London Company

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London Company,

corporation composed of stockholders residing in and about London, which, together with the Plymouth Company (see Virginia CompanyVirginia Company,
name of two English colonizing companies, chartered by King James I in 1606. By the terms of the charter, the Virginia Company of London (see London Company) was given permission to plant a colony 100 mi (160 km) square between lat. 34°N and lat.
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), was granted (1606) a charter by King James I to found colonies in America. The London Company was granted a tract of land fronting 100 mi (160 km) on the sea and extending 100 mi inland, somewhere between lat. 34°N and lat. 41°N. Government was vested in an English council, appointed by the king, which was to appoint a local council for the colony. The company's expedition, under the command of Capt. Christopher NewportNewport, Christopher,
1565?–1617, English mariner, commander of early voyages to Virginia. He commanded a privateering expedition to the West Indies (1592) that returned to England with the Spanish vessel Madre de Dios,
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, founded (1607) JamestownJamestown.
1 City (1990 pop. 34,681), Chautauqua co., W N.Y., on Chautauqua Lake; founded c.1806, inc. as a city 1886. It is the business and financial center of a dairy, livestock, and vineyard area.
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 in Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in America. In May, 1609, the company received a new charter, extending its territory and enabling it to replace the local council with an absolute governor. Thomas West, Baron De la WarrDe la Warr, Thomas West, 12th Baron
, 1577–1618, English colonial governor of Virginia. He saw fighting in the Netherlands and was knighted when serving in Ireland. He succeeded to the peerage in 1602.
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, was the first to hold that office, with Sir Thomas GatesGates, Sir Thomas,
fl. 1585–1621, English colonial governor of Virginia. He was knighted for his services under the 2d earl of Essex in the successful expedition against Cádiz in 1596.
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 as his deputy. A third charter, granted in Mar., 1612, made the London Company a self-governing body. There was, however, dissension within the company over governing policies, and the governing council was soon divided into two parties. The court party, headed by Sir Robert Rich (later the 2d earl of Warwick) and Sir Thomas Smythe, favored prolongation of martial law in the colony. The country, or patriot, party, led by Sir Edwin SandysSandys, Sir Edwin,
1561–1629, English statesman, leading promoter of the colony in Virginia; son of Archbishop Edwin Sandys. He studied law and was first returned to Parliament in 1586.
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, Sir John Danvers, and John and Nicholas Ferrar, favored discontinuance of the system of servitude. The country party was in the majority, but a liberal form of government was not established until after the appointment of Sir George YeardleyYeardley, Sir George
, c.1587–1627, British colonial governor of Virginia (1618–21, 1626–27). He was shipwrecked (1609) in the Bermudas but managed to reach Virginia in 1610.
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 as governor of Virginia. Yeardley convened America's first legislative assembly at Jamestown in 1619. Although affairs in Virginia gradually improved, a petition was presented (1623) to the king calling for an investigation of conditions in the colony. Shortly afterward there appeared a paper, The Unmasked Face of Our Colony in Virginia. Already offended by the company, the king now took extreme measures. A report was made by an investigating commission, the case was tried before the King's Bench, and the unfavorable decision, rendered in May, 1624, resulted in the dissolution of the company. About £200,000 had been expended by the company and more than 10,000 emigrants sent to Virginia.

Bibliography

See S. M. Kingsbury, ed., The Records of the Virginia Company of London (4 vol., 1906–35); H. L. Osgood, The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I (1904, repr. 1957); W. F. Craven, Dissolution of the Virginia Company (1932, repr. 1964); C. M. Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History, Vol. I (1934, repr. 1964); C. W. Sams, The Conquest of Virginia: The Third Attempt, 1610–1624 (1939).

References in periodicals archive ?
Established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 14, 1607 (O.
In 1607, three ships, belonging to the Virginia Company of London, sailed from England for the coast of North America, their goal: to plant a new colony in the name of England.
In 1609, the flagship of the second expedition sent to America by the Virginia Company of London, named the Sea Venture, was wrecked off the shores of Bermuda (providing the theme of Shakespeare's The Tempest).
Thus, both Sir Thomas Gates in 1609 and Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr, in 1610, were instructed by the Virginia Company of London to "indeavor the conv[er]sion of the natives and savages to the knowledge and worship of the true god" which could best be achieved by taking "some of theire Children to be brought up in o[ur] language and mann[er]s.
More conciliatory voices, like that of the Virginia Company of London in August 1622, hoped that colonists would remember "who we are, rather then what they have been," and advised that "the younger people of both Sexes, whose bodies may, by labor and service become profitable, and their mindes not overgrowne w[ith] evill Customes, be reduced to civilitie, and afterwardes to Christianitie.
By May 1623, the Virginia Company of London took a giant step away from its avowed intention of "convertinge .
Even the Virginia Company of London expressed an interest in educating the children of Native Americans living in the colony.
In accordance with English practice, at first under the authority of the Virginia Company of London and later under royal administration, the entire colony was partitioned into parishes.
Motivated by the desire to convert Native Americans to Christianity, the Virginia Company of London in 1618 proposed building a college about forty miles up the James River from the settlement in Jamestown.
The Three Charters of the Virginia Company of London
That is what the Virginia Company of London, England, promised people.
America's 400th Anniversary marks the founding of Jamestown in May 1607, by more than 100 brave adventurers and entrepreneurs on three small ships from the Virginia Company of London -- a journey that changed the world.

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