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(sometimes Vaishnavism), one of the religious doctrines of Hinduism uniting a number of Vishnuite sects. Although they differ from each other in certain religious dogmas and rituals, all the sects recognize the god Vishnu as the supreme divinity and worship him mainly in the form of two avatars (incarnations)—Rama and Krishna. Vishnu and his avatars are benevolent divinities connected with popular sun cults of fertility. Vishnuism is widespread mainly in northern India. As early as the middle of the first millennium B.C. a monotheistic tendency appeared in Vishnuism, and the doctrine of bhakti was created—a doctrine of personal love and devotion to god denying the necessity of ritual. Since the llth century A.D. sectarian tendencies have been arising in Vishnuism. Several of these sects have protested against class-caste inequality and were closely connected with the bhakti doctrine. The south Indian philosopher and religious reformer Ramanuja (died 1137) preached the bhakti doctrine and founded the Sri Vaishnavas sect, which has remained the major Vishnuite sect until the present time.


Barth, A. Religii Indii. Moscow, 1897. (Translated from French.)
Radhakrishnan, S.Indiiskaiafilosofiia, vols. 1-2. Moscow, 1956-57. (Translated from English.)
Bhăndārkar, R. G. Vaisnavism, saivism, and minor religious systems. Strasbourg, 1913.


References in periodicals archive ?
The Mallas adopted Gaudiya Vaishnavism, a devotional faith shaped by the Bengali saint, Chaitanya (1486-1533), which had already spread across the country and made Vrindavan a major center in North India.
The temple is one of 108 Divya Desams (Holy Abodes of Vishnu) and principal centres of worship of the deity in Vaishnavism.
The author states that Jagannatha of Puri was originally a local cult of this region, later overlaid with a Sanskritized form of Vaishnavism.
Openshaw gives an overview of different scholarly opinions regarding their date of origin, placed anywhere from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century, the religious tradition from which they are presumed to have sprung, posited variously as Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism, Vaishnavism, Sufism, and materialism (lokayata), and their defining features as determined from songs.
Guwahati, Sep 14(ANI): Thousands of devotees visited the Dhekiakhuwa Bor Namghar, Temple of Vaishnavism in Assam to celebrate the 560th birth anniversary of Srimanta Sankardeva, the famed Vaishnavite saint and social reformer of the region.
McLean's second main thesis is that the life of Ramprasad must be read in light of the biographies of the earlier Bengali saint Chaitanyn, head of the revival of Vaishnavism that took place in Bengal in the sixteenth century.
Das's comments on two other books, Religion, Philosophy, and Literature of Bengal Vaishnavism, by Durgadas Mukhopadyay (Delhi: B.
Ramanujan, History of Vaishnavism in South India Upto Ramanuja (Chidambaram: Annamalai University, 1973), 48-49.