Virtual States

Virtual States


in quantum theory, short-lived inter-mediate states of a microsystem in which the usual link between the energy, momentum, and mass of the system is disrupted. The average lifetime of virtual states is on the order of h/Δδ, where Δδ is the deviation of the energy δ from its value as determined by the relations δ= p2/2m0 in nonrelativistic theory and δ2 = c2p2+c4m20 in relativistic theory, p is the momentum, m0 is the mass of the system, c is the speed of light, and h is Planck’s constant divided by .

The most important particular case of virtual states is the state of one or more virtual particles. Virtual states usually arise as intermediate states upon the collision of microscopic particles. For example, the collision of neutrons with protons at energies of up to 10-20 mega electron volts takes place essentially by means of the formation and rapid decay of a deuteron in a virtual state.


References in periodicals archive ?
He covers the Raman effect, normal mode vibration, the elucidation of bond polarizabilities, the Raman virtual states, more applications, the extension to Raman optical activity, more applications on Raman optical activity, intramolecular enantiomerism, the unified classical theory for Raman optical activity and vibrational circular dichromism.
The move aims to capitalise on a growing trend of organisations shifting towards IT-as-a-service model, which in turn demands a high level of data protection across in both the physical and virtual states.
Appealing to the work of Lothar Schafer, I then explore this analogy in a way that understands spirit as the realm of potentiality and body as the realm of actualization, emphasizing that potential or virtual states are just as much a part of reality as occupied states in quantum physics; thus analogously all our potential, including what is unfulfilled, remains part of the reality of who we are as persons.
58) For Schafer the nonempirical realm of potentiality makes up the transcendent cosmic order, and virtual states are the way that order expresses itself in the material world.
For Schafer, virtual states are part of a predetermined cosmic transcendent order.
Schafer draws on the work of Villars to emphasize the fact that the virtual states are part of reality.
He replies: "Helrich takes me to task for giving virtual states too much reality, .
A tour of the Learning Commons, in both its physical place and virtual states, will give you a taste of the endless possibilities to drive school improvement.
The Internet, for example, makes it possible for people to cross physical boundaries and form "virtual" communities, which might grow into virtual states and nations, or "v-nations," point out technology policy consultants Mike Dillard and Janet Hennard.
He maintains that Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan are already virtual states and that among major developed countries the United States has advanced the farthest.

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