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Victoria(Alexandrina Victoria) (ăl'ĭgzăndrē`nə), 1819–1901, queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1837–1901) and empress of India (1876–1901). She was the daughter of Edward, duke of Kent (fourth son of George III), and Princess Mary Louise Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Victoria's father died before she was a year old. Upon the death (1830) of George IV, she was recognized as heir to the British throne, and in 1837, at the age of 18, she succeeded her uncle, William IV, to the throne. With the accession of a woman, the connection between the English and Hanoverian thrones ceased in accordance with the Salic law of Hanover. One of the young queen's advisers was Baron StockmarStockmar, Christian Friedrich, Baron von
, 1787–1863, Anglo-Belgian diplomat and courtier, b. Coburg, Germany. A physician, Stockmar became (1816) adviser of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, who in 1831 became King Leopold I of the Belgians.
..... Click the link for more information. , sent by her uncle, King Leopold ILeopold I,
1790–1865, king of the Belgians (1831–65); youngest son of Francis Frederick, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After serving as a page at the court of Napoleon I and as a general of the Russian army, he married (1816) Princess Charlotte, daughter of the
..... Click the link for more information. of the Belgians.
Her first prime minister, Viscount MelbourneMelbourne, William Lamb, 2d Viscount
, 1779–1848, British statesman. He entered Parliament as a Whig in 1805, was (1827–28) chief secretary for Ireland, and entered (1828) the House of Lords on the death of
..... Click the link for more information. , became her close friend and adviser. In 1839, when Melbourne's Whig cabinet resigned, Victoria refused to dismiss her Whig ladies of the bedchamber, the accepted gesture of confidence in the incoming party. The Tory leader, Sir Robert PeelPeel, Sir Robert,
1788–1850, British statesman. The son of a rich cotton manufacturer, whose baronetcy he inherited in 1830, Peel entered Parliament as a Tory in 1809.
..... Click the link for more information. , declined to form a cabinet, and Melbourne remained in office.
Marriage to Albert
In 1840, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince AlbertAlbert,
1819–61, prince consort of Victoria of Great Britain, whom he married in 1840. He was of Wettin lineage, the son of Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and first cousin to Victoria.
..... Click the link for more information. of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Albert, with whom she was very much in love, became the dominant influence in her life. Her first child, Victoria, later empress of Germany, was born in 1840, and the prince of Wales, later Edward VIIEdward VII
(Albert Edward), 1841–1910, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1901–10). The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, he was created prince of Wales almost immediately after his birth.
..... Click the link for more information. , in 1841. Victoria had nine children. Their marriages and those of her grandchildren allied the British royal house with those of Russia, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Romania, and several of the German states.
Through Albert's efforts, Victoria was reconciled with the Tories, and she became very fond of Peel during his second ministry (1841–46). She was less happy with the Whig ministry that followed, taking particular exception to the adventurous foreign policy of Viscount PalmerstonPalmerston, Henry John Temple, 3d Viscount,
1784–1865, British statesman. His viscountcy, to which he succeeded in 1802, was in the Irish peerage and therefore did not prevent him from entering the House of
..... Click the link for more information. . The resulting friction was a factor in Palmerston's dismissal from office in 1851. The queen and Albert also influenced the formation of Lord AberdeenAberdeen, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th earl of
, 1784–1860, British statesman. He served (1813) as ambassador extraordinary at Vienna and helped arrange (1814) the peace terms at Paris after Napoleon I's initial
..... Click the link for more information. 's coalition government in 1852. Royal popularity was increased by the success of the Crystal Palace exposition (1851), planned and carried through by Albert.
It began to wane again, however, when it was rumored on the eve of the Crimean War that the royal couple was pro-Russian. After the outbreak (1854) of the war, Victoria took part in the organization of relief for the wounded and instituted the Victoria Cross for bravery. She also reconciled herself to Palmerston, who became prime minister in 1855 and proved a vigorous war leader.
