oblast

(redirected from Voblasc)
Also found in: Dictionary, Financial.

oblast

(ō`bläst, ŏ`–, Rus. ô`bləstyə) [Rus.,=region], administrative and territorial division in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and the former USSR. In the USSR, oblasts in which the majority of the population was of a nationality different from that of the constituent republic in which they were included generally enjoyed autonomous status. There is only one surviving autonomous oblast in Russia; the others became republics. The boundaries of oblasts are usually based on economic and administrative considerations; as a result, oblasts vary considerably in size and population.

Oblast

 

(1) The term used to designate administrative and territorial units in the USSR (it was also used in prerevolutionary Russia) and in a number of foreign countries. (In non-Soviet contexts, and also when referring to the meaning of the term given in item [2] below, it is best rendered in English as “region” or “area.”)

(2) A locality, land, or region; part of a territory (a country, state, continent, and so on) set apart by some definite and essential feature (such as natural conditions, historical traditions, ethnic or economic traits, or administrative-political importance); also, a geographic area (region or zone), within which something is situated or widespread (for example, zoogeographic, floristic, or geosynclinal regions).

In prerevolutionary Russia the term “oblast” was used to designate certain administrative-territorial units that corresponded to gubernii (provinces) but were governed in accordance with special statutes. At first, during the last quarter of the 18th century, “oblast” was used to designate the provinces into which vicegerencies with large populations had been divided. Beginning in the late 18th century, the term was used for newly annexed territories located along the state’s frontiers, as well as for lands of the Cossack hosts (those of the Don, Kuban’, and Terek hosts). Oblasts were limited with respect to a number of rights. They were administered by military governors (appointed atamans of the host) and were usually part of governor-generalships. The number of oblasts did not remain constant. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, 34 oblasts were formed and 14 were abolished. Some oblasts were made into provinces (the Caspian Oblast became Shemakha Province, 1846; Georgia-Imeretia Oblast became Tiflis and Kutaisi provinces, 1846; Caucasian Oblast became Stavropol’ Province, 1847; and Bessarabian Oblast became Bessarabian Province, 1873); some were partitioned (Turkestan Oblast into Semirech’e and Syr Darya oblasts, 1867) or annexed to other provinces (Omsk to Tobol’sk, 1839, Belostok to Grodno, 1842). By 1917 there were 21 oblasts in the Russian Empire, 18 of which were included within the Irkutsk, Amur, Steppe, and Turkestan governor-generalships; three oblasts—that of the Don Host and the Ural’sk and Turgai oblasts—were not part of any governor-generalships. After the October Revolution of 1917 the inequalities among the oblasts were eliminated, and many oblasts were designated as provinces. During the first few years of Soviet power, oblasts and provinces of the former Russian Empire that did not correspond to the economic conditions and new tasks of the state administration were reorganized, and during the 1923–30 administrative-territorial reform they were abolished.

Listed below are the most important territorial changes since 1917, along with the dates of abolition and the names of the administrative-territorial units to which the territories of the abolished oblasts and provinces were changed. Administrative centers whose names do not correspond to those of administrative-territorial units are given in parentheses. (For dates of formation and further administrative subdivisions before 1917, seeGUBERNIA.)

Provinces

Arkhangel’sk, RSFSR: part ceded to Finland in accordance with the peace treaty of Oct. 14, 1920 (Pechenga), transferred to the Karelian (1920) and Komi (1921) autonomous oblasts and Leningrad Oblast (1927); became part of Severnyi Krai Jan. 14, 1929.

Astrakhan, RSFSR: part transferred to Bukei Province (1917) and Tsaritsyn Province (1919), the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR, and the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast (1920); became part of Lower Volga Oblast May 21, 1928.

Baku: became part of the Azerbaijan SSR Apr. 27, 1920.

Bessarabian (center, Kishinev): annexed by Rumania Nov. 27, 1918.

Black Sea, RSFSR: became part of Kuban’-Black Sea Oblast Dec. 7, 1920.

Chernigov, Ukrainian SSR: part included in Gomel’ Province (1919); abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Courland: ceded to Latvia in accordance with the peace treaty of Aug. 11, 1920.

Ekaterinoslav, Ukrainian SSR: part transferred to Aleksandrovsk and Donetsk provinces (1920); Zaporozh’e Province and part of Kremenchug Province annexed to remaining territory (1922); abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Elizavetpol’: renamed Gandizhan (1918).

Eniseisk, RSFSR (Krasnoiarsk): became part of Siberian Krai May 25, 1925.

Erivan: became part of the Armenian SSR Nov. 29, 1920; a smaller part, Nakhichevan’ Krai, became part of the Azerbaijan SSR.

Estonia (Estland): ceded to Estonia by the peace treaty of Feb. 2, 1920.

Grodno: ceded by peace treaties to Lithuania (July 12, 1920) and Poland (Mar. 18, 1921).

Irkutsk, RSFSR: parts apportioned to the Yakut ASSR and the Buriat-Mongolian Autonomous Oblast (1922); became part of Siberian Krai June 28, 1926.

Kaluga, RSFSR: part transferred to Briansk Province (1920); part of Smolensk Province transferred to it (1922); became part of Zapadnaia Oblast Oct. 1, 1929.

Kazan, RSFSR: Tatar ASSR formed May 27, 1920; part transferred to the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast and to Nizhny Novgorod and Viatka provinces (1920).

Kharkov, Ukrainian SSR: part transferred to Donetsk Province (1920); abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Kherson, Ukrainian SSR: divided into Odessa and Nikolaev provinces Apr. 16, 1920.

Kiev, Ukrainian SSR: part temporarily added to Kremenchug Province (1921–22), part of Poltava Province annexed; abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Kostroma, RSFSR: part tranferred to Ivanovo-Voznesensk Province (1918, 1922) and Nizhny Novgorod Province (1922); became part of Ivanovo Industrial Oblast and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Kovno: ceded to Lithuania by the peace treaty of July 12, 1920.

Kursk, RSFSR: became part of Central Chernozem Oblast May 14, 1928.

Kutaisi: became part of the Georgian SSR Feb. 25, 1921.

Livonia: ceded by peace treaties to Estonia (Feb. 2, 1920) and Latvia (Aug. 11, 1920).

Minsk: Byelorussian SSR formed Jan. 1, 1919; part transferred to Gomel’ Province (1919) and part ceded to Poland by the peace treaty of Mar. 18, 1921.

Mogilev, RSFSR: abolished July 11, 1919; most transferred to Gomel’ Province, parts to Vitebsk and Smolensk provinces.

Moscow, RSFSR: included parts of Riazan’ Province (1922) and Tula Province (1923); became part of Central Industrial (Moscow) Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Nizhny Novgorod, RSFSR: part transferred to the Chuvash and Mary autonomous oblasts (1920); included parts of Viatka Province (1920) and Kostroma and Simbirsk provinces (1922); became part of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Novgorod, RSFSR: part transferred to Cherepovets Province (1918); became part of Leningrad Oblast Aug. 1, 1927.

