Vitrification


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vitrification

[‚vi·trə·fə′kā·shən]
(engineering)
Heat treatment of a material such as a ceramic to produce a glazed surface.
(geology)
Formation of a glassy or noncrystalline material.
(medicine)
An experimental procedure for preserving human organs in which chemicals are added prior to cooling to prevent crystallization of water within and outside the cells, so that with coolings the molecules essentially become fixed in place.

Vitrification

 

change of a liquid into a glasslike state when the temperature is lowered. Vitrification occurs in plants and animals as well as in their isolated organs and tissues when they are abruptly chilled (below -20° C). Tissue thus frozen in an amorphous glasslike mass remains viable a long time; if carefully thawed, the vital activity of tis-sues and whole organisms can be restored.


Vitrification

 

the transition of a liquid to a solid glassy state as it is supercooled. In contrast to crystallization, where the liquid-crystal transition occurs in jumps at the melting point (Tmp) vitrification involves the conversion of melts of certain inorganic and organic substances (quartz, silicates, phosphates, borates, sulfur), which are undergoing cooling and a gradual increase in viscosity, to a solid state at the vitrification temperature (Tv). Upon vitrification, a liquid retains (inherits) the structural elements that characterized the liquid at temperatures above Tv.

With an increase in viscosity from 108to 1012newtons·sec/m2(l newton·sec/m2 = 10 poises) in the Tmp – Tv range, there is a continuous change in other physicochemical properties of the liquid being cooled. For example, the specific volume and conductivity in this range have smooth curves when plotted against temperature; the coefficient of thermal expansion and the index of refraction undergo changes in jumps.

Table 1. Anomalous ranges of certain types of glass
GlassTVTmp
Window ...............550700
Household glassware ...............530630
Optical F2 ...............430570
Vitreous silica ...............12501250

Because of the peculiarities of the changes in properties in the interval between Tmp and Tv, this range is described as anomalous. The plastic state is characteristic of various types of glass within this range (see Table 1), while the brittle state characterizes glass at temperatures below Tv.

N. M. PAVLUSHKIN

vitrification

Of a clay product, the condition resulting when kiln temperatures are sufficient to fuse grains and close the surface pores, making the mass impervious.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of container, vitrification volume and warming solution on cryosurvival of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.
Ultimately it seems that with further innovation, vitrification will become the leading method of oocyte cryopreservation simply owing to its time efficiency, the simplicity and safety of the method, and the reduction in costs by eliminating the need for costly machinery.
As each polyurethane gaiter in the vitrification plant reaches the end of its service life, it is replaced with one of the new aluminised glass cloth gaiters.
There are insufficient data to assess the vitrification method, he said, but compared with slow-freeze oocyte cycles, fresh IVF plus subsequent frozen embryo cycles had an implantation rate per transferred embryo almost four times higher (36.
Vitrification eliminates the possibility of a meltdown altogether if it's done right.
Organ Recovery Systems says it has already completed Phase I of the pre-clinical study and results to date are encouraging that vitrification is a more effective and successful method of storing and delivering tissue than cryopreservation.
All WTP facilities and buildings, including the Low-Activity Waste vitrification facility and a supporting Analytical Laboratory, will complete startup and commissioning phases.
Recently, vitrification methods have been improved using enhancement of cooling rate, decline in the volume of cryoprotectant and different carrier systems (7-9).
4 M sucrose) for 20 minutes before immersion in Plant Vitrification Solution number 2 (PVS2), composed by 30% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol, 15% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.
The estimated cost of building a vitrification plant at America's Hanford nuclear waste treatment facility has increased from $12.
Conclusions: It indicated that an appropriate concentration of L-proline can improve the cryopreservation efficiency of mouse oocytes with low concentrations of DMSO and EG, which may be applicable to human oocyte vitrification.