Widowhood and Later Years
In 1861, Albert (who had been named prince consort in 1857) died. Victoria's grief was so great that she did not appear in public for three years and did not open Parliament until 1866; her prolonged seclusion damaged her popularity. Her reappearance was largely the work of Benjamin DisraeliDisraeli, Benjamin, 1st earl of Beaconsfield
, 1804–81, British statesman and author. He is regarded as the founder of the modern Conservative party.
..... Click the link for more information. , who, together with William GladstoneGladstone, William Ewart,
1809–98, British statesman, the dominant personality of the Liberal party from 1868 until 1894. A great orator and a master of finance, he was deeply religious and brought a highly moralistic tone to politics.
..... Click the link for more information. , dominated the politics of the latter part of Victoria's reign.
Disraeli, adroit in his personal relations with Victoria, became the queen's great favorite. In 1876 he secured for her the title empress of India, which pleased her greatly; she was ardently imperialistic and intensely interested in the welfare of her colonial subjects, particularly the Indians. Victoria's relations with Gladstone, on the other hand, were very stiff; she disliked him personally and disapproved of many of his policies, especially Irish Home Rule.
In her old age, Victoria was enormously popular. Jubilees were held in 1887 and 1897 to celebrate the 50th and 60th years of the longest English reign (until that of Elizabeth II). The queen was not highly intelligent, but her conscientiousness and strict morals helped to restore the prestige of the crown and to establish it as a symbol of public service and imperial unity.
See her letters (9 vol., 1907–30); The Girlhood of Queen Victoria (extracts from her journal, ed. by Lord Esher, 1912); biographies by L. Strachey (1921, repr. 1960), S. Weintraub (1987), D. Thompson (1990), and A. N. Wilson (2014); C. Hibbert, Queen Victoria: A Personal History (2001); G. Gill, We Two, Victoria and Albert: Rulers, Partners, Rivals (2009).
Victoria(Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa), 1840–1901, empress of Germany, daughter of Victoria of England. In 1858 she married the German crown prince (later Emperor Frederick IIIFrederick III,
1831–88, emperor of Germany and king of Prussia (Mar.–June, 1888), son and successor of William I. In 1858 he married Victoria, the princess royal of England, who exerted considerable influence over him.
..... Click the link for more information. ). After her husband's death in 1888, she was generally known as Empress Frederick. An English liberal, she was bitterly hostile to the imperial chancellor Otto von BismarckBismarck, Otto von
, 1815–98, German statesman, known as the Iron Chancellor. Early Life and Career
Born of an old Brandenburg Junker family, he studied at Göttingen and Berlin, and after holding minor judicial and administrative offices he was elected
..... Click the link for more information. but was unable to make her dislike effective. Her letters were published in English in 1928.
See biographies by R. Barkeley (1956) and H. Pakula (1995).
Victoria(vĭktô`rēə), state (1991 pop. 3,770,684), 87,884 sq mi (227,620 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the S and E by the Indian Ocean, Bass Strait, and the Tasman Sea. MelbourneMelbourne,
city (1991 pop. 2,761,995), capital of Victoria, SE Australia, on Port Phillip Bay at the mouth of the Yarra River. Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, is a rail and air hub and financial and commercial center.
..... Click the link for more information. is the capital. Other important cities are GeelongGeelong
, city (1991 pop. 126,306), Victoria, SE Australia, on an inlet of Port Phillip Bay. It is a major port. Wool, wheat, meat, and hides are the principal exports; oil and phosphates are imported.
..... Click the link for more information. , BallaratBallarat
, city (1991 pop. 64,980), Victoria, SE Australia. It is an industrial center; clothing, food products, paper, brick and tile, and other goods are made. The city flourished during the gold rush (1860s), then declined.
