), Daughter of the Ganges (1956, after a work by R. Tagore), Algeria, My Native Land! (1957, after a work by M. Dib), Uigun’s Khurriiat (1958), A. P. Chekhov’s Uncle Vanya (1958), and Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar (1958).

In 1940, S. Tabibullaev was the first actor in the republic to perform the role of V. I. Lenin, in Pogodin’s Man With a Gun. In 1957, Lenin was portrayed for the first time in an Uzbek play, Iashen’s Guiding Star, by People’s Artist of the USSR Sh. Burkhanov.

Several musical drama theaters were reorganized as drama theaters in 1961, creating greater possibilities for the development of this form of theater. Valuable cultural and professional exchanges were provided by week-long and day-long festivals of literature and art of the RSFSR, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, and Turkmenia held in Uzbekistan in the 1960’s; Uzbek artists also performed in other republics. The main trend in Uzbek theater has become the staging of philosophical, poetic, and publicist works of great ideological, psychological, and emotional content. Uzbek plays constitute the basic repertoire, and in the best of these works national themes and symbols attain international significance. The most important Russian and foreign classics increase the contribution of Uzbek theater to Soviet theatrical culture.

Productions of the 1960’s through the mid-1970’s included I. Sultanov’s People With Faith (1960, 1971) and The Unknown (1963), Sheikhzade’s Mirza Ulug Beg (1961, 1965), S. Azimov’s Bloody Mirage (1964) and Drama of the Century (1968), Sacred Blood (1964, after a work by Aibek), M. Kaoru’s Stolen Life (1965), Uigun’s Murderer (1965), Shakespeare’s King Lear (1966), Karim’s On the Night of a Lunar Eclipse (1966, 1974), Kakhkhar’s My Sweet Mothers (1967), Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex (1969), Iashen’s Dawn of the Revolution (1973), Kalidasa’s Abhijnana-shakuntala (1973), and Hauptmann’s Before Sunset (1974).

Uzbek theaters stage works by playwrights of the fraternal Soviet republics, for example, A. F. Sofronov, V. S. Rozov, M. Karim, R. Ishmuratov, A. E. Makaenok, N. Dumbadze, and Ch. Aitmatov. As of 1976, Uzbek theaters in Tashkent included the Khamza Uzbek Drama Theater, the Esh Gvardiia Uzbek Drama Theater, the Iu. Akhunbabaev Uzbek Theater for Young Audiences, and a puppet theater with Uzbek and Russian companies. Other theaters in Uzbekistan are the Khamza Uzbek Drama Theater in Kokand, the Uzbek Drama Theater in Katta-kurgan, the Gorky Russian Drama Theater and the Russian Theater for Young Audiences in Tashkent, and Russian drama theaters in Samarkand and Fergana.

Dramatic works are also staged by the Mukimi Uzbek Musical Theater in Tashkent, the Fergana Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy, the Andizhan Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy, the Bukhara Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy, the Khorezm Theater of Musical Drama in Urgench, the Kashkadar’ia Theater of Musical Drama in Karshi, the Kara-Kalpak Musical Drama Theater in Nukus, the Dzhizak Theater of Musical Drama, the Surkhandar’ia Musical Drama Theater in Termez, and the Syr Darya Theater of Musical Drama in Gulistan.

Prominent stage directors in the Uzbek Theater have included People’s Artists of the Uzbek SSR M. Uigur, Ia. Babadzhanov, A. O. Ginzburg, and T. Khodzhaev. Major actors have included People’s Artists of the USSR A. Khidoiatov and A. Bakirov and People’s Artists of the Uzbek SSR A. Dzhalilov, M. Karie-va, Sh. Kaiumov, M. A. Kuznetsova, M. Mirakilov, and F. Nazrullaev.

As of 1975, notable figures in the theater included People’s Artists of the USSR Sh. Burkhanov, G. N. Zagurskaia, S. Ishanturaeva, N. Rakhimov, R. Khamraev, A. Khodzhaev, and A. Shamuratova. Equally notable were People’s Artists of the Uzbek SSR Ia. Abdullaeva, G. Agzamov, T. Azizov, I. Alieva, S. Akhmedov, K. G. Efremova, M. R. Liuban-skii, Z. Madaliev, E. Malikbaeva, M. F. Mansurov, Ia. Mamatkhanov, Z. Mukhamedzhanov, S. Rakhmanov, Z. Sadrieva, T. Sultanova, S. Tabibullaev, A. Turdyev, N. G. Khachaturov, Z. Khidoiatova, K.Khodzhaev, A. Faiziev, and M. Iusupov.