Olonets, RSFSR (Petrozavodsk): part transferred to Vologda Province (1919) and Karelian (1920) autonomous oblasts; became part of the Karelian Autonomous Oblast and of Petrograd and Vologda provinces July 31 and Sept. 18, 1922, respectively.

Orel, RSFSR: part joined to Briansk Province (1920); annexed part of Tula Province (1925); became part of Central Chernozem Oblast May 14, 1928.

Orenburg, RSFSR: part joined to the Bashkir ASSR and Ufa Province (1919) and the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR (1920); part of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR from Aug. 20, 1920, to July 6, 1925; part of Orenburg-Turgai Province from Sept. 22, 1920, to May 28, 1921; part separated to form Ural’sk Oblast (1924); made part of Middle Volga Oblast on May 14, 1928.

Penza, RSFSR: part added to Nizhny Novgorod Province (1922); annexed part of Tambov Province (1923); became part of Middle Volga Oblast May 14, 1928.

Perm’, RSFSR: part transferred to Ekaterinburg Province (1919); annexed part of Viatka Province (1921); became part of Ural’sk Oblast Nov. 12, 1923.

Petrograd, RSFSR: part ceded to Estonia by peace treaty (1920); annexed part of Olonets Province (1922); renamed Leningrad Province Jan. 26, 1924.

Podol’sk, Ukrainian SSR: part added to Odessa Province (1921); abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Poltava, Ukrainian SSR: part transferred to Kiev Province (1921) and temporarily to Kremenchug Province (1921–22); abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Pskov, RSFSR: part ceded to Estonia and Latvia by peace treaties (1920); annexed part of Vitebsk Province (1924); became part of Leningrad Oblast Aug. 1, 1927.

Riazan’, RSFSR: part transferred to Moscow Province (1922); annexed part of Tambov Province (1923); became part of Central Industrial (Moscow) Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Samara, RSFSR: part added to the Volga German Autonomous Oblast (1919), the Tatar ASSR (1920), and Saratov Province (1919); became part of Middle Volga Oblast May 14, 1928.

Saratov, RSFSR: part transferred to Tsaritsyn Province (1919) and the Volga German Autonomous Oblast (1922); annexed part of Samara Province (1919); became part of Lower Volga Oblast May 21, 1928.

Simbirsk, RSFSR: part transferred to the Tatar ASSR and the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast (1920) and to Nizhny Novgorod Province (1922); renamed Ul’ianovsk Province May 9, 1924.

Smolensk, RSFSR: part annexed from Mogilev Province (1919) and Gomel’ Province (1922); part transferred to the Byelorussian SSR (1924); became part of Zapadnaia Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Stavropol’, RSFSR: part transferred to the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast (1920) and Terek Oblast (1921); became part of North Caucasus Krai, Feb. 13, 1924.

Tambov, RSFSR: part added to Riazan’, Penza, Voronezh, and Nizhny Novgorod provinces (1923); annexed part of Voronezh Province (1923); became part of Central Chernozem Oblast May 14, 1928.

Tauride, RSFSR: part transferred to Ekaterinoslav Province, Ukrainian SSR (1918); most transferred to the Crimean ASSR (Oct. 18, 1921).

Tiflis: became part of the Georgian SSR Feb. 25, 1921.

Tobol’sk, RSFSR: part transferred to Omsk and Cheliabinsk provinces (1919); renamed Tiumen’ Province Aug. 27, 1919.

Tomsk, RSFSR: part transferred to Altai Province (1917) and Novonikolaevsk Province (1922); became part of Siberian Krai on May 25, 1925.

Tula, RSFSR: part transferred to Moscow Province (1923) and Orel Province (1925); became part of Central Industrial (Moscow) Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Tver’, RSFSR: part transferred to Moscow Province (1921) and temporarily to Rybinsk Province (1921–23); became part of Central Industrial (Moscow) Oblast on Jan. 14, 1929.

Ufa, RSFSR: part transferred to the Bashkir ASSR, Tatar ASSR, and Cheliabinsk Province (1920); annexed part of Orenburg Province; became part of the Bashkir ASSR June 14, 1922.

Viatka, RSFSR: part transferred to Mary Autonomous Oblast (1920), Votsk Autonomous Oblast (1921), and the Tatar ASSR (1920–21); became part of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Severnyi Krai Jan. 14, 1929.

Vil’no: ceded by peace treaties to Lithuania (July 12, 1920) and Poland (Mar. 18, 1921); part transferred to Vitebsk Province (1919).

Vitebsk, RSFSR: annexed parts of Mogilev Province (1919), Vil’no Province (1919), and Gomel’ Province (1920); part ceded to Latvia by peace treaty (Aug. 11, 1920); became part of the Byelorussian SSR (most of the oblast) and Pskov Province Mar. 24, 1924.

Vladimir, RSFSR: part transferred to Ivanovo-Voznesensk Province (1925); became part of Ivanovo Industrial Oblast and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Vologda, RSFSR: part separated to form Severnaia Dvina Province (1918); became part of Severnyi Krai Jan. 14, 1929.

Volyn’, Ukrainian SSR (Zhitomir): part ceded to Poland by the peace treaty of Mar. 18, 1921; abolished Aug. 1, 1925.

Voronezh, RSFSR: formed May 14, 1928; part exchanged with Tambov Province (1923); became part of Central Chernozem Oblast.

Yaroslavl, RSFSR: part transferred to Rybinsk Province (1921); annexed Rybinsk Province (1923); became part of Ivanovo Industrial Oblast Jan. 14, 1929.

Oblasts

Akmolinsk: became a province in the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR in 1920; abolished Aug. 15, 1928.

Amur (Blagoveshchensk): from 1920 a province in the Far East Republic (until 1922) and the RSFSR; became part of Far East Krai June 4, 1926.

Batumi: Mar. 16, 1921; most ceded to Turkey in accordance with the treaties of Moscow (Mar. 11, 1921) and Kars (Oct. 13, 1921); Azerbaijan ASSR formed July 16, 1921 on the lesser part.

Dagestan (Temir-Khan-Shura): formed the Dagestan ASSR Jan. 20, 1921.

Fergana (Skobelev; from 1924, Kokand): became part of the Turkestan ASSR in 1918 and part of the Uzbek SSR Oct. 27, 1924; parts transferred to the Tadzhik ASSR and the Kara-Kirghiz (Kirghiz) Autonomous Oblast; abolished in 1927.

Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-na-Kamchatke): from 1920 a province in the Far East Republic (until 1922) and the RSFSR; became part of Far East Krai Jan. 4, 1926.

Kars: most ceded to Turkey by terms of the treaties of Moscow (Mar. 16, 1921) and Kars (Oct. 13, 1921); a smaller portion made part of the Armenian SSR.