..... Click the link for more information. , and BendigoBendigo
, city (1991 pop. 57,427), Victoria, SE Australia. Founded in 1851 during the gold rush, Bendigo was the center for the greatest goldfield in Victoria. Mining continues, but the city is now an industrial, railroad, tourist, and commercial center in a livestock and
..... Click the link for more information. . Australia's second smallest state, Victoria is the most densely populated. The Australian Alps and other mountains of the Eastern Highlands traverse it; the highest point is Mt. Bogong (6,508 ft/1,984 m). The climate is generally temperate and pleasant. The large, but frequently dry, rivers such as the Campaspe and the Mitta Mitta are important for irrigation; a large portion of the irrigated land in Australia is in Victoria. Hume Reservoir, on the New South Wales border, irrigates an extensive agricultural and pastoral area in the north. Despite its size, Victoria is one of Australia's leading agricultural states. Wheat, grown largely in the northeast, is the most important crop, followed by oats, barley, fruits, and vegetables. Livestock and dairying are also important. Sheep are raised in the southwest and dairy cattle in the south. Victoria was the first state in Australia to develop industry. Major industries include automobile manufacturing, textiles, clothing, food processing, and service industries. Gold mining has declined sharply; however, the mining of brown coal, mainly in the Latrobe Valley E of Melbourne, has increased dramatically. Until the introduction of tariff reforms in the 1980s, much of the labor force worked in retail and wholesale trade. Unsuccessful attempts at settlement were made in 1803 and 1826 on the site of the present Melbourne. Settlement began in the 1830s when sheep ranchers from Tasmania came looking for pasture. Known as the Port Phillip District, the area that is now Victoria became part of the colony of New South WalesNew South Wales,
state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1836. In 1851, Victoria was made a separate British colony, which was granted full constitutional self-government in 1855. The discovery of gold in 1851 led to a rapid population increase. Victoria was federated as a state of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Executive power rests nominally in the governor, who is appointed by the crown on advice of the cabinet. The premier and the cabinet are responsible to the bicameral state parliament.
Victoria,city (1991 pop. 71,228), capital of British Columbia, SW Canada, on Vancouver Island and Juan de Fuca Strait. It is the largest city on the island and its major port and business center. In addition to its importance as the seat of provincial government, Victoria is noted as a residential city because of its mild climate, beautiful scenery, many parks (including Beacon Hill Park) and drives. It is also a popular center for American and Canadian tourists. It has sawmills and woodworking plants, fish-processing factories, grain elevators, and cold-storage plants. The city is the base of a deep-sea fishing fleet; a large naval installation is nearby. Founded (1843) as Fort Camosun, a Hudson's Bay Company post, the city was later called Fort Victoria. When Vancouver Island became a crown colony, a town was laid out on the site (1851–52), named Victoria, and made the capital of the colony. With the discovery (1858) of gold on the British Columbia mainland, Victoria became the port, supply base, and outfitting center for miners on their way to the Cariboo gold fields. In 1866, when the island was administratively united with the mainland, Victoria remained the capital of the colony and became the provincial capital in 1871. It is the seat of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the Univ. of Victoria.
Victoria,city (2001 est. pop. 1,035,000), capital of China's special administrative region of Hong KongHong Kong
, Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Shenzhen, Guangdong prov.
..... Click the link for more information. . The city, commonly known as Hong Kong, is on the NW shore of Hong Kong island, at the foot of Victoria Peak. A busy world seaport with extensive shipbuilding yards, it has a fine natural deepwater harbor, across from which lies Kowloon. Densely populated, Victoria is Hong Kong's main administrative, economic, and cultural center, and is the site of many corporate headquarters and international banking facilities. Tourism is also economically important. The Univ. of Hong Kong (1911) is there. Victoria was founded by the British in 1843.
Victoria,Mexico see: Ciudad VictoriaCiudad Victoria
, city (1990 pop. 194,996), capital of Tamaulipas state, NE Mexico, on the San Marcos River and at the foot of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The city, founded in 1750, lies on the Inter-American Highway and on a major rail line.
..... Click the link for more information. .
Port Victoria,town (1987 pop. 24,325), capital of the Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean. A port on the NE coast of Mahé Island, Victoria is an administrative, commercial, tourist, and shipping center. Copra, essential oils and spices, and fish products are exported. Victoria has a botanic garden and a polytechnic institute; Seychelles International airport is to the southeast.