Tashkent has an institute of theater arts, founded in 1945, that is now the A. N. Ostrovskii Tashkent Institute of Theatrical Arts, one of the major centers of theater training in Middle Asia. Many of the institute’s graduates hold leading positions in drama theaters of Uzbekistan and other republics. The Khamza Khakim-zade Niiazi Scientific Research Institute of Art Studies (founded 1928) conducts research in the history and theory of the Uzbek theater. The Theater Society of Uzbekistan was established in 1945.


Olidor, O. V bor’be za stsenicheskii realizm. Moscow, 1957.
Uvarova, G. Uzbekskii dramaticheskii teatr. Moscow, 1959.
Fel’dman, Ia. Kharakter naroda i stsenicheskie obrazy. Tashkent, 1962.
Fel’dman, Ia. Vlastiteli dum: Uzbekskie dramaticheskie aktery segodnia. Tashkent, 1970.
Uzbekskii sovetskii teatr, book 1. (Edited by A. M. Rybnik.) Tashkent, 1966.
Istoriia sovetskogo dramaticheskogo teatra, vols. 1–6. Moscow, 1966–71.
Rakhmonov, M. Uzbek teatri. Tashkent, 1975.
Circus. The circus in Uzbekistan dates to antiquity. Rock drawings from the second millennium B.C. to the beginning of the Common Era and remains discovered in archaeological excavations in ancient Samarkand (Afrasiab) of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. testify to the existence of animal trainers, bareback riders, jugglers, acrobats, clowns, and ropewalkers. The development of the Uzbek circus was related to the equestrian sports practiced in military exercises, as well as to popular games and the Uzbek way of life.
Traditional circus performers included tightrope dancers (dorbozy), high tight-wire walkers (simbozy), trapeze artists (chichirikchi), acrobats (muallakchi), bareback riders (chavan-dozi), conjurers and magicians (kozboglovchi), and athletes and wrestlers (palvany). Performances are accompanied by an orchestra of folk instruments.
The first professional circus was established in 1904 by M. Mansurov, and combined Russian-Uzbek circuses were founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Impresarios included F. Iu. Iupatov, who built a permanent wooden circus in Tashkent in 1914, and T. Zhigalov. A. Rakhmanov was an outstanding circus manager and performer between 1915 and 1925. The Uzbek Circus Company was established in 1942; it included the Tashkenbaev family of ropewalkers, the Zaripov family of bareback riders, and the Khodzhaev family of comic equestrians.
As of 1976, noted circus performers included the Tashkenbaev ropewalkers, the comedians A. Iusupov and M. Iusupov, the comic equestrienne and dog trainer Lola Khodzhaeva, the clowns P. Borovikov, G. Zastavnikov, and Pansi (P. S. Ul’ianov), the equestrian Kh. Zaripov, and the equestrian acrobat Lovar Khad-zhaev.
The new Tashkent Circus was opened in 1976.


Borovkov, A. Dorvoz: Brodiachii tsirk v Uzbekistane. Tashkent, 1928.
Abidov, T. Mastera uzbekskogo tsirka. Tashkent, 1973.
Tursunov, T. Karim Kizik Zarifov. Tashkent, 1959.
Obidov, T. lusufdjon kizik. Tashkent, 1960.
Obidov, T. Dorbozlar, kissasi. Tashkent, 1964.

