veto

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veto

[Lat.,=I forbid], power of one functionary (e.g., the president) of a government, or of one member of a group or coalition, to block the operation of laws or agreements passed or entered into by the other functionaries or members.

In the U.S. government, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to veto any bill passed by Congress. The president's veto power is limited; it may not be used to oppose constitutional amendments, and it may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. In practice, the veto is used rarely by the president (although Franklin D. RooseveltRoosevelt, Franklin Delano
, 1882–1945, 32d President of the United States (1933–45), b. Hyde Park, N.Y. Early Life

Through both his father, James Roosevelt, and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, he came of old, wealthy families.
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 vetoed over 600 bills), and a bill once vetoed is rarely reapproved in the same form by Congress. The pocket veto is based on the constitutional provision that a bill fails to go into operation if it is unsigned by the president and Congress goes out of session within ten days of its passage; the president may effectively veto such a bill by ignoring it. The British crown's technical veto power over acts of Parliament has not been exercised since 1707.

American states have generally given their governors veto power similar to that of the president. In addition, more than 40 states have legislated a line-item veto, which, in varying terms, allows the governor to veto particular provisions of taxing and spending bills. In 1996, Congress passed a law that gave the president a limited ability to kill items in similar federal bills, but it was ruled unconstitutional in 1998.

The second type of veto, by one member of a coalition, has been seen frequently as exercised by one or another member of the United NationsUnited Nations
(UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 193 nations are now members of the organization (see table entitled United Nations Members).
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 Security Council; its use within the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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 is under debate.

Veto

 

in ancient Rome a right exercised by a Roman magistrate (right of intercession) with respect to the decisions and actions of another magistrate. The right of veto of the people’s tribunes was particularly important. In Poland in the 17th century the so-called liberum veto was in effect; complete unanimity was required in the decisions of the sejm.

In bourgeois states the head of state has the right to refuse to put into force a draft law adopted by the legislative organ. The right of veto came into being in monarchical states during the period when a balance of power developed between the executive organ, represented by the monarch, and parliament. Monarchs as a rule had the absolute right of veto, and the imposition of the veto meant that the draft law was entirely discarded and would not be subjected to further examination in parliament. The establishment of parliamentarism in bourgeois countries, the decline in the prestige of monarchist tradition, and the concentration of all power in the hands of the governments brought to an end the practice of the use of the veto by the monarch (in England, for example, a veto was imposed for the last time in 1707) although it is theoretically still retained.

In most of the bourgeois republics of today the right of veto is vested in the head of state—the president. As a rule, it is a deferring veto: in refusing to enforce the draft law (which means, in most cases, the refusal to sign it), the president must refer it back to parliament for further examination. If the draft law is once again adopted by parliament in accordance with the conditions laid down in the constitution, it becomes law without the sanction of the head of state. In a number of countries, including the United States, where the head of state may exercise the right of veto only within a certain time limit, constitutional practice has given rise to the so-called pocket veto: a draft law not signed by the president within a given time limit is considered to have lapsed, if at the expiry of the time limit the houses of parliament are not in session. In the United States from 1945 to 1966 inclusive, the right of veto was used in the case of 192 bills, and Congress was able to overrule the president (that is, pass the bill a second time) in 15 cases in all. Over the same period of time, the pocket veto was used in 207 cases.

In socialist countries, where the right to pass laws is vested in the supreme representative organ (for example, the Supreme Soviet in the USSR), the constitution does not accord the right of veto to the head of state.

In international law, the nonunanimity of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council is sometimes referred to as recourse to a veto.

B. S. KRYLOV

veto

US Government a document containing the reasons why a chief executive has vetoed a measure
References in periodicals archive ?
accreditation and funding restrictions applied to VETiS and SBNAs by state and territory education departments; and
Glossary ACE Adult and Community Education ANTA Australian National Training Authority AVCC Australian Vice Chancellors Committee CIT Canberra Institute of Technology COAG Council of Australian Governments DEST Department of Education Science and Technology DEWR Department of Employment and Workplace Relations AQTF Australian Quality Training Framework ITAB Industry Training Advisory Board ITC Industry Training Council OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development RPL Recognition of Prior Learning RTO Registered Training Organisation SBNA School Based New Apprenticeships SCH Student Contact Hours TAFE Technical and Further Education VET Vocational Education and Training VETiS Vocational Education and Training in Schools
While espousing the merits of VETiS for all students, it becomes evident that tensions exist in terms of the career advisers' advocated and actual perceptions of VETiS and their practised advice giving.
The career advisers perceived VETiS in a positive light and espoused the view that VET pathways had merit and provided valuable options for students.
When questioned as to the merits of VETiS as compared a more directly tertiary-bound pathway, the career advisers made it clear that they perceived there to be little or no difference in the merits of either.
In line with the comments detailed in the previous section, the career advisers espoused the view that they would encourage all students to pursue a VET pathway if that was the desire of the individual student; yet, a closer examination of their comments indicates that they had a different 'agenda' for different kids when it came to which kids they advised to do VETiS and for what reasons.
For those students who were academically oriented, VETiS was seen to offer relief from 'real' schoolwork and as providing a competitive edge.
This advice would appear to be in line with research that suggests that academic students do VETiS courses 'for the bonus marks they brought to tertiary entrance scores and the prospect of impressing future employers' (Barnett & Ryan, 2005, p.