medicinal preparations containing vitamins. They are used to prevent or treat morbid states caused by vitamin deficiency and to treat certain diseases. Vitamin preparations are obtained by synthesis or from natural sources (plants or animal organs) containing the corresponding vitamins. Vitamin preparations are named according to the vitamin contained in the given preparation using letter designations—vitamin A, Bl C, and so on—or the chemical name of the vitamin—retinol, thiamine bromide, and so on. Manufactured in different medicinal forms (lozenges, tablets, powders, drops, and solutions), they are either taken orally or injected.
Vitamin A (retinol, axeroptythol). Retinol preparations are obtained from codfish liver (fish oil) and also synthetically (axeropherol acetate and palmitate). One gram offish oil contains 350 IU (international units) of vitamin A. Vitamin A is also produced in lozenges and in oil solutions containing retinol. Vitamin A preparations are usually administered orally, but sometimes they are administered intramuscularly; with afflictions of the skin (burns, chapping) they are applied externally.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine bromide or thiamine chloride). Vitamin B! is manufactured synthetically in powders, lozenges, and tablets containing 1.2, 2.4, 6, and 12 mg and in ampules containing 1 milliliter (m/) of 1.2 percent, 2.4 percent, and 6 percent solutions of thiamine bromide (thiamine chloride is used in somewhat smaller doses). Dry, purified brewer’s yeast and hefaephytinum tablets consisting of dry brewer’s yeast and phytin are also produced which contain certain quantities of vitamin BI. Vitamin Bx is also administered by injection.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). Vitamin B2 is a yellow-orange powder which is obtained synthetically. It is produced in powders, lozenges, and tablets containing 2, 5, and 10 mg of the preparation. For some eye diseases, riboflavin is prescribed in the form of eye drops for local applications.
Vitamin PP (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which structurally resembles nicotinic acid). Vitamin PP is obtained synthetically. Nicotinic acid is produced in 15-mg lozenges, in 50-mg tablets, and in ampules of 1 ml of a 10 percent solution (for injection). Nicotinamide is produced in 15-mg lozenges, in 25- and 50-mg tablets, and in ampules of 1 and 2 ml of 2.5 and 5 percent solutions.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Pyridoxine hydrochloride is obtained synthetically for medicinal purposes. The preparation is administered orally and is also injected under the skin and intramuscularly. The vitamin is produced in powders and tablets containing 2, 5, and 10 mg of the preparation and in ampules of 1 ml of 1 percent, 2.5 percent, and 5 percent solutions.
Vitamin Bc (folic acid). Folic acid is obtained synthetically for medical purposes. It is administered in the form of powders and tablets containing 1 and 2 mg of the preparation.
Vitamin B3 (pantothenic acid). For medicinal purposes, a calcium pantothenate is obtained synthetically. The preparation is manufactured in 100-mg tablets and in ampules of 2 ml of a 20 percent solution for injection. The vitamin is administered locally (for burns and wounds) in the form of lotions, gargles (5 percent solution), and ointment. It is produced in the form of an aerosol (4 percent solution of calcium pantothenate) for inhalation during illnesses of the respiratory tract.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). A dark red powder, vitamin Bi2 is produced in ampules of 1 ml of solutions containing 50, 100, 200, and 500 micrograms of the preparation (the solution has a rose or bright red color). It is administered by injection. Vitamin B12 is contained in small quantities in the medicinal preparations Campolon (concentrated water extract of the liver of cattle or whales) and antianaeminum (extract from the liver of cattle with cobalt sulfate added).
Vitamin B15 (tentative designation), or calcium pangamicum. Vitamin B15 is used in 50-mg tablets.
Choline chloride. Choline chloride belongs to the vitamin B complex and is obtained synthetically. It is manufactured in a solution to be administered orally (20 percent solution) and intravenously (1 percent solution in an isotopic solution of sodium chloride or in a 5 percent solution of glucose).
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Vitamin C is a solution of a sodium salt. Crystalline ascorbic acid is obtained synthetically and produced in powders, tablets, and lozenges containing 50, 100, and 200 mg of the preparation and in ampules of 1, 2, and 5 m/ of a 5 percent solution (for injection). Preparations obtained from plant sources containing vitamin C are also manufactured—vitamin syrup, vitamin tea, and a dry concentrate of rose hips and vitamin P. Galascorbinum (a complex compound of potassium salts of ascorbic and gallic acids) is administered orally and also externally (water solutions) for afflictions of the skin (burns, chapping, and so on).
Vitamin P. A complex of catechins obtained from tea leaves (tentatively called vitamin P) and also vitamin P obtained from citruses, rutin, and quercetin are used as medicinal preparations. Vitamin P is produced in tablets and lozenges containing 50 mg of vitamin P. Rutin for medical purposes is obtained from buckwheat foliage and the Japanese pagoda tree. It is produced in powders and tablets containing 20 mg of the preparation. Rutin is contained in Ascorutin tablets (50 mg of ascorbic acid and rutin). Urutin (a solution containing 25 mg of rutin and hexamethylenetetramine) is produced in ampules for injection. Quercetin is produced in powders and tablets containing 20 mg of the preparation.
Vitamin D2 (calciferol or ergocalciferol). Vitamin D2 is produced in the form of an oil solution (in 1 m/ of 10,000 and 50,000 IU), an alcohol solution (in 1 ml of 200,000 IU), and a lozenge (300 and 500 IU in each). There are 30 IU in 1 g of fish oil. The preparation videin is also produced in the form of a powder (1 g of powder contains 20,000 IU of vitamin D2), a lozenge, or a tablet (500, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 IU of vitamin D2).
Vitamin E (tocopherol). Vitamin E is administered orally and intramuscularly in oil solutions, lozenges, and capsules (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg of the preparation). Tocopherol acetate is produced in ampules (1 ml of 5 percent, 10 percent, and 20 percent solutions) for injection. The preparation aevitum contains an oil solution of retinol acetate (vitamin A) and tocopherol acetate.
Vitamin K3 (vikasol). Vitamin K3 is obtained synthetically for medical purposes. It is administered in 10-, 15-, and 20-mg tablets and in injections (ampules of 1 ml of 1 percent solution).
Multivitamins and combinations (complexes) of different vitamins are used to intensify the effect. Multivitamins are produced in tablets and lozenges. The most widely used combinations are B1 and C; B2 and C; C and rutin; PP and C; A1, B1, B2, and C; Bl PP, and C; Bl B2, PP, and C; A1, Bl B2, and C; and A, B1, B2, B6, PP, and calcium pantothenate.
REFERENCESZakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia. 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Mashkovskii, M. D. Lekarstvennye sredstva, 6th ed. Moscow, 1961.
IU. V. BUROV