Victoria,city (1990 pop. 55,076), seat of Victoria co., S Tex., on the Guadalupe River, in a prosperous farm, cattle, and oil area. The Victoria Barge Canal (completed in 1962) connects the city with the Intracoastal WaterwayIntracoastal Waterway,
c.3,000 mi (4,827 km) long, partly natural, partly artificial, providing sheltered passage for commercial and leisure boats along the U.S. Atlantic coast from Boston, Mass. to Key West, S Fla., and along the Gulf of Mexico coast from Apalachee Bay, NW Fla.
..... Click the link for more information. . Victoria has factories manufacturing storage tanks, plastics, steel, polyethylene, and oil-drilling and -rig equipment. It is the seat of the Univ. of Houston at Victoria. A zoo and museums of history and fine arts are also in the city. To the south are the Padre Island National Seashore and a national wildlife refuge.
Born May 24, 1819, in London; died Jan. 22, 1901, in Osborne. Queen of England from 1837. Last representative of the Hanoverian dynasty. Proclaimed empress of India in 1876.
The beginning of Victoria’s reign coincided with the establishment of Great Britain’s world hegemony in trade and industry, and its second half coincided with the creation of a vast British colonial empire. The queen’s role in state affairs was very insignificant. Nevertheless, in British bourgeois literature Victoria’s name (even during her lifetime) became a symbol of the prosperity and complacency of the British ruling classes, and the period of her reign came to be called the Victorian age (hence the epithet “Victorian” as applied to British art, daily life, and morals during the 19th century). The name Victoria was given to a number of cities, rivers, islands, and territories within the British Empire.
a state in the southeastern part of the Australian Commonwealth, with an area of 227,600 sq km and a population of 3.4 million (1969). The capital is Melbourne. In the south there are the Australian Alps, which border a narrow strip of fertile and densely populated coastal plain with a subtropical climate and evergreen vegetation. On the southern and southeastern slopes of the mountains (with precipitation to 2,000 mm per year) are dense evergreen forests, whereas on the northern, more arid slopes are parklands alternating with arid steppes. In the north and northwest is the alluvial plain of the Murray River.
After New South Wales, Victoria is the second state of Australia in terms of economic importance; it produces about one-third of the nation’s manufactures (by value). Victoria receives its electric power basically from the thermal electric power plants of Melbourne, Yallourn, and Geelong (total capacity, 2.1 million kilowatts in 1968); the plants operate chiefly on brown coal. It also receives energy from the hydroelectric system in the Snowy Mountains. Total production is 12.9 billion kilowatt-hours (1968-69). Victoria is a center of metalworking, machine-building, chemical, oil-refining, and military aviation industries; of the light industry sectors, there is footwear (around one-half of the nation’s output) and the clothing and woolen industry, as well as the food industry (wine-making, canning, dairy industry., and so forth). Melbourne is the main industrial center.
About one-fifth of all the planted area of the nation is concentrated in Victoria. Almost 50 percent of the arable land is owned by large landowners with farms over 400 hectares (ha); 3 percent of the land is in farms of up to 40 ha in size, and these make up 40 percent of all the farms in the state. The main crops are wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes. There are also numerous vineyards and orchards. Livestock raising includes milk, meat, and wool production. There are 3.9 mil-lion head of cattle and 31 million head of sheep (1969). In 1966-67, Victoria held first place in the nation for the production of butter (109,000 tons) and cheese (33,500 tons) and second place (after New South Wales) in terms of the wool clip (151,000 tons in 1967-68). The most important ports are Melbourne and Geelong. There are two universities in Mel-bourne.
(Victoria Nyanza, Ukerewe), a lake in East Af-rica, located on the territories of Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. Altitude, 1,134 m; area, 68,000 sq km (the second largest freshwater lake in the world after Lake Superior). Maximum length, 320 km; maximum width, 275 km. The average depth is 40 m (maximum, 80 m). The northern, eastern, and southern shores are low-lying and sandy, with many bays. The western bank is more elevated and even. The total length of the shoreline is over 7,000 km. The largest gulfs are Kavirondo and Speke. There are numerous islands, with a total area of 6,000 sq km; the largest are Ukerewe and the Sese Islands.
