Due to scarcity of terrestrial plant macrofossils preserved in Late Glacial sediments, especially in varved clays
, AMS [sup.
Lake Timiskaming (100 km long, 200 m maximum depth) is the postglacial successor to glacial Lake Barlow; Barlow varved clays
are present below the floor of Lake Timiskaming as far south as the McConnell Moraine (Fig.
The other type of sand is formed as a result of submarine erosion of Late Pleistocene varved clays
up to 30 cm thick (alternating varved horizontal layers of brown clays and grey silty layers) are located in the nearshore, whereas below the sand accretion terrace on the bottom surface there are traces of submarine erosion, indicating sediment transport in NW direction.
The till is overlain by glaciolacustrine sands, silts or varved clays
, up to 25 m in thickness.
The thickness of soft varved clays
amounts to 10 m.
Most of it is composed of Late Weichselian till and glaciolacustrine sand, silt and varved clays
of the Baltic Ice Lake, and the Holocene marine and aeolian deposits.
In some places contemporary marine deposits are missing and Upper Pleistocene varved clays
are exposed on the seabed.
Glaciolacustrine varved clays
in the northern part of the lake depression were deposited approximately between 13 500 and 13 100 cal years BP.
The varved clays
discovered during geological drilling under glaciofluvial deposits in the valleys of the Vaike Emajogi and Pedeli rivers and in the town of Valga may partly originate from earlier glaciations.
Following the ice retreat from the central and southern parts of the study area in the Saadjarve Drumlin Field, the deposition of glacial varved clays
took place over a relatively short time period (up to 63 years).
In the northern and central parts of the lake the thickness of glaciolacustrine varved clays
covering the till reaches up to 37 m (Fig.
Large glaciolacustrine basins formed in the Palivere zone in northern Estonia, where the thickness of the varved clays
is up to 26 m, e.