Virginia Woolf


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Woolf, Virginia (Stephen),

1882–1941, English novelist and essayist; daughter of Sir Leslie StephenStephen, Sir Leslie,
1832–1904, English author and critic. The first serious critic of the novel, he was also editor of the great Dictionary of National Biography from its beginning in 1882 until 1891. In 1859 he was ordained a minister.
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. A successful innovator in the form of the novel, she is considered a significant force in 20th-century fiction. She was educated at home from the resources of her father's huge library. In 1912 she married Leonard Woolf, a critic and writer on economics, with whom she set up the Hogarth Press in 1917. Their home became a gathering place for a circle of artists, critics, and writers known as the Bloomsbury groupBloomsbury group,
name given to the literary group that made the Bloomsbury area of London the center of its activities from 1904 to World War II. It included Lytton Strachey, Virginia Woolf, Leonard Woolf, E. M.
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. As a novelist Woolf's primary concern was to represent the flow of ordinary experience. Her emphasis was not on plot or characterization but on a character's consciousness, his thoughts and feelings, which she brilliantly illuminated by the stream of consciousnessstream of consciousness,
in literature, technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence.
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 technique. She did not limit herself to one consciousness, however, but slipped from mind to mind, particularly in The Waves, probably her most experimental novel. Her prose style is poetic, heavily symbolic, and filled with superb visual images.

Woolf's early works, The Voyage Out (1915) and Night and Day (1919), were traditional in method, but she became increasingly innovative in Jacob's Room (1922), Mrs. Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927), and The Waves (1931). Other experimental novels are Orlando (1928), The Years (1937), and Between the Acts (1941). She was a master of the critical essay, and some of her finest pieces are included in The Common Reader (1925), The Second Common Reader (1933), The Death of the Moth and Other Essays (1942), and The Moment and Other Essays (1948). A Room of One's Own (1929) and Three Guineas (1938) are feminist tracts. Her biography of Roger FryFry, Roger Eliot,
1866–1934, English art critic and painter. A champion of modern French schools of art, he introduced Cézanne and the postimpressionists to England. From 1905 to 1910 he was curator of paintings at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
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 (1940) is a careful study of a friend. Some of her short stories from Monday or Tuesday (1921) appear with others in A Haunted House (1944). Virginia Woolf suffered mental breakdowns in 1895 and 1915; she drowned herself in 1941 because she feared another breakdown from which she might not recover. Most of her posthumously published works were edited by her husband.

Bibliography

See her Writer's Diary, ed. by L. Woolf (1953) and Correspondence with Lytton Strachey, ed. by L. Woolf and J. Strachey (1956); diary, ed. by A. O. Bell (4 vol., 1979–83); letters, ed. by N. Nicolson and J. Trautmann (6 vol., 1977–82); essays, ed. by A. McNeillie and S. N. Clarke (6 vol., 1989–2000); biographies by Q. Bell (2 vol., 1972), P. Rose (1978), L. Gordon (1985), M. Rosenthal (1987), J. King (1995), P. Reid (1996), H. Lee (1997), N. Nicolson (2000), and J. Briggs (2005); studies by E. M. Forster (1942), J. Bennett (2d ed. 1964), R. Freedman (1980), and J. Marcus, ed. (1983). See also the autobiography of her husband, Leonard Sidney Woolf (5 vol., 1960–69).

Woolf, Virginia

 

Born Jan. 25, 1882, in London; died Mar. 28, 1941, in Lewes, Sussex. English modernist writer and critic.

As an experimental novelist, Woolf limited her task to the portrayal of feelings and sensations, which she interpreted as the true reality (Jacob’s Room, 1922; Mrs. Dalloway, 1925; and To the Lighthouse, 1927, for example). Woolf considered emphasis on social reality to be a violation of the laws of art and the realistic method outmoded (the articles “Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown,” 1924, and “Contemporary Artistic Literature,” 1925). Formalist features became stronger in her novels of the 1930’s (The Waves, 1931, and The Years, 1937).

WORKS

Collected Essays, vols. 1-4. London, 1966-67.

REFERENCES

Zhantieva, D. G. Angliiskii roman XX veka: 1918-1939. Moscow, 1965.
Mikhal’skaia, N. P. Puti razvitiia angliiskogo romana 1920-1930-x godov. Moscow, 1966.
Ivasheva, V. V. Angliiskaia literatura: XX vek. Moscow, 1967.
Allen, W. Traditsiia i mechta. Moscow, 1970.

N. P. MIKHAL’SKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
Carrington's first attempts to bottle broad beans led to a series of explosions, but her recipe for "Bloomsbury Jam" should not cause an accident, and jam making was a skill she shared with Virginia Woolf.
This engrossing portrait of Virginia Woolf and the women who looked after her explores how modern ideas of class and gender crucial to Woolf's writing ran up against her lingering ties to a waning Victorian domestic order.
Many of the times during which young Virginia Woolf described having these uncanny, fabulous and transhistorical, feelings occur when the family is visiting some heritage tourist spot, or when Woolf and her siblings are passing a historical marker in the London landscape.
Virginia Woolf Miscellanies: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference on Virginia Woolf, ed Mark Hussey and Vara Neverow-Turk, Lanham.
Virginia Woolf is living with her husband, Leonard, at Hogarth House in Richmond, Surrey in 1923; Laura Brown is a pregnant housewife who lives with her husband and son in a suburb of Los Angeles in 1949 (1951 in the film); Clarissa Vaughan is a literary editor who lives with her partner, Sally, and daughter, Julia, in Greenwich Village, New York, in the 1990s.
In Three Guineas (1938), Virginia Woolf figures intellectual and economic dependency as a woman standing at the threshold; she goes on to urge her sex to stop 'hang[ing] over old bridges humming old songs'.
Melba Cuddy-Keane's Virginia Woolf, the Intellectual and the Public Sphere is such a book.
THIS was a friendship conducted largely by letter, but, unusually, there were three people in this correspondence - Virginia Woolf, the painter Jacques Raverat and Jacques' artist wife, Gwen, to whom he dictated his missives as he was dying of multiple sclerosis in France.
The reliably stuffy Virginia Woolf called it the "illiterate, underbred book .
In this context, the book will undoubtedly be useful for anyone interested in the apparently well-known, but still elusive figure of Virginia Woolf.
From performance to the more recent "relational aesthetics" and particularly throughout the history of feminist art practice, reportage of daily experience emerges as a canonical strategy--what Virginia Woolf called "telling the truth about .
Dalloway" and something about the many lives of Virginia Woolf (whose extraordinary life has been repeatedly reinvented by biographers) can fully grasp.

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