Kuban’ (Ekaterinodar): became part of Kuban’-Black Sea Oblast Dec. 7, 1920; part transferred to the Gortsy ASSR (1921).

Oblast of the Don Host (Novocherkassk): part transferred to Tsaritsyn Province (1919) and Donetsk Province (1920) and the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast (1920); transformed into Don Oblast Mar. 20, 1920.

Primor’e (Vladivostok): from 1920 a province in the Far East Republic (until 1922) and the RSFSR; annexed to Sakhalin Oblast (1920); became part of the Far East Krai Jan. 4, 1926.

Sakhalin (Post-Aleksandovskii): made part of Primor’e Oblast in 1920.

Samarkand: since 1918, part of the Turkestan ASSR; became part of the Uzbek SSR Oct. 27, 1924; insignificant portions transferred to the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR and the Tadzhik ASSR.

Semipalatinsk: since 1920, part of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR; abolished Aug. 15, 1928.

Semirech’e (Vernyi): from 1918, part of the Turkestan ASSR; renamed Dzhetysu Province Oct. 12, 1922.

Syr Darya (Tashkent; from 1924, Chimkent): from 1918, part of the Turkestan ASSR; from 1924, part of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR; Amu-Darya Oblast separated (1918), and parts transferred to the Uzbek SSR and the Kara-Kirghiz (Kirghiz) Autonomous Oblast (1924); abolished Aug. 15, 1928.

Terek (Vladikavkaz; from 1921, Georgievsk): split up to form the Gortsy ASSR Jan. 20, 1921; remainder designated as a province within the RSFSR; became part of North Caucasus Krai Feb. 13, 1924.

Transbaikalia (Chita): from 1920, a province in the RSFSR; part transferred to Baikal Province (1923); became part of Far East Krai Jan. 4, 1926.

Transcaspian (Askhabad): renamed Turkmen Oblast Aug. 7, 1921; part included in the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR (1920).

Turgai: from 1920, part of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR; made part of Orenburg-Turgai Province Sept. 22, 1920; independent province May 28–Dec. 8, 1921; became part of Kustanai, Orenburg, and Aktiubinsk provinces.

Ural’sk: from 1920, part of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR; made part of Orenburg-Turgai Province Sept. 22, 1920; from Jan. 14, 1924, to Aug. 15, 1928, designated as a province, made up of parts of Aktiubinsk and Orenburg provinces; included Bukei Province (1925); later abolished.

Yakutsk: Yakut ASSR formed Apr. 27, 1922.

Okrugs

Sukhumi: became part of the Adzhar ASSR July 16, 1921.

Zakataly: became part of the Azerbaijan SSR Apr. 28, 1920.

In accordance with the peace treaty of Oct. 14, 1920, with Finland, the latter received the following Finnish provinces of the former Russian Empire: Åbo-Björneborg, Kuopio, Nyland, Sankt-Michel, Tavastehus, Uleaborg, Vasa, and Vyborg.

In accordance with the peace treaty of Mar. 18, 1921, with Poland, the latter received the following Polish provinces of the former Russian Empire: Kalisz, Kielce, Łomża, Lublin, Piotrków, Plotsk, Radom, Suwalki, and Warsaw.

From 1917 to 1919 the term “okrug” was used to designate provisional associations of a number of provinces around major industrial centers—Moscow, Ural’sk, Northern, Northwestern (or Western), Western Siberian, and Siberian, all under the jurisdiction of Tsentrosibir’ (Central Executive Committee of Siberian Soviets). The associations were created on the initiative of the All-Russian Conference of Soviets (held in March 1917) to reinforce the influence of central power in localities and to strengthen the proletarian leadership of the local soviets. After the October Revolution of 1917, oblast-level (interprovincial) soviets acquired the functions of state authorities; their executive bodies were called oblast executive committees or councils of people’s commissars. With the development and strengthening of the administrative machinery of Soviet power, these oblast-level associations were abolished.

In the early 1920’s a group of provinces headed by revolutionary committees and bureaus of the central committee of the RCP(B) were also called oblasts (for example, the Siberian, Ural’sk, Far East oblasts).

In the USSR, the oblast is the basic administrative-territorial unit; oblasts are part of several Soviet republics. Factors taken into account in the establishment of oblasts are the natural and economic characteristics of the territories, the population, the means of transportation, and also the gravitation of population centers to major industrial centers. According to the 1936 Constitution of the USSR, problems of the formation of oblasts and implementation of changes in the division of oblasts fall under the jurisdiction of the USSR. A law passed on Feb. 11, 1957, relegated such problems to the administrations of the Union republics themselves. The body of state power in an oblast is the oblast Soviet of Working People’s Deputies, elected by the population for a term of two years; the executive and administrative body is the Executive Committee, which is formed by the oblast Council. In the USSR, oblasts were introduced by the administrative-territorial reform of 1923–30 to replace the previously existing provinces. Preparation for this reform, which was based on the principle of economic regionalization, was implemented by the reorganization during the first few years of Soviet power (1917–22) of the prerevolutionary administrative-territorial division (the establishment of national autonomous units, the breakup of former provinces, and the formation of new administrative-territorial units, primarily around the major industrial centers).

Listed below are the dates of existence of the provinces and oblasts and the names of the administrative-territorial units from which the provinces and oblasts were formed and to which they were transferred after being abolished; in the case of renaming, the new names are given. Administrative centers whose names do not correspond to those of the provinces or oblasts are given in parentheses.

Aktiubinsk, Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR: May 28, 1921–June 18, 1928; formed from part of Orenburg-Turgai Province.

Aleksandrovsk, Ukrainian SSR: Apr. 16, 1920–Mar. 23, 1921; formed from parts of Ekaterinoslav and Tauride provinces; renamed Zaporozh’e Province.

Altai, RSFSR (center, Barnaul): Apr. 20, 1917–May 25, 1925; formed from part of Tomsk Province; became part of Siberian Krai.

Amu Darya Oblast, Turkestan ASSR (Chimbai): 1918–December 1924; formed from part of Syr Darya Oblast; became part of the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblast.

Amur, RSFSR (Khabarovsk): Jan. 1–Oct. 1, 1923; temporarily separated from Primor’e Oblast.

Baikal, RSFSR (Verkhneudinsk): Jan. 1–Oct. 3, 1923; formed from part of Transbaikalia Oblast; most became part of the Buriat-Mongolian ASSR, and a smaller part joined Transbaikalia Oblast.

Briansk, RSFSR: Apr. 1, 1920–Jan. 14, 1929; formed from part of Kaluga and Orel provinces; annexed part of Gomel’ Province (1923, 1926); became part of Zapadnaia Oblast.

Bukei, Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR (from 1920) (Urda): July 1, 1917–June 6, 1925; formed from part of Astrakhan Province; became part of Ural’sk Oblast.

Cheliabinsk, RSFSR: Aug. 27, 1919–Nov. 12, 1923; formed from parts of Orenburg and Ufa provinces; became part of Ural’sk Oblast.

