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(also vera), in ancient Rus’ a monetary fine to be paid to the prince for the crime of murdering a freeman.

The origin of the term vira is in dispute. In accordance with Russkaia Pravda (the law code of Rus’), 40 grivny (an old monetary unit) were to be paid for murdering an ordinary freeman, and 80 was the fine for murdering a representative of the prince’s administration (an ognishchanin [household manager] or tiun [steward]). A half-vira (2Q grivny) was imposed for inflicting serious personal injuries and (in accordance with the Expanded Code) for killing an unfaithful wife. When the murderer was unknown, the obshchina-verv’, (peasant commune) in which the victim was found paid a special, “extraordinary” vira. This custom was widespread as late as the 16th century.


Geiman, V. G. “Pravo i sud.” In Istoriia kul’tury Drevnei Rusi, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Drevnerusskoe gosudarstvo i ego mezhdunarodnoe znachenie. Moscow, 1965.
Zimin, A. A. “Feodal’naia gosudarstvennost’ i Russkaia Pravda.” In the collection Istoricheskie zapiski, vol. 76. Moscow, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
The incident has sent shock waves through Virar and surrounding suburbs.
The Assistant Municipal Commissioner of the Vasai- Virar Municipal Corporation, Sudhakar Sankhe said that they began the demolition after issuing a notice to Narayan, who did not bother to respond.
The inaugural comes after the Western Railways conducted about 65 trial runs over two years at Kurla and Virar car-sheds before starting its services today.
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According to the Virar police station officers, Shaikh was hit by 25,000 volts of electricity that was running through the high- tension wire.
The project is coming up at a prime location in Virar making it not only an ideal address for buyers but also extremely affordable with close proximity to various social infrastructure like railway station, schools, malls, hospitals etc.
Making a presentation before the chief minister and other state government officials, Western Railway General Manager Mahesh Kumar said that along the 60km route between the Oval ground in south Mumbai and Virar, there will be 26 stations in all.
The incident involved a train scheduled from Churchgate to Borivli and another train scheduled from Virar to Churchgate.
Several demands have been put forth to the authorities -- a Virar local every three minutes; one Dahanu local every 30 minutes; increased services in the Borivili-Churchgate sector, adequate number of bridges for pedestrians, ticket counters, toilet facilities and drinking water at all stations, efficient mechanism at every station for attending to accident victims and taking them to hospital without wasting time, construction of Mumbai Central-Borivili line.
Trains between Borivali and Virar stations were badly hit, affecting passengers.
Trouble began after crowds swelled on the platforms at Borivali station, a major junction, following the cancellation of a train even as trains from Virar to Churchgate, the South Mumbai business district, arrived packed to capacity.
Tenders are invited for Development of Phoolpada Cremetorium,Prabhag Samiti ~C~, Virar (E), in VVCMC Area.