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Coexpression of two visual pigments in a photoreceptor causes an abnormally broad spectral sensitivity in the eye of the butterfly Papilio xuthus.
4B, thin black line), which blocks most light below 550 nm and efficiently acts as a screening pigment for the blue-green-absorbing visual pigment in the marine habitat.
Our data do not necessarily support one evolutionary progression over the other, but the question of which came first--opsins used for visual tasks or those used for nonvisual tasks--is one that certainly warrants further study in stomatopods, which are well known for their eyes that include a diversity of visual pigments.
The RPE cells perform several functions, including absorption of light, enabling the turnover of photoreceptor outer segments, formation of visual pigments by storing and releasing vitamin A.
exoculata has a visual pigment, and it has it in very large quantities -- at the very least five times more than the usual amount of pigment in other shrimp," he says.
The best-fit visual pigment absorptance curve has a [[lambda].
Now that the visual pigment genes have been identified, scientists expect to be able to obtain for the first time adequate amounts of the pigments for biochemical study.
This suggests that they may be visible to predators whose color discrimination at blue and green wavelengths is good owing to multiple visual pigments or ocular filters.
The structure of arthropod photoreceptors naturally makes them sensitive to the plane of polarization of incoming light, because the visual pigments that absorb light are dichroic and are oriented mostly parallel in small, tubular membranes called microvilli.
Visual pigment absorption was measured with a single beam, wavelength scanning, computer-controlled microspectrophotometer described by Hart et al.
This measurement suggests that the primary visual pigment chromophore in this retina is vitamin [A.
As cuttlefish are likely to have a single visual pigment (8) with maximal absorption near 490 nm [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1A OMITTED], such short-wavelength blocking compounds would be expected to have a small impact on the cuttlefish visual sensitivity.