Victor Emmanuel

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Victor Emmanuel

 

(Vittorio Emmanuele), kings of the Savoy dynasty in Sardinia (Piedmont) and in the United Kingdom of Italy.

Victor Emmanuel I. Born July 24, 1759; died Jan. 10, 1824. King of Sardinia from 1802 to 1821. From 1793 to 1796 he commanded the Sardinian Army in the war against revolutionary France. After the French occupation, the Kingdom of Piedmont was located mainly on the island of Sardinia. After the fall of Napoleon I, Victor Emmanuel I returned to Turin in 1814, and by the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1814-15 he regained his previous domains, to which the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) added the territory of the liquidated Genoese Republic. In his domains (except Genoa) he re-stored the laws effective before 1798. At the beginning of the bourgeois revolution in Piedmont (March 1821), Victor Emmanuel I, not desiring to make constitutional concessions, abdicated the throne in favor of his brother Karl Felix.

S. V. FRIAZINOV

Victor Emmanuel II. Born Mar. 14, 1820; died Jan. 1, 1878. King of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861 and first king of united Italy from 1861 to 1878. In the period of struggle for national liberation and the unification of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II supported the plans of the liberals (under Cavour’s leadership), aiming at the unification of Italy “from above” around the Sardinian monarchy by means of dynastic arrangements with the Italian sovereigns and foreign powers, first with France. Conducting a bitter struggle with the republican-democratic camp of the national liberation movement, he attempted to attract individual representatives of that camp, especially G. Garibaldi, to the side of the monarchy to use them for his own purposes.

Thus, in the course of the Austro-Italo-French War of 1859, Victor Emmanuel II entrusted Garibaldi with the command of a corps of volunteers. During the march of The Thousand (1860), the king occupied a dual position. Not openly opposing Garibaldi’s expedition, he nevertheless tried to limit its scope and independence; but when in the course of the Revolution of 1859-60 The Thousand liberated southern Italy, the king dispatched a Piedmontese army to the south in order to suppress the revolution and keep Garibaldi from power. The Piedmont bourgeois-monarchic bloc took advantage of the successes of the popular uprisings in order to annex the states of central and southern Italy to the Kingdom of Sardinia after those states were freed from the power of local sovereigns.

In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of Italy. He headed the Italian Army during the Austro-Italian War of 1866. Fearing the discontent of France, which had stationed a garrison in Rome, Victor Emmanuel II obstructed Garibaldi’s attempts to liberate Rome from papal power. However, after the fall of the French Empire in 1870, he sent troops to Rome and occupied the city simultaneously with Garibaldi’s forces. The secular power of the papacy was liquidated. After 1870, in the sphere of foreign policy, the king took the first steps toward a rapprochement with Austria and Germany through an exchange of visits with the courts of Vienna and Berlin in 1873-75.

V. E. NEVLER

Victor Emmanuel III. Born Nov. 11, 1869; died Dec. 28, 1947. He was the last king of Italy (1900-46). He supported the fascist dictatorship (established in Italy with his assistance in 1922) until its collapse in 1943, when, under the threat of mass disturbances in the country, he removed Mussolini from power (the so-called palace coup of July 25, 1943). Striving to preserve the monarchy, Victor Emmanuel III transferred royal functions to his son Umberto, making him vicegerent on June 5, 1944; on May 9, 1946, he abdicated the throne and later left the country. On June 18 of that year Italy was declared a republic by referendum.

References in periodicals archive ?
The flagship Prada store has been in the 149-year-old glass-roofed Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II since 1913
The Prada shop in the fabulous Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Milan and, left, Chocolate and passion fruit macarons to die for at Cracco Restaurant, Milan
People-watchinginthe Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II.
Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, Naples.
The eighty photos exhibited at the Istituto Suor Orsola Benincasa, a university on the corso Vittorio Emanuele, are the result of his obsessive documentation.
Shopping and culture go hand in hand, as found at the shopping arcade Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in the Plaza Duomo, which boasts the likes of Louis Vuitton, Prada, Gucci and, weirdly, McDonald's, all strategically placed alongside the fourth largest cathedral in the world, the Duomo di Milano.
Ambulances, firefighters and rescue teams rushed to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II subway station, near Rome's main railway station.
The collision took place at Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II underground station in the centre of the Italian capital.
1: Bonnie Styles outside Milan cathedral wearing a Therapy boob tube (pounds 25) and Warehouse jeans (pounds 35) 2: Bonnie in front of Vittorio Emanuele arcade wearing Morgan ormesan blanc top (pounds 32) and Morgan lulota blanc combats (pounds 59) 3: Pringle top (pounds 95) and Miss Sixty denim mini-skirt (pounds 80) 4: Aquascutum blue bilenex rain coat (pounds 495) 5: Fenn Wright Manson candy shift dress (pounds 150)
An early surviving example is Mengoni's glazed barrel-vaulted Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, built in 1861.
Milan's two most famous buildings are connected by the magnificent Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II.
Every time you go to Rome, the colossal monument to Vittorio Emanuele II rears itself at the end of a vista and crashes into quiet, urbane, historical dreams.