The lake occupies a gentle tectonic trough, plugged in the north by a lava flow, in the northern part of the east African uplands. The lake arose in the middle of the Anthropogenic Age with the formation of the basins of lakes Albert and Edward in the central branch of the East African Rift Zone. The faults that formed disrupted the previous drainage system, which had emptied into the Congo basin. The new drainage system was diverted eastward to the trough in the uplands where an enormous body of water was formed. The area of this lake was particularly great during the pluvial epochs. The ancient lake released its drainage to the west; this drainage flowed into Lake Albert and then into the system of the Nile through the Victoria Nile River, forming the Murchison Falls. Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga, which lies to the north, are the relics of this ancient body of water.
Lake Victoria is surrounded by savannas, and in the northwest a deciduous-evergreen equatorial rain forest (chiefly second-growth) runs down to the shores. Victoria is fed chiefly from atmospheric precipitation and by the waters of numerous rivers, among which the largest is the Kagera River, the source of the Nile. The average annual influx is 114 cu km (16 cu km from the rivers and 98 cu km from atmospheric precipitation); annual evaporation from the lake surface is 93 cu km. The lake empties through the Victoria Nile (the drainage is 21 cu km); the flow is controlled by the dam of the Owen Falls hydroelectric plant, which is located 2.5 km downstream from the outflux of the river from the lake. The annual mean fluctuation of the water level in the lake is 0.3 m (the annual maximum over 45 years of observation was 1.74 m). There are characteristic strong storms that are caused by hurricane winds during tropical thunderstorms.
The basic commercial fish is the Tilapia. The tsetse fly inhabits the shoreline and islands. Gold and diamonds are mined close to the eastern shores. The lake is navigable, with the basic ports being Entebbe (Uganda), Mwanza and Bukoba (Tanzania), and Kisumu (Kenya). Lake Victoria is connected to the coast of the Indian Ocean via the KisumuMombasa and Mwanza-Tabora-Dar es Salam railways. The lake was discovered in 1858 by the English explorer J. Speke and was named after the British queen.
a river in northern Australia. It is 570 km long and its basin area is 78,000 sq km. It rises in the Kimberley Plateau, flows through a desert region, and empties into the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf of the Timor Sea, forming an estuary of up to 25 km wide that eventually becomes the Queens Channel. The average annual discharge is about 140 cu m per sec. During the monsoon rains, from December to February-March, the river is in high water; in the dry season, from April-May to November, it becomes very shallow and its channel splits up into separate stretches of water. It is navigable for a distance of 150 km from its mouth.
a genus of perennial aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae. The plants have round, floating leaves with upturned edges, up to 2 m in diameter; their undersides are covered with a network of thick veins with well-developed air-breathing tissue that can support a load of up to 50 kg on the water. The leaf stalks, lower surface of the leaves, flower stalks, and sepals are covered with sharp thorns. The flowers of Victoria are 25-40 cm in diameter, aromatic, and open at night; toward morning the white petals turn rose-colored and close, and toward the end of the day they open again, but by then they have a crimson color. During the second night they become darker, and in the morning they close and go under the water; from these flowers develop fruits with edible black seeds the size of peas. There are two species, both found in South America. The best-known is the royal water lily (V’. amazonica, V. regia), which grows in the backwaters of the Amazon River and its tributaries. A second species, V. cruziana, is found in the Parana River. Both species are cultivated in botanical gardens (at water temperatures of 25-30° C).
S. S. MORSHCHIKHINA
(Hsiang-kang), a city and capital of the British possession of Hong Kong. Population, 1.2 million (1975). Victoria is situated on the northwestern coast of the island of Hong Kong (Hsiang-kang), across the water from Kowloon. The two cities, Victoria and Kowloon, are jointly administered as two municipal districts; they are connected by a railroad ferry. With its large harbor, Victoria is a commercial, industrial, and financial center. A university was founded in the city in 1911. [25–452–l]