Evans, Investigation of the Nature of Electrodeposited Neutral Viologens formed by Reduction of the Dications, J.
Zelichowics, Chemistry Of Viologens, Heterocycles, 32, 2241 (1991).
Summary: The rate constants for the dimerization of the reduced products of methyl viologen dication (MV2+) of the processes (a) methyl viologen cation radical (MV+*), (EQUATION) and (EQUATION) and (b) methyl viologen neutral (MV), (EQUATION) and (EQUATION) were obtained through linear scan- / cyclic-voltammetry and the use of Olmstead-Hamilton-Nicholson theory.
Key Words: Methyl Viologen, Methyl Viologen Neutral, Dimerization Kinetics, Cyclic Voltammetry, Digital Simulation.
By the use of this solvent system (9: 1(v/v) DMF-H2O mixed solution) the comprehensive study of non-alkyl group substituted viologens and long alkyl chain viologens with bCD is possible.
Applications of viologens  cannot be limited to its short alkyl group substituents.
The deposition problem of the short alkyl group substituted viologens was resolved either by designing such derivatives of viologens which were water soluble in all their oxidation states  or by the use of cyclodextrins (CDs) [9, 10].
62] Also, it has been successfully tested molecules such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, viologens
, and bipyridines in DSSCs, in table I, are summarized some examples of dyes for DSSCs and their conversion efficiencies.
Continuous glucose detection using boronic acid-substituted viologens
in fluorescent hydrogels: linker effects and extension to fiber optics.
Voltammetric studies have also been carried out on viologens
and pyridinium compounds which are an important class of compounds [14, 15].
Toxicity of some viologens towards cancer cells have also been reported .
I = Methyl Viologen (1-1'- dimethyl, 4, 4' bipyrid- inium dichloride) (MV2+,I) (as reference compound).