Vladimir Nikolaevich Shaposhnikov
Shaposhnikov, Vladimir Nikolaevich
Born Feb. 12 (24), 1884, in Moscow; died there Oct. 23, 1968. Soviet microbiologist; founder of Soviet industrial microbiology. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1953).
Shaposhnikov graduated from Moscow University in 1910 and from 1911 to 1926 taught in the department of plant physiology, becoming a professor in 1921. From 1926 to 1967 he was a professor in the university’s department of microbiology, where he was also head of a subdepartment from 1938 to 1967. In addition, he was in charge of the industrial microbiology laboratory of the Scientific Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry (1920–35), the Central Scientific Research Laboratory of the Fermentation Industry (1935–38), and the department of industrial microbiology of the Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1938–63).
Shaposhnikov’s main work was in the area of industrial microbiology. Shaposhnikov contributed much to the understanding of the physiology of microorganisms, mapped out the evolutionary pathways of the main types of fermentation, and discovered the two-phase nature of many microbiological processes, which made it possible, in many cases, to control them. His work laid the foundation for the industrial manufacture of lactic acid, acetone, and vinegar in the USSR.
Shaposhnikov founded a large scientific school. A recipient of the State Prize of the USSR (1950), he was awarded two Orders of Lenin, two other orders, and various medals.
WORKSTekhnicheskaia mikrobiologiia. Moscow, 1948.
Fiziologiia obmena veshchestv mikroorganizmov v sviazi s evoliutsiei funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Osnovnye fiziko-khimicheskie zakonomernosti fiziologii obmena veshchestv mikroorganizmov. Moscow, 1968.
REFERENCES“Akademik Vladimir Nikolaevich Shaposhnikov (k 70-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia).” Mikrobiologiia, 1954, vol. 23, no. 2.
“Chestvovanie akademika V. N. Shaposhnikova.” Vestnik AN SSSR, 1954, no. 6.
IA. A. PARNES