Cherepovets, RSFSR: June 10, 1918–Aug. 1, 1927; formed from part of Novgorod Province; became part of Leningrad Oblast.

Don Oblast, RSFSR (Rostov-on-Don): Mar. 20, 1920–Feb. 13, 1924; formed from part of the Oblast of the Don Host; became part of North Caucasus Krai.

Donetsk, Ukrainian SSR (Artemovsk; until 1924, Bakhmut): Apr. 16, 1920–Aug. 1, 1925; formed from parts of Kharkov and Ekaterinoslav provinces and the Oblast of the Don Host.

Dzhetysu (Alma-Ata): Oct. 12, 1922–June 18, 1928; name changed from Semirech’e Oblast; in 1924 transferred from the Turkestan ASSR to the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR, with a smaller part going to the Kara-Kirghiz (Kirghiz) Autonomous Oblast.

Ekaterinburg, RSFSR: July 15, 1919–Nov. 12, 1923; formed from part of Perm’ Province; became part of Ural’sk Oblast.

Fergana Oblast, Uzbek SSR: Jan. 29, 1925–Feb. 8, 1927.

Gandizhan: 1918–Apr. 27, 1920; name changed from Elizavetpol’ Province; most became part of the Azerbaijan SSR, and some became part of the Armenian SSR.

Gomel’, RSFSR: July 11, 1919–Dec. 6, 1926; formed from Mogilev Province and parts of Chernigov and Minsk provinces; most of it became part of the Byelorussian SSR, and a smaller part was made part of Briansk Province.

Ivanovo-Voznesensk, RSFSR: June 20, 1918–Jan. 14, 1929; formed from parts of Kostroma and Vladimir provinces; became part of the Ivanovo Industrial Oblast.

Kashkadar’ia Oblast, Uzbek SSR (Karshi [Bek-Buda]): Jan. 29, 1925–Sept. 29, 1926; formed from part of the former Bukhara SSR.

Khorezm Oblast, Uzbek SSR (Khiva): Jan. 29, 1925–Sept. 29, 1926; formed from part of the former Khorezm SSR.

Kremenchug, Ukrainian SSR: May 16, 1920–Oct. 21, 1922; formed from parts of Poltava, Kiev, and Kherson provinces; became part of Poltava, Kiev, and Ekaterinoslav provinces.

Kuban’-Black Sea, RSFSR (Krasnodar): Dec. 7, 1920–Feb. 13, 1924; formed from Kuban’ Oblast and Black Sea Province; became part of North Caucasus Krai.

Kustanai, Kazakh ASSR: May 28, 1921–Sept. 14, 1925; formed from part of Orenburg-Turgai Province and Akmolinsk Oblast; transformed into an okrug.

Leningrad, RSFSR: Jan. 26, 1924–Aug. 1, 1927; name changed from Petrograd Province; became part of Leningrad Oblast.

Murmansk, RSFSR: June 13, 1921–Aug. 1, 1927; formed from part of Arkhangel’sk Province; became part of Leningrad Oblast.

Nikolaev, Ukrainian SSR: Apr. 16, 1920–Oct. 21, 1921; formed from part of Kherson Province; became part of Odessa Province.

Novonikolaevsk, RSFSR: June 13, 1921–May 25, 1925; formed from parts of Altai and Tomsk provinces; became part of Siberian Krai.

Odessa, Ukrainian SSR: Apr. 16, 1920–Aug. 1, 1925; formed from part of Kherson Province.

Omsk, RSFSR: Aug. 27, 1919–May 25, 1925; formed from parts of Tobol’sk Province and Akmolinsk Oblast; became part of Siberian Krai.

Orenburg-Turgai, Kazakh ASSR (Orenburg): Sept. 22, 1920–May 28, 1921; formed from Turgai and Ural’sk oblasts and part of Orenburg Province; became part of Aktiubinsk, Kustanai, and Orenburg provinces.

Rybinsk, RSFSR: Feb. 3, 1921–Feb. 15, 1923; formed from part of Yaroslavl Province; became part of Yaroslavl Province.

Samarkand Oblast, Uzbek SSR: Jan. 29, 1925–Sept. 29, 1926.

Severnaia Dvina, RSFSR (Velikii Ustiug): July 24, 1918–Jan. 14, 1929; formed from part of Vologda Province; part transferred to Komi Autonomous Oblast (1921); became part of Severnyi Krai.

Stalingrad, RSFSR: Apr. 10, 1925–May 21, 1928; name changed from Tsaritsyn Province; became part of Lower Volga Oblast.

Surkhandar’ia Oblast, Uzbek SSR (Shirabad): Jan. 29, 1925–Sept. 29, 1926; formed from part of the former Bukhara SSR.

Tashkent Oblast, Uzbek SSR: Jan. 29, 1925–Sept. 29, 1926; formed from part of Syr Darya Oblast.

Tiumen’, RSFSR: Aug. 27, 1919–Nov. 12, 1923; name changed from Tobol’sk Province; became part of Ural’sk Oblast.

Tsaritsyn, RSFSR: Mar. 29, 1919–Apr. 10, 1925; formed from parts of Saratov and Astrakhan provinces and part of the Oblast of the Don Host; renamed Stalingrad Province.

Turkmen Oblast, Turkestan ASSR (Poltoratsk): Aug. 7, 1921–Oct. 27, 1924; name changed from Transcaspian Oblast; became part of the Turkmen SSR.

Ul’ianovsk, RSFSR: May 9, 1924–May 14, 1928; name changed from Simbirsk Province; became part of Middle Volga Oblast.

Zaporozh’e, Ukrainian SSR: Mar. 23, 1921–Oct. 21, 1922; name changed from Aleksandrovsk Province; became part of Ekaterinoslav Province.

Zeravshan Oblast, Uzbek SSR (Staraia Bukhara): Jan. 29, 1925–Sept. 29, 1926; formed from part of the former Bukhara SSR.

The status of provinces within the RSFSR was also enjoyed by the following units, which were separated from the Gortsy ASSR: the city of Groznyi and its surrounding oil fields (Nov. 30, 1922–Feb. 13, 1924), the city of Vladikavkaz (July 7, 1924–Feb. 26, 1925), and the Sunzha Cossack Okrug (July 7, 1924–Feb. 26, 1925), which became parts of the North Caucasus Krai, and also the Adai District of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR (Aug. 20, 1920–June 19, 1928), which consisted of part of the Transcaspian Oblast and was transformed into an okrug.

