Verbal Aspect

Aspect, Verbal

 

a grammatical category of the verb in many languages which, in general, reflects certain types of the course of an action. The category of aspect in various languages is extremely diverse both in the semantic distinctions made and in the external forms used to express them.

In Russian and other Slavic languages there are two contrasting verbal aspects. The perfective aspect characterizes an action as a complete, indivisible act, as otkryt’ (“to open”). The imperfective aspect provides no indication of the completeness or finality of an action, as otkryvat’ (“to [be] open[ing]”), and describes an action in the very process of realization, as on kak raz otkryval okno (“he was just opening the window”), a repeated action, as ne raz otkryval (“he opened [it] more than once”), or action in general, as ty otkryval okno? (“Were you opening the window?”). Three verbal aspects were distinguished in ancient Greek: the aorist, which in many respects is similar in meaning to the Russian perfective; the present, which is similar to the Russian imperfective; and the perfect, which denotes the state that is a result of a previous action—for example, kektemai (“I have acquired” that is, I possess). In English a distinction is made between the so-called continuous and indefinite aspects. The continuous aspect denotes an action in the process of its realization at a specific moment, as “I am writing,” whereas the indefinite aspect denotes an action with no such specification of time.

Aspectual meanings are usually intertwined with temporal meanings. The formation of the category of aspect, the relationship between the categories of aspect and tense, and even the very existence of aspect are debatable in many languages. Verb formations that are not sufficiently grammatical and which, in particular, do not form regular oppositions within the range of a certain lexical meaning—for example, the so-called iterative aspect in Russian, as edal (“he used to eat”)—are sometimes treated as aspects. In such instances, modern linguistics speaks not of aspects but rather of the so-called modes of action—the iterative, inchoative (Russian zasverkat’ [“to begin to sparkle”]), attenuative (Russian polezhaf [“to lie down for a while”]), semelfactive (kol’-nut’ [“to prick”]), and so on.

IU. S. MASLOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The topics include the acquisition of compositional telicity in Hebrew, the acquisition of negative imperatives in Bulgarian and implications for verbal aspect, a longitudinal investigation of the progressive prototype in second-language English, tense-aspect marking by second-language learners of Korean, and stem alternation and frequency effect in the acquisition of French verbal tenses by Russian adult learners.
Professor of Classics, Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio) is a concise 140- page instructional text that offers students tables of verbal aspect, types of nouns, English personal pronouns, English relative pronouns; the English verb 'to be'; quotations from Greek, Latin, and English masterpieces; and all AP Vergil rhetorical and prosodical terms.
I am more into the verbal aspect of self-deprecation but I guess the facial aspect is something that a person learns in time and I am definitely learning.
It's very important to the Irish, especially in the connection with the verbal aspect, the ability to stand one's ground in conversation, and the ability to mildly insult people to see how much pressure can be put on someone before they start to lose their cool.
This, to quote Jakobson, actualization of the imperfective verbal aspect (zdrabniac) may also be taken as a case of the poetics of grammar.
Definiteness is such a case, since it was expressed in Germanic by two categories: case and verbal aspect.
Even the verbal aspect of communication has strong art implications.
Biblical translation in Chinese and Greek; verbal aspect in theory and practice.
Hardly any factor has energized the search for aspect in all kinds of languages more than the fact that it so clearly exists and so clearly dominates in Russian, where the sounds pertaining to verbal aspect can be exactly identified and listed with precision.
The languages studied are English, German, and Algerian Arabic, which differ in a structural feature that is crucial for encoding event/time relations: verbal aspect.
Verbal aspect and non-indicative verbs; further soundings in the Greek of the New Testament.
Verbal aspect, the indicative mood, and narrative; soundings in the Greek of the New Testament.