Vessels, Scientific Research

Vessels, Scientific Research

 

ocean, lake, and river vessels designed for the study of bodies of water, the ocean floor, the atmosphere, or outer space and constructed specifically for such purposes or converted from other types of vessels. Scientific

Table 1a. Major specifications of some Soviet and foreign scientific research vessels
VesselYear of constructionLength (m)Displacement (tons)Power output, main engineSpeed (mph)Range (miles)PersonnelNumber of laboratoriesPrincipal research missions
    (hp)(kW)  CrewResearchers  
Note: A date In parentheses under “Year of construction” indicates year of conversion to a scientific research vessel. 1 First of a series of vessels operated by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, and GUGMS, including the Dmitrii Mendeleev, Akademik Vernadskll, Professor Vize, and Professor Zubov 2First of a series of vessels operated by the Weather Service, including the Musson, Viktor Bugaev, Georgii Ushakov, and Ernest Krenkel’ 3First of a series of vessels that Includes the Akademlk Berg, Professor Deriugin, and Persei-lll 4First of a series of scientific research vessels 5First of a series of vessels that includes the Professor Vodianitskii and Professor Kurentsov 6First of a series of intermediate-tonnage vessels that includes the Vulkanolog 7First of a series of vessels that includes the Vsevolod Berezkin and lakov Gakkel’
Soviet scientific research vessels
Vitiaz’ ..............1939
(1948)
109.45,7103,0002,2201318,000725314Diversified oceanography
Mikhail Lomonosov ..............1957102.45,9602,4501,8131311,000706517Hydrophysics
Iu. M. Shokal’skii ..............195984.03,6002,0001,4801215,000515712Hydrometeorology
A. I. Voeikov ..............195884.03,6002,0001,4801215,000555012Hydrometeorology
Petr Lebedev ..............1960944,6002,5001,8501312,000605010Oceanographic engineering
Ob’ ..............1954130.012,6008,0005,88015.518,0006565gDiversified oceanooraphy in Antarctica
Akademik Kurchatov1 ..............1966124.26,8288,0005,8801820,000848425Diversified oceanography
Passat2 ..............1968974,1464,8003,5521415,000555012Hydrometeorology
Kallisto ..............196479.83,2751,3409921110,00045304Hydrobiology
Zaria ..............195342.560530022275,00024104Geomagnetism
Akademik Knipovich3 ..............196684.63,7302,0001,4801314,000802712Ichthyology, hydrobiology
Evrika4 ..............197182.23,2701,1608581317,800631313Ichthyology, hydrobiology
Odissei ..............197084.53,8402,4001,77612.511,50075397Ichthyology, hydrobiology
Akademik Arkhangel’skii ..............196444.8544300222107,00022123Geology, geophysics
Poisk ..............197454.81,1281,00074012.240 days25155Geology, geophysics
Professor Bogorov5 ..............197568.81,6002,0001,48013.510,000302210Geology, geophysics
Akademik A. Kovalevskii ..............1949
(1954)
38.545536026685,00028104Marine biology
Professor Dobrynin ..............196325.210515011181,700772Marine geology
Morskoi geotizik6 ..............197654.81,0091,0007401110,00024165Geology, geophysics
Valerian Uryvaev7 ..............197354.71,1281,0007401210,000261411Hydrometeorology
G. Iu. Vereshchagin ..............196443.6530400296107,50020157Limnology of Lake Baikal
Akademik Topchiev ..............196745.420845033322 km/hr900km12205Diversified studies of rivers and lakes
Akademik Vavilov ..............195626.810330022222 km/hr1,200km10182Diversified studies of rivers and lakes
Merkurii ..............197434.0232.72262261,94528143Hydrometeorology of Lake Baikal
Foreign scientific research vessels
Vema ..............192367743600444106,000201610Diversified oceanography
Atlantis II ..............1962642,3002,4001,776108,00030254Physical oceanography, geophysics
Oceanographer ..............196492.33,8055,0003,7001616,000554510Diversified oceanography
Melville ..............196974.52,0752,5001,8501310,00023276Physical oceanography, geophysics
Hero ..............196638.2300760562106,00010144Biology, geophysics
Glomar Challenger ..............196812210,50010,0007,4001290 days46246Drilling on ocean floor
Calypso ..............1942
(1951)
40360600444125,00012101Underwater research
Jean Charcot ..............196574.52,2002,0001,4801510,000302512Diversified oceanography
Meteor ..............195243470720532104,00020153Physical oceanography
Discovery ..............196293.52,8003,0002,2201015,00045216Diversified oceanography
Sars Michael ..............1969702,0003,3402,4711215,00030157Ichthyology, biology
Hakuho Maru ..............1967953,2252,2001,6281215,00055328Diversified oceanography
Umitaka Maru ..............1955682,1002,1001,5541314,00047124Biology, ichthyology
General San Martin ..............195484.75,3004,8003,5528.530,0001,700386Physical oceanography
“Space service” scientific research vessels
Kosmonavt lurii Gagarin ..............197223145,00019,00014,06015.5130 days155280110Space research and studies of upper atmosphere
Akademik Sergei Korolev ..............197018222,00012,0008,88015120 days14016545Space research and studies of upper atmosphere
Kosmonavt Vladimir Komarov ..............196715617,5809,0006,66013.5100 days11512547Space research and studies of upper atmosphere
General Vandenberg ..............1964159.416,6009,0006,6601760 days100100Receiving data from objects in space
Redstone ..............1966181.422,30010,0007,4001660 days44108Receiving data from objects in space
American Manner ..............1959
(1962)
13410,6502,5001,85010.550 days6090Receiving data from objects in space