From 1923 to 1930 the 56 provinces of the RSFSR were replaced by 14 large administrative-territorial units, including ten oblasts, four of which were soon converted into krais; each unit was an independent economic region. Oblasts were not initially established in other Union republics. The number of administrative-territorial units increased in proportion to the growth of the population and the country’s economic development. In 1932 the oblast type of division was promulgated in the Ukrainian SSR and the Kazakh ASSR, and oblasts were formed within krais in the Far East Krai. The breakup of oblasts and krais in the RSFSR into smaller units began in 1934; it proceeded in several stages and was completed during the postwar years. In 1938–39 the oblast type of division was introduced in the Byelorussian, Uzbek, Kirghiz, Tadzhik, and Turkmen SSR’s. As of early 1950 there were oblasts in the Georgian, Azerbaijan, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian SSR’s and in the Bashkir and Tatar ASSR’s. Since the end of the 1960’s new oblasts have been formed primarily in the Kazakh SSR and the republics of Middle Asia.

Administrative centers whose names differ from those of the oblasts are given in parentheses immediately after the oblast’s name.

RSFSR

Arzamas: Jan. 7, 1954–Apr. 23, 1957; formed from part of Gorky Oblast; became part of Gorky Oblast.

Balashov: Jan. 6, 1954–Nov. 19, 1957; formed from parts of Saratov, Stalingrad, Voronezh, and Tambov oblasts; became part of these oblasts.

Chkalov: Dec. 26, 1938–Dec. 4, 1957 (until 1938, Orenburg Oblast); renamed Orenburg Oblast again.

Central Chernozem (center, Voronezh): May 14, 1928–June 13, 1934; formed from Voronezh, Kursk, Orel, and Tambov provinces; became part of Voronezh and Kursk oblasts.

Central Industrial (Moscow): Jan. 14–June 3, 1929; formed from Moscow, Tver’, Tula, and Riazan’ provinces renamed Moscow Oblast.

Crimea (Simferopol’): June 30, 1945–Feb. 19, 1954; formed from the former Crimean ASSR; transferred to Ukrainian SSR.

Eastern Siberian (Irkutsk): Dec. 5, 1936–Sept. 26, 1937; formed from the region of the same name; divided into Irkutsk and Chita oblasts.

Groznyi: Mar. 22, 1944–Apr. 10, 1957; formed from the Chechen-Ingush ASSR and parts of the Dagestan ASSR, as well as Stavropol’ Krai; divided up among them.

Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk: Feb. 2, 1946–Jan. 2, 1947; formed from the southern part of Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands and part of Khabarovsk Krai; became part of Sakhalin Oblast.

Ivanovo Industrial (Ivanovo): Jan. 14, 1929–Mar. 11, 1936; formed from Vladimir, Ivanovo-Voznesensk, Kostroma, and Yaroslavl provinces; divided into Ivanovo and Yaroslavl oblasts.

Kamensk (Kamensk-Shakhtinskii): Jan. 6, 1954–Nov. 19, 1957; formed from parts of Rostov, Voronezh, and Stalingrad oblasts; made part of these oblasts.

Königsberg: Apr. 7–July 4, 1946; formed from the city of Königsberg and adjacent territory; renamed Kaliningrad Oblast.

Khabarovsk: July 22, 1934–Oct. 20, 1938; initially part of the Far East Krai; became part of Khabarovsk and Primor’e krais.

Lower Volga (Saratov): May 21–June 11, 1928; formed from Astrakhan, Saratov, and Stalingrad provinces and part of Samara Province; included the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast; transformed into Lower Volga Krai.

Middle Volga (Samara): May 14, 1928–Oct. 20, 1929; formed from Orenburg, Penza, Ul’ianovsk, and Samara provinces; transformed into Middle Volga Krai.

Molotov: Mar. 8, 1940–Oct. 2, 1957; renamed Perm’ Oblast.

Nizhnii Amur (Nikolaevsk-na-Amure): July 22, 1934–Jan. 23, 1956; part of Far East and (since 1938) Khabarovsk krais; became part of Khabarovsk Krai.

Nizhny Novgorod: Jan. 14–July 15, 1929; formed from Viatka and Nizhny Novgorod provinces and Votsk and Mary autonomous oblasts; transformed into Nizhny Novgorod Krai.

Ob’-Irtysh (Tiumen’): Jan. 17–Dec. 7, 1934; formed from part of Ural’sk Oblast; included Ostiak-Vogul’ and Yamal national okrugs; became part of Omsk Oblast.

Primor’e (Vladivostok): July 22, 1934–Oct. 20, 1938; part of the Far East Krai; became part of Primor’e Krai.

Severnaia (Millerovo): Nov. 20, 1933–July 5, 1934; part of the North Caucasus Krai (from January 1934, Azov-Black Sea Krai); transformed into Northern Don Okrug of the krai.

Severnaia (Arkhangel’sk): Dec. 5, 1936–Sept. 23, 1937; formed from krai of the same name; became part of Arkhangel’sk and Vologda oblasts.

Stalingrad: Dec. 5, 1936–Nov. 10, 1961; formed from the krai of the same name; part separated into Astrakhan Oblast (1943) and temporarily into Balashov and Kamensk oblasts (1954–57); renamed Volgograd Oblast.

Ural’sk (Ekaterinburg; from 1924, Sverdlovsk): Nov. 3, 1923–Jan. 17, 1934; formed from Ekaterinburg, Perm’, Cheliabinsk, and Tiumen’ provinces; became parts of Sverdlovsk, Cheliabinsk, and Ob’-Irtysh oblasts.

Ussuri (Voroshilov): July 22, 1934–Sept. 18, 1943; part of Far East and Primor’e krais (after 1938); became part of Primor’e Krai.

Velikie Luki: Aug. 22, 1944–Oct. 22, 1957; formed from parts of Kalinin, Novgorod, and Smolensk oblasts; became part of Pskov and Kalinin oblasts.

Zapadnaia (Smolensk): Jan. 14, 1929–Sept. 27, 1937; formed from Briansk, Kaluga, and Smolensk provinces; parts transferred to Kalinin Oblast (1935) and Orel Oblast (1937); transformed into Smolensk Oblast.

Zeia (Rukhlovo): July 22, 1934–Sept. 26, 1937; part of Far East Krai; became part of Chita Oblast.

Bashkir ASSR

Sterlitamak: May 29, 1952–Apr. 30, 1953.

Ufa: May 29, 1952–Apr. 30, 1953.

Tatar ASSR

Bugul’ma: Feb. 21–Apr. 30, 1953; formed from parts of Kazan and Chistopol’ oblasts.

Chistopol’: May 8, 1952–Apr. 30, 1953.

Kazan: May 8, 1952–Apr. 30, 1953.

Ukrainian SSR

Akkerman: Aug. 7–Dec. 7, 1940; formed from the southern part of Bessarabia; renamed Izmail’ Oblast.

Drogobych: Dec. 4, 1939–May 21, 1959; became part of L’vov Oblast.

Izmail: Dec. 7, 1940–Feb. 15, 1954; name changed from Akkerman Oblast; became part of Odessa Oblast.

Kamenets-Podol’skii: Sept. 22, 1937–Feb. 4, 1954; formed from part of Vinnitsa Oblast; renamed Khmel’nitskii Oblast.