In 1925 the People’s Commissariat of Education of the Uzbek SSR adopted a resolution for the creation of the Uzbekgoskino Trust, and funds were allocated for the construction of the Shark Iulduz Motion-picture Studio, now Uzbekfilfil’m. Uzbek motion-picture specialists were trained, and in the late 1920’s a group of young people was sent to study in Moscow and Leningrad, while another group studied the technical aspects of production. Special courses were also taught. N. Ganiev, the first director and actor of the republic’s motion-picture studio and later a director and screenwriter, was a major figure in the establishment of Uzbek cinema. He published the handbooks The Film Actor and The Film Script.
In the 1920’s, the period of silent films, the most prominent directors were V. K. Viskovskii, O. N. Frelikh, M. I. Doronin, M. A. Averbakh, K. A. Gertel’, and Ch. G. Sabinskii, and the best-known cameramen were A. Dorn and F. Verigo-Darovskii. Feature films made in the central studios by these directors and cameramen dealt with current issues facing the republic. Several films dealt with the emancipation of Uzbek women, for example, The Muslim Woman (1925), The Second Wife (1925), and The Yashmak (1927), while others portrayed the liquidation of the Basmachi class. The Civil War was the theme of The Jackals of Ravat (1927), The Covered Van (1928), and The Last Beg (1930).
The films From Beneath the Arches of the Mosque (1928) and The Holy Man’s Daughter (1931) exposed the reactionary policies of Muslim religious leaders. Vital issues facing the republic—primarily the development of cotton cultivation and the implementation of land and water reforms—were treated in agitational films, documentaries, and scientific films. The first attempt to depict industrialization was Ganiev’s feature film Upsurge (1931). The directors Ganiev, S. Khodzhaev, and Iu. Agzamov worked in feature films in the early 1930’s, while the director and cameraman M. Kaiumov specialized in documentaries. The last Uzbek silent films were Khodzhaev’s Before Dawn (1933) and Agzamov’s Klych (1936).
The first sound film, The Oath (1937), vividly revealed the gifts of the Uzbek actors Ia. Babadzhanov and A. Ismatov. Other important films were Azamat (1940) and Asal’, the screenplay of which was written by the Uzbek playwright K. Iashen. The film studios of other republics were evacuated to Uzbekistan during the Great Patriotic War, and Aleksandr Parkhomenko (1942), Two Soldiers (1943), and Nasreddin in Bukhara (1943) were filmed jointly with these studios. Uzbek musical films became popular during the 1940’s, for example, To Friends at the Front (1942) and Gift of the Homeland (1943). Many cinematographers worked in frontline film teams. Ganiev’s Takhir and Zukhra (1945) and Iarmatov’s Alisher Navoi (1948) were significant achievements of the postwar years. Ganiev’s Daughter of Fergana (1948), based on contemporary themes, and Iarmatov’s historical film Avitsenna (1957) were also major films. L. Fai-ziev’s On Lenin’s Memorial Pass (1958) was the first Uzbek film in which an actor depicted Lenin.
Graduates of the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography and the Higher Director’s Courses arrived at the Uzbek studio in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s; these included the directors Sh. Abbasov, A. Khachaturov, R. Batyrov, D. Salimov, Kh. Faiziev, A. Akbarkhodzhaev, A. Khamraev, Kh. Akhme-rov, and E. Ishmukhammedov; the cameramen Kh. Faiziev and D. Fatkhulin; and the set designers E. Kalandarov, N. Rakhimbaev, and E. Pushin.
Films of all types were made during the 1960’s and the first half of the 1970’s, including Faiziev’s Tiny Bird (1961) and his historical epic The Star of Ulug Beg (1965), Abassov’s The Whole Mak-hallia Is Talking About It (1961), You Are Not an Orphan (1963), Tashkent—City of Grain (1970), and Abu Reikhan Biruni (1974), and Agzamov’s The Road Beyond the Horizon (1963). Iarmatov directed a trilogy based on revolutionary history, consisting of Storm Over Asia (1965), Horsemen of the Revolution (1968), and Death of the Black Consul (1970), as well as the film Alone Among People (1974). Khamraev’s major films are The White, White Storks (1965), Commissar Extraordinary (1970), and Without Fear (1971). Other notable films are Ishmukhammedov’s Tenderness (1967) and Batyrov’s We Await You, Lad (1972). Documentary and scientific films continue to be made. Documentary films by the director and cameraman M. Kaiumov appeared in the 1950’s and 1960’s, including Five Hands of Mankind, Vietnam—My Land, From Spring to Spring, and Thirteen Swallows. The cameramen A. Rakhmanov, A. Saidov, T. Nadyrov, I. Gibalevich, and D. Salimov also make documentary films.
The film magazine Sovetskii Uzbekistan (Soviet Uzbekistan) and the satirical film anthology Nashtar are published periodically. The International Film Festival of the Countries of Asia and Africa has been held in Tashkent on alternate years since 1968 under the motto “For peace, social progress, and the freedom of peoples.” Showings and ten-day festivals of Uzbek films are organized in the other republics. Animated cartoons are now being produced, and the production of color and wide-screem films has been mastered. Several films have been created jointly with cinematographers of the Ukraine, Turkmenia, and other republics. The Cinematographers’ Union of the Uzbek SSR was founded in 1958. In 1975 there were 4,469 motion-picture projection units in Uzbekistan.


Abul-Kasymova, Kh. N. Rozhdenie uzbekskogo kino. Tashkent, 1965.
Teshabaev, D. Kinoiskusstvo sovetskogo Uzbekistana. Moscow, 1968.
Teshabaev, D. Putiipoiski. Tashkent, 1973.