research vessels are outfitted with specialized laboratory equipment and instruments and deck structures appropriate to their principal mission. All shipboard observations and research are carried out by a staff of scientific and technical specialists assisted by members of the ship’s crew. These ships vary in tonnage from tens of tons to 45,000 tons. The number of shipboard laboratories depends on the tonnage of each ship and ranges from two on vessels of the Akademik Vavilov class to 100 or more on vessels of the Kosmonavt Iurii Gagarin class.

In the USSR scientific research vessels are operated by the academies of sciences of the USSR and the Union republics, the Chief Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service (GUGMS) of the USSR, the Ministry of the Fishing Industry, the Ministry of Geology, the Central Board of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, the Ministry of the Shipbuilding Industry, educational institutions, and other departments.

The scientific research fleet of the USSR comprises vessels engaged in diversified work and vessels designed for more specialized missions: weather service ships, which study processes in the oceans and the atmosphere, geophysical ships, which study geophysical processes in the ocean, and space research and support ships, which conduct space research and provide assistance during spaceflights. Data collection of value to commercial efforts is also conducted by scientific research vessels operated by the Ministry of the Fishing Industry and specialized ships of the Ministry of Geology. The Soviet expeditionary fleet, the largest in the world, operates in all parts of the world’s oceans.

The first expeditionary ship, the Persei, was constructed in 1922 for research in the northern seas. Prior to the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, all research was conducted on transport vessels, icebreakers, commercial fishing vessels, and hydrographic vessels temporarily converted for expeditions. The USSR used such ships to conduct 27 marine expeditions in arctic seas during the Second International Polar Year (1932). After the war, the scientific research vessel Vitiaz’ was commissioned and for the next 18 years served as the flagship of the Soviet expeditionary fleet. During the 1950’s and 1960’s, a series of specially designed and constructed scientific research ships, for example, the Akademik Kurchatov, was placed in service to keep pace with rapid advances in marine research. A new type of scientific research vessel, equipped for studying the upper atmosphere and outer space from the ocean’s surface, appeared in the mid-1960’s. The flagship of this class, the Kosmonavt Iurii Gagarin, is the largest research vessel in the world (see Table la).

The mainstays of the scientific research fleet for lakes and rivers are modified or converted river vessels and launches (seeSURVEY SHIP). The best-equipped river vessels engaged in scientific research are maintained by the Institute of the Biology of Inland Waters of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the Volga River basin (Akademik Topchiev, Borok, Nauka) and on Lake Baikal (G. Iu. Vereshchagin), by the Chief Administration of the Hydrometeorological Service (the scientific research vessel Merkurii), and by other organizations.

Scientific research vessels in use abroad during the early postwar period were primarily specially converted ships. The design and construction of specialized research vessels began in the 1960’s. Ships of this type include those of the Oceanographer series and the drilling ship Glomar Challenger (USA), the Hakuho Maru and Edo (Japan), Capricorne and Jean Charcot (France), Charterer (Great Britain), Quadra (Canada), and the Alexander Humboldt (German Democratic Republic). The USA has the largest fleet of scientific research vessels, followed by Japan, Canada, France, Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Argentina. All these ships are equipped with modern research equipment. They are primarily engaged in research programs.

In addition to surface vessels, underwater research vessels took on a major role in the study of the ocean depths during the 1950’s and 1960’s. Their work includes direct studies of benthic organisms and their interactions, studies of the continental shelf (the most productive biological region), and the collection of geological ore samples. In the USSR such research has been conducted by the Severianka and Sever-1. Vessels used abroad include the Deep Jeep, Alvin, Aluminaut, Cubmarine, and Ashera (USA), Pisces (Canada), Archimede (France), and Kuroshio, Yomiuri, and Kawasaki (Japan).

REFERENCES

Deriugin, K. K. Sovetskie okeanograficheskie ekspeditsii. Leningrad, 1968.
Suziumov, E. M., and S. I. Ushakov. Novye korabli nauki. Moscow, 1969.

E. M. SUZIUMOV

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