Lugansk: Mar. 5, 1958–Jan. 5, 1970; formed from Voroshilovgrad Oblast; again renamed Voroshilovgrad Oblast.

Stalino: June 3, 1938–Nov. 9, 1961; formed from part of Donetsk Oblast; renamed Donetsk Oblast.

Stanislav: Dec. 4, 1939–Nov. 9, 1962; renamed Ivano-Frankovsk Oblast.

Tarnopol’: Dec, 4, 1939–Aug. 9, 1944; renamed Ternopol’ Oblast.

Byelorussian SSR

Baranovichi: Dec. 4, 1939–Jan. 8, 1954; became parts of Brest, Grodno, Minsk, and Molodechno oblasts.

Belostok: Dec. 4, 1939–Sept. 20, 1944; mostly ceded to Poland; the lesser part, to Grodno Oblast.

Bobruisk: Sept. 20, 1944–Jan. 8, 1954; formed from parts of Minsk, Mogilev, and Poles’e oblasts; became parts of Gomel’, Minsk, and Mogilev oblasts.

Molodechno: Sept. 20, 1944–Jan. 20, 1960; formed from Vileika Oblast; became part of Vitebsk, Grodno, and Minsk oblasts.

Pinsk: Dec. 4, 1939–Jan. 8, 1954; became part of Brest Oblast.

Poles’e (Mozyr’): Jan. 15, 1938–Jan. 8, 1954; part transferred to Bobruisk Oblast (1944); became part of Gomel’ Oblast.

Polotsk: Sept. 20, 1944–Jan. 8, 1954; formed from parts of Vileika and Vitebsk oblasts; became part of Vitebsk and Molodechno oblasts.

Vileika: Dec. 4, 1939–Sept. 20, 1944; renamed Molodechno Oblast; part transferred to Polotsk Oblast.

Kazakh SSR

Akmolinsk: Oct. 14, 1939–Dec. 26, 1960; formed from parts of Karaganda and Severnyi Kazakhstan oblasts; became part of Tselinnyi Krai.

Iuzhnyi Kazakhstan (Chimkent): Mar. 10, 1932–May 3, 1962; part transferred to Dzhambul Oblast (1939); renamed Chimkent Oblast.

Georgian SSR

Kutaisi: Nov. 5, 1951–Apr. 23, 1953.

Tbilisi: Nov. 5, 1951–Apr. 23, 1953.

Azerbaijan SSR

Baku: Apr. 3, 1952–Apr. 23, 1953.

Giandzha: Apr. 3, 1952–Apr. 23, 1953.

Lithuanian SSR

Kaunas: June 20, 1950–May 28, 1953.

Klaipeda: June 20, 1950–May 28, 1953.

Šiauliai: June 20, 1950–May 28, 1953.

Vilnius: June 20, 1950–May 28, 1953.

Latvian SSR

Daugavpils: Apr. 8, 1952–Apr. 25, 1953.

Liepāja: Apr. 8, 1952–Apr. 25, 1953.

Riga: Apr. 8, 1952–Apr. 25, 1953.

Kirghiz SSR

Dzhalal-Abad: Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 27, 1959; became part of Osh Oblast.

Frunze: Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 27, 1959; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction.

Talas: June 22, 1944–Feb. 18, 1956; formed from parts of Frunze and Dzhalal-Abad oblasts; became part of Frunze Oblast.

Tien-Shan (Naryn): Nov. 21, 1939–Dec. 30, 1962; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction.

Tadzhik SSR

Garm: Oct. 27, 1939–Aug. 24, 1955; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction.

Kurgan-Tiube: Jan. 7, 1944–Jan. 23, 1947; formed from parts of Kuliab and Stalinabad oblasts; became part of Stalinabad Oblast.

Stalinabad: Oct. 27, 1939–Apr. 4, 1951; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction.

Ura-Tiube: Jan. 19, 1945–Jan. 23, 1947; formed from Leninabad Oblast; became part of Leninabad and Kuliab oblasts.

Turkmen SSR

Kerki: Dec. 29, 1943–Jan. 23, 1947; formed from part of Chardzhou Oblast; became part of the latter.

Estonian SSR

Pärnu: May 10, 1952–Apr. 28, 1953.

Tallinn: May 10, 1952–Apr. 28, 1953.

Tartu: May 10, 1952–Apr. 28, 1953.

As of Jan. 1, 1974, the USSR had 120 oblasts, 49 of which were in the RSFSR, 25 in the Ukrainian SSR, six in the Byelorussian SSR, 11 in the Uzbek SSR, 19 in the Kazakh SSR, three in the Kirghiz SSR, two in the Tadzhik SSR, and five in the Turkmen SSR.

Administrative centers whose names differ from the names of the oblasts are given in parentheses after the oblast’s name.

RSFSR

Amur (center, Blagoveshchensk): formed Oct. 20, 1932, as part of Far East and (since Oct. 20, 1938) Khabarovsk krais; made an independent oblast Aug. 2, 1948 with part annexed from Chita Oblast.

Arkhangel’sk: formed Sept. 23, 1937, from part of Severnaia Oblast; includes the Nenets National Okrug.

Astrakhan: formed Dec. 27, 1943, from part of Stalingrad Oblast.

Belgorod: formed Jan. 6, 1954, from parts of Kursk and Voronezh oblasts.

Briansk: formed July 5, 1944, from part of Orel Oblast.

Cheliabinsk: formed Jan. 17, 1934, from part of Ural’sk Oblast; parts transferred to Omsk Oblast (1934) and Kurgan Oblast (1943).

Chita: formed Sept. 26, 1937, from part of the Eastern Siberian Oblast, with the annexation of Zeia Oblast; includes the Aga-Buriat National Okrug; previously (Mar. 5–Dec. 7, 1934) part of the Eastern Siberian Krai.

Gorky: formed Dec. 5, 1936, from the krai of the same name; parts transferred to Kostroma and Vladimir oblasts (1944) and Arzamas Oblast (1954–57).

Ivanovo: formed Mar. 11, 1936, from part of the Ivanovo Industrial Oblast; parts transferred to Kostroma and Vladimir oblasts (1944).

Irkutsk: formed Sept. 26, 1937, from part of the Eastern Siberian Oblast; includes the Ust’-Ordynskii Buriat National Okrug.

Kalinin: formed Jan. 29, 1935, from parts of Moscow, Zapadnaia, and Leningrad oblasts; part transferred to Velikie Luki (until 1957), Novgorod, and Pskov oblasts.

Kaliningrad: name changed from Königsberg Oblast July 4, 1946.

Kaluga: formed July 5, 1944, from parts of Tula, Moscow, Smolensk, and Orel oblasts.

Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii): formed Oct. 20, 1932, as part of Far East and (after Oct. 20, 1938) Khabarovsk krais; made a separate oblast Jan. 23, 1956; includes the Koriak National Okrug.

Kemerovo: formed Jan. 26, 1943, from part of Novosibirsk Oblast; part transferred to Tomsk Oblast (1944).

