Valparaiso

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Valparaiso

(vălpərī`zō), Span. Valparaíso (bälpäräē`sō) [Span.,=vale of paradise], city (1992 pop. 276,737), capital of Valparaiso region, central Chile. It is the chief port of Chile and the terminus of a trans-Andean railroad. An important industrial center, it manufactures textiles, shoes and leather goods, paint, and chemicals. From a narrow waterfront terrace, steep hills rise to make Valparaiso an amphitheater, with wharves and business quarters at the base and residential sections above. So steep is the ascent that funicular railways are used. The city faces a wide bay, which, although partly protected by breakwaters, often carries severe northern gales in the winter. However, Valparaiso's climate is generally mild, and thousands of tourists visit the region, particularly nearby Viña del MarViña del Mar
[Span.,=vineyard by the sea], city (1990 est. pop. 281,100), central Chile. Practically a suburb of Valparaiso, Viña del Mar is one of the most famous and popular resort cities in South America.
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. Earthquakes are common, at times causing significant damage, and the city's hills are subject occasionally to wildfires that can be difficult to contain.

Valparaiso was founded in 1536 by the Spanish conquistador Juan de Saavedra, but it was not permanently established until 1544 by Pedro de ValdiviaValdivia, Pedro de
, c.1500–1554, Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Chile. One of Francisco Pizarro's best officers in the conquest of Peru, educated, energetic, somewhat less cruel and avaricious than his fellow conquerors, Valdivia obtained permission from Pizarro to
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. It was frequently raided by English and Dutch pirates throughout the 16th and 17th cent. Relatively unimportant in colonial times, the city grew in the late 19th cent. In 1990 it became the seat of the Chilean congress. Valparaiso has several museums, a Catholic university, a technical school, and a naval academy.


Valparaiso

(vălpərā`zō), city (1990 pop. 24,414), seat of Porter co., NW Ind.; inc. 1850. There is popcorn processing, tool and die making, and the manufacture of metal products, liquid fertilizer, storage tanks, ferrite powder, paving materials, firefighting equipment, magnets, electronics, food-processing equipment, and plastics. The city is the seat of Valparaiso Univ.

Valparaíso

 

a city on Chile’s Pacific coast. Valparaiso encircles a bay of the same name and is located along the slopes of the Coastal Cordillera Mountains. It is the administrative center of the province of Valparaiso. The megalopolis formed by Valparaiso and the nearby city of Viña del Mar is second only to Santiago in population (286,100 in 1968) and industrial importance.

Valparaiso was founded by the Spanish in 1536. In 1674 the city was surrounded with fortifications to defend it against English and Dutch pirates. During Chile’s war for independence from Spain the Spaniards, who were abandoning the city, set it on fire and destroyed it. After Valparaiso was reconstructed in 1832, it became a major South American port. During the war with Spain in March 1866 the city was heavily bombarded by a Spanish squadron. The city has suffered from frequent earthquakes (1730, 1817, 1906, and 1960). At the end of the 19th century Valparaiso became an important center for the Chilean workers’ movement. (The largest demonstrations occurred in 1874, 1892, 1931-32, and 1948.)

As Chile’s most important port, Valparaiso handles more than half the country’s imports as well as a significant portion of its exports. It is the first stop on the Valparaiso-Santiago-Buenos Aires railroad line and the center of a highway network. Ten percent of the country’s industrial workers are employed in the city in industries including foundries, chemical and mechanical plants, and ship repair plants. There is also some light industry and a food-processing industry (fish canneries, sugar refineries, vegetable oil refineries, and others). Valparaiso, picturesquely situated on the hills, was built primarily in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its lower part includes important governmental buildings, boulevards, and wide streets. Among the city’s educational institutions are a university, a polytechnic institute, and a naval academy.