Konya

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Konya

(kōn`yä), city (1990 pop. 509,208), capital of Konya prov., S central Turkey. It is the trade center of a rich agricultural and livestock-raising region. Manufactures include cement, carpets, and leather, cotton, and silk goods. As the ancient IconiumIconium
, ancient city of Asia Minor, the modern Konya, Turkey. In ancient days it was at various times in Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, and the Roman province of Galatia.
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, the city was important in Roman times, but it reached its peak after the victory (1071) of Alp Arslan over the Byzantines at Manzikert, which resulted in the establishment (1099) of the sultanate of Iconium or Rum (so called after Rome), a powerful state of the Seljuk Turks. In the late 13th cent. the Seljuks of Iconium were defeated by the Mongols, and their territories subsequently passed to Karamania (see KaramanKaraman
, town (1990 pop. 76,682), S central Turkey, at the northern foot of the Taurus Mts. The ancient Laranda, Karaman was renamed after the chieftain of a Turkic tribe who conquered the city c.
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). In the 15th cent. the whole region was annexed to the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Muhammad II, the conqueror of Constantinople. Konya lost its political importance but remained a religious center as the chief seat of the Mawlawiyya Sufi order (the dervishes), which was founded there in the 13th cent. by the poet and mystic Jalal ad-Din RumiRumi, Jalal ad-Din
, 1207–73, great Islamic Persian sage and poet mystic, b. in Balkh. His father, a scholar, was invited by the Seljuk sultan of Rum to settle in Iconium (now Konya), Turkey.
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. His tomb, several medieval mosques, and the old city walls have been preserved, and Rumi is honored in an annual festival. In 1832 an Egyptian army under Ibrahim Pasha routed the Turks at Konya. The town's once-numerous Armenian population was largely deported during World War I. Konya prov., the largest in Turkey, has important mineral resources.

Konya

 

a city in southern Turkey and administrative center of Konya Vilayet. Population, 201,000 (1970). Konya is a highway junction and has a railroad station and an airport. Its industries include food (flour milling, meat and milk, sugar enterprises, and a creamery), leather, textiles, cement, and carpet weaving. The city is the center of an agricultural area (wheat, barley, sugar beets, sheep, Angora goats) and has trade in grain and wool. Mercury and magnesite are mined in the region.

Konya is mentioned (under the name of Iconium) as one of the cities of ancient Phrygia. It was part of the Roman Empire from the first century B.C. to the third century A.D., and later, part of Byzantium. From the eighth to the tenth centuries it was subject to invasions by the Arabs. It was the capital of the sultanate of Iconium from the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 14th century and was made part of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) at the end of the 15th century.

The city, which reached its greatest development in the 13th century, was surrounded by powerful fortress walls and was divided into quarters, which were separated from each other. In the center of the city are remains of a citadel, a palace, madrasas, and the columned Ala ad-din Mosque (all from 1156–1220). Also in the city are the Sirçali Madrasa (1243, with an open courtyard) and Sahib Ata Madrasa (1262–83), the domed Karatay Madrasa (1252) and İnce Minare Madrasa (1258), and the caravanserai of Sultan Han (1229).

Konya

, Konia
a city in SW central Turkey: in ancient times a Phrygian city and capital of Lycaonia. Pop.: 883 000 (2005 est.)