Kirov: formed Dec. 5, 1936, from the krai of the same name.

Kostroma: formed Aug. 13, 1944, from parts of Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Gorky, and Vologda oblasts.

Kuibyshev: formed Dec. 5, 1936, from the krai of the same name; parts transferred to Tambov Oblast (1937), Penza Oblast (1939), and Ul’ianovsk Oblast (1943).

Kurgan: formed Feb. 6, 1943, from parts of Cheliabinsk and Omsk oblasts; part transferred to Tiumen’ Oblast (1944).

Kursk: formed June 13, 1934, from part of the Central Chernozem Oblast; parts transferred to Orel Oblast (1937) and to Belgorod and Lipetsk oblasts (1954).

Leningrad: formed Aug. 1, 1927, from Leningrad, Pskov, Murmansk, Novgorod, and Cherepovets provinces; parts transferred to Zapadnaia Oblast (1929), Kalinin Oblast (1935), Vologda Oblast (1937), Murmansk Oblast (1938), and Novgorod, Pskov, and Velikie Luki oblasts (1944).

Lipetsk: formed Jan. 6, 1954, from parts of Voronezh, Orel, Riazan’, and Kursk oblasts.

Magadan: formed Dec. 3, 1953, from part of Khabarovsk Krai; includes the Chukchi National Okrug.

Moscow: formed Jan. 14, 1929, as the Central Industrial Oblast; renamed Moscow Oblast June 3, 1929; parts transferred to Kalinin Oblast (1935), Tula and Riazan’ oblasts (1937), and Vladimir and Kaluga oblasts (1944).

Murmansk: formed May 28, 1938, from parts of Leningrad Oblast and the Karelian ASSR.

Novgorod: formed July 5, 1944, from parts of Leningrad and Kalinin oblasts; part transferred to Velikie Luki Oblast (1944).

Novosibirsk: formed Sept. 28, 1937, from part of the Western Siberian Krai; parts transferred to Kemerovo Oblast (1943) and Tomsk Oblast (1944).

Omsk: formed Dec. 7, 1934, from Ob’-Irtysh Oblast, part of Cheliabinsk Oblast, and part of the Western Siberian Krai; parts transferred to Kurgan Oblast (1943) and Tiumen’ Oblast (1944).

Orel: formed Sept. 27, 1937, from parts of Kursk and Zapadnaia oblasts; parts transferred to Briansk and Kaluga oblasts (1944) and Lipetsk Oblast (1954).

Orenburg: formed Dec. 7, 1934, from part of Middle Volga Krai; called Chkalov Oblast from 1938 to 1957.

Penza: formed Feb. 4, 1939, from parts of Kuibyshev, Saratov, and Tambov oblasts; part transferred to Ul’ianovsk Oblast (1943).

Perm’: formed Oct. 3, 1938, from part of Sverdlovsk Oblast; called Molotov Oblast from 1940 to 1957; includes Komi-Permiak National Okrug.

Pskov: formed Aug. 23, 1944, from parts of Leningrad and Kalinin oblasts, as well as volosti (small rural districts) of the Estonia SSR and Latvian SSR; annexed part of Velikie Luki Oblast in 1957.

Riazan’: formed Sept. 26, 1937, from parts of Moscow and Voronezh oblasts; part transferred to Lipetsk Oblast (1954).

Rostov: formed Sept. 13, 1937, from part of the Azov-Black Sea Krai; part separately administered as Kamensk Oblast from 1954 to 1957.

Sakhalin (Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk; until 1947, Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskii): formed Oct. 20, 1932, as part of Far East and (since Oct. 20, 1938) Khabarovsk krais; made a separate oblast Jan. 2, 1947, with the annexation of Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk Oblast.

Saratov: formed Dec. 5, 1936, from the krai of the same name; part transferred to Penza Oblast (1939) and temporarily to Balashov Oblast (1954–57).

Smolensk: formed Sept. 27, 1937, from Zapadnaia Oblast; parts transferred to Kaluga and Velikie Luki oblasts (1944).

Sverdlovsk: formed Jan. 17, 1934, from part of Ural’sk Oblast; part transferred to Perm’ Oblast (1938).

Tambov: formed Sept. 27, 1937, from parts of Voronezh and Kuibyshev oblasts; part transferred to Penza Oblast (1939) and temporarily to Balashov Oblast (1954–57).

Tiumen’: formed Aug. 14, 1944, from parts of Omsk and Kurgan oblasts; includes Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets national okrugs.

Tomsk: formed Aug. 13, 1944, from parts of Novosibirsk and Kemerovo oblasts, as well as parts of Altai Krai.

Tula: formed Sept. 26, 1937, from part of Moscow Oblast; part transferred to Kaluga Oblast (1944).

Ul’ianovsk: formed Jan. 19, 1943, from parts of Kuibyshev and Penza oblasts.

Vladimir: formed Aug. 14, 1944, from parts of Ivanovo, Gorky, and Moscow oblasts.

Volgograd: name changed from Stalingrad Oblast Nov. 10, 1961.

Vologda: formed Sept. 23, 1937, from parts of Severnaia and Leningrad oblasts; part of territory transferred to Kostroma Oblast (1944).

Voronezh: formed June 13, 1934, from part of Central Chernozem Oblast; parts transferred to Tambov and Riazan’ oblasts (1937), Belgorod and Lipetsk oblasts (1954), and Balashov and Kamensk oblasts (until 1957).

Yaroslavl: formed Mar. 11, 1936, from part of Ivanovo Industrial Oblast; part transferred to Kostroma Oblast (1944).

Ukrainian SSR

Cherkassy: formed Jan. 7, 1954, from parts of Kiev, Poltava, Vinnitsa, and Kirovograd oblasts.

Chernigov: formed Oct. 7, 1932, from parts of Kiev and Kharkov oblasts; part transferred to Sumy Oblast (1939).

Chernovtsy: formed Aug. 7, 1940, on the territory of Northern Bucovina and the northern part of Bessarabia.

Crimean (Simferopol’): transformed June 30, 1945, from the Crimean ASSR; part of the RSFSR until Feb. 19, 1954.

Dnepropetrovsk: formed Feb. 27, 1932; parts transferred to Nikolaev Oblast (1937) and Zaporozh’e Oblast (1939).

Donetsk: formed July 17, 1932, from parts of Dnepropetrovsk and Kharkov oblasts; partitioned into Stalino and Voroshilovgrad oblasts (1938); called Stalino Oblast from 1938 to 1961.

Ivano-Frankovsk: name changed from Stanislav Oblast Nov. 9, 1962.

Kharkov: formed Feb. 27, 1932; parts transferred to Poltava Oblast (1937) and Sumy Oblast (1939).

Kherson: formed Mar. 30, 1944, from parts of Nikolaev and Zaporozh’e oblasts.

Khmel’nitskii: name changed from Kamenets-Podol’skii Oblast Feb. 4, 1954.

