Vinyl Plastic

vinyl plastic

[′vīn·əl ′plas·tik]
(organic chemistry)

Vinyl Plastic

 

a plastic based on polyvinyl chloride; contains no plasticizer. In addition to polyvinyl chloride, vinyl plastic contains stabilizers (which prevent deterioration of the material during processing and use) and lubricating substances (which facilitate processing). Vinyl plastic sometimes contains dyes (in making colored articles), fillers (to reduce cost and change physical and mechanical properties), and modifiers (to improve certain physical properties).

Vinyl plastic is obtained by mixing the constituent parts in various types of mixing tanks. The mixture is then either directly worked into articles or is first made into intermediate products: granules, tablets, or rolled stock. The methods of processing vinyl plastic depend on the type of product: as a film it is obtained by calendering rolled stock; in smooth sheets, by pressing packets collected from a film on platen hydraulic presses; small articles of various shapes, by injection molding from granules on casting machines or by pressing tablets or powderlike mixtures on vertical hydraulic presses; tubes, shaped articles, and corrugated sheets, from granules by extrusion on screw-conveyor assemblies; and large, complicated articles, by vacuum forming of sheets on molding machines.

Vinyl plastic is a thermoplastic, opaque material; it does not burn and has no odor; and it lends itself readily to various forms of mechanical processing on ordinary machines. It is easily welded (230°-250° C) using a welding rod and glues well with various types of adhesives prepared on a base of polyvinyl chloride and postchlorinated polyvinyl chloride resin; welded and glued compounds, whose strength is 80-90 percent of the strength of the material, are easily processed. Vinyl plastic can also be glued to metal, concrete, and wood surfaces. It is a good dielectric in the range of 20°-80° C; upon heating above 80° C there is a sharp reduction of its dielectric properties. The material is resistant to acids, alkalies, and aliphatic hydrocarbons; it is not resistant to

Table 1. Main physical properties of vinyl plastic
ameganewtons per sq m (kilograms-force per sq cm) bgiganewtons per sq m (kilograms-force per sq cm) ckilojoules per (kilogram per degree Kelvin), or calories per (gram per degree Centigrade) dwatts per (meter per degree Kelvin), or calories per (meter per hour per degree Centigrade) emegavolts per meter or kilovolts per millimeter
Density, g/cm3 ................1.38-1.40
Strength, MN/m2 (kgf/cm2)a 
tensile ................40-60(400-600)
compressive ................80-160 (800-1,600)
bending ................90-120 (900-1,200)
Elastic modulus, GN/m2 (kgf/cm2)b ................ 3-4 (30,000-40,000)
Relative elongation, percent ................10-25
Brinell hardness, MN/m2 (kgf/mm2) ................130-160 (13-16)
Martens yield temperature, °C ................65-70
Vicat softening temperature, °C ................75-90
Cold resistance, °C ................—10
Specific heat, kJ/(kg.°K) [cal/(g-°C)]c ................1.13-2.14 [0.27-0.51]
Coefficient of thermal conductivity, W/(m-°K)
[kcal/(m.hr.°C)]d ................
0.15-0.16 [0.13-0.14]
Temperature coefficient of linear expansion, °C-1 ................(65-80) X 10-6
Specific electrical resistance ................ 
volume, teraohms per m ................10(1015)
surface, teraohms (ohms) ................100(1014)
Electric strength (at 20°C), MV/m or kV/mm* ................15-35
Dielectric permeability ................ 
at 50 Hz ................4.1
at 800 Hz ................3.1-3.5

aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. (The main physical properties of vinyl plastic are given in Table 1.)

Vinyl plastic is used as a corrosion-resistant construction material in the chemical industry (to make containers, tubing, ventilation apparatus, parts of chemical apparatus, laboratory equipment, protection for wiring, and linings of steel, concrete, and wood apparatus); in water-supply, sewer, irrigation, and reclamation systems (tubes, fittings, and so on); and in construction (finishing materials, roofing sheets, doors, and so on). It is also used as a packing material for household goods (vessels, containers, bottles, and so on).

The major brands of vinyl plastics are Breon and Corvic (Great Britain), Igelit (German Democratic Republic), Vinidur and Dekelit (Federal Republic of Germany), and Vinyban (Japan). The production of vinyl plastic was first under-taken in Germany in the 1930’s.

REFERENCES

Shchutskii, S. V., and V. S. Purkin. Viniplast. Moscow-Leningrad, 1959.
Nikolaev, A. F. Sinteticheskie polimery i plasticheskie massy na ikh osnove. Moscow-Leningrad, 1967. Page 229.
Spravochnik po plasticheskim massam. Edited by M. I. Garbar [et al.]. Moscow, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
pair of cufflinks metal material with vinyl plastic bath, 0.
32% of a subset of vinyl plastic products tested for phthalates contained levels of regulated phthalates above the Consumer Product Safety Commission limit for children's products.
Of the 30 toy products made from vinyl plastic, better known as PVC, that were purchased last month in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong, 21 tested positive for phthalates, including 19 samples that contained more than 10 percent phthalates by weight.
This means that manufacturers, private labelers and importers of these goods must now include with each product or shipment a "General Certificate of Conformity" (GCC) that certifies compliance with the relevant standards (for carpets and rugs, 16 CFR parts 1630 and 1631; for vinyl plastic films, 16 CFR part 1611; and for wearing apparel, 16 CFR part 1610) and identifies the manufacturer/importer/private labeler name, mailing address, phone number, contact information, date and time of manufacture, and date and place where it was tested.
Signs made both of corrugated plastic and thin, vinyl plastic can be recycled, she said.
This product is a vinyl plastic film with a synthetic rubber adhesive, specifically designed for sealing, and is available transparent and in a wide choice of colours.
Automotive, truck manufacturers and other vinyl plastic makers of textured panels are said to utilize MoldWiz INT-VP250.
A "mini flag," made from exterior grade vinyl plastic, sits at the top of the shaft for increased visibility.
These chemicals, which are used to soften vinyl plastic, have been linked with reproductive and liver effects, and are known to leach from products that contain them.
Endometriosis Association researchers say women with this disease tend to feel better when they eliminate all sources of dioxin--such as bleached paper, vinyl plastic and high-fat dairy products--from their daily lives.
The standard version comes in a selection of handsome and functional models, including one with a laminated hardwood Dymondwood handle and choice of black or ivory Zytel vinyl plastic bolster.
The first is the safety standard for walk-behind mowers, the second is the standard for electrically operated toys, and the third is the standard for the flammability of vinyl plastic film.