Kiev: Feb. 27, 1932; parts transferred to Chernigov Oblast (1932), Zhitomir and Poltava oblasts (1937), Kirovograd and Vinnitsa oblasts (1939), and Cherkassy Oblast (1954).

Kirovograd: formed Jan. 10, 1939, from parts of Nikolaev, Odessa, Kiev, and Poltava oblasts; part transferred to Cherkassy Oblast (1954).

L’vov: formed Dec. 4, 1939; annexed Drogobych Oblast (1959) and part of Volyn’ Oblast (1961).

Nikolaev: formed Sept. 22, 1937, from parts of Odessa and Dnepropetrovsk oblasts; parts transferred to Zaporozh’e and Kirovograd oblasts (1939) and Kherson Oblast (1944).

Odessa: formed Feb. 27, 1932; parts transferred to Nikolaev Oblast (1937) and Kirovograd Oblast (1939); annexed parts of the former Moldavian ASSR (1940) and Izmail Oblast (1954).

Poltava: formed Sept. 22, 1937, from parts of Kharkov and Kiev oblasts; parts transferred to Kirovograd and Sumy oblasts (1939) and Cherkassy Oblast (1954).

Rovno: formed Dec. 4, 1939.

Sumy: formed Jan. 10, 1939, from parts of Chernigov, Kharkov, and Poltava oblasts.

Ternopol’: name changed from Tarnopol’ Oblast Aug. 9, 1944.

Transcarpathian (Uzhgorod): formed Jan. 22, 1946, from the territory of the Transcarpathian Ukraine.

Vinnitsa: formed Feb. 27, 1932; parts transferred to Kamenets-Podol’skii and Zhitomir oblasts (1937) and Cherkassy Oblast (1954); annexed part of Kiev Oblast (1939).

Volyn’ (Lutsk): formed Dec. 4, 1939.

Voroshilovgrad: formed June 3, 1938, from part of Donetsk Oblast; called Lugansk Oblast from 1958 to 1970.

Zaporozh’e: formed Jan. 10, 1939, from parts of Dnepropetrovsk and Nikolaev oblasts; part transferred to Kherson Oblast (1944).

Zhitomir: formed Sept. 22, 1937, from parts of Kiev and Vinnitsa oblasts.

Byelorussian SSR

Brest: formed Dec. 4, 1939; part transferred to Grodno Oblast (1944); annexed part of Baranovichi Oblast (1944) and Pinsk Oblast (1954).

Gomel’: formed Jan. 15, 1938; annexed parts of Bobruisk and Poles’e oblasts (1954).

Grodno: formed Sept. 20, 1944, from parts of Baranovichi, Belostok, and Brest oblasts; annexed part of Molodechno Oblast (1960).

Minsk: formed Jan. 15, 1938; part transferred in 1944 to Bobruisk Oblast (until 1954); annexed parts of Baranovichi Oblast (1944) and Molodechno Oblast (1960).

Mogilev: formed Jan. 15, 1938; part transferred in 1944 to Bobruisk Oblast (until 1954).

Vitebsk: formed Jan. 15, 1938; in 1944 part of territory transferred to Polotsk Oblast (until 1954); part of Molodechno Oblast annexed (1960).

Uzbek SSR

Andizhan: formed Mar. 6, 1941, from part of Fergana Oblast; included part of Namangan Oblast from 1960 to 1967.

Bukhara: formed Jan. 15, 1938; Surkhandar’ia Oblast was separated from it in 1941.

Dzhizak: formed Dec. 29, 1973, from parts of Samarkand and Syr Darya oblasts.

Fergana: formed Jan. 15, 1938; part of its territory added to Andizhan Oblast (1941) and Namangan Oblast (1941–60 and 1967).

Kashkadar’ia (Karshi): existed Jan. 20, 1943–Jan. 25, 1960; formed from part of Bukhara Oblast; made part of Surkhandar’ia Oblast; reformed Feb. 7, 1964, from part of Sukhandar’ia Oblast.

Khorezm (Urgench): formed Jan. 15, 1938.

Namangan: existed Mar. 6, 1941–Jan. 25, 1960; formed from part of Fergana Oblast; part of Fergana and Andizhan oblasts; re-formed Dec. 18, 1967, from the same parts.

Samarkand: formed Jan. 15, 1938; parts transferred to Syr Darya Oblast (1963) and Dzhizak Oblast (1973).

Surkhandar’ia (Termez): formed Mar. 6, 1941, from part of Bukhara Oblast; part transferred to Kashkadar’ia Oblast from 1943 to 1960 and in 1964.

Syr Darya (Gulistan): formed Feb. 16, 1963, from parts of Samarkand and Tashkent oblasts, as well as several raions of the Kazakh SSR; part added to Dzhizak Oblast in 1973.

Tashkent: formed Jan. 15, 1938; part of territory added to Syr Darya Oblast in 1963.

Kazakh SSR

Aktiubinsk: formed Mar. 10, 1932; parts added to Kustanai Oblast (1936) and Kzyl-Orda Oblast (1938).

Alma-Ata: formed Mar. 10, 1932; parts added to Dzhambul and Semipalatinsk oblasts (1939) and Taldy-Kurgan Oblast (1944–59 and 1967).

Chimkent: name changed from Iuzhnyi Kazakhstan Oblast May 3, 1962; annexed three raions of Syr Darya Oblast, Uzbek SSR (1971).

Dzhambul: formed Oct. 14, 1939, from parts of Alma-Ata and Iuzhnyi Kazakhstan oblasts.

Dzhezkazgan: formed Mar. 20, 1973, from part of Karaganda Oblast.

Gur’ev: formed Jan. 15, 1938, from part of Zapadnyi Kazakhstan Oblast; part added to Mangyshlak Oblast (1973).

Karaganda (center until 1936, Petropavlovsk): formed Mar. 10, 1932; territory of Karkaralinsk Okrug annexed (1937); parts transferred to Severnyi Kazakhstan Oblast (1936), Pavlodar Oblast (1938), Akmolinsk Oblast (1939), and Dzhezkazgan Oblast (1973).

Kokchetav: formed Mar. 16, 1944, from parts of Akmolinsk and Severnyi Kazakhstan oblasts.

Kustanai: formed July 29, 1936, from parts of Aktiubinsk and Karaganda oblasts; part added to Turgai Oblast (1970).

Kzyl-Orda: formed Jan. 15, 1938, from part of Iuzhnyi Kazakhstan and Aktiubinsk oblasts.

Mangyshlak (Shevchenko): formed Mar. 20, 1973, from parts of Gur’ev Oblast.

Pavlodar: formed Jan. 15, 1938, from parts of Vostochnyi Kazakhstan and Karaganda oblasts.

Semipalatinsk: formed Oct. 14, 1939, from parts of Vostochnyi Kazakhstan and Alma-Ata oblasts.

Severnyi Kazakhstan (Petropavlovsk): formed July 29, 1936, from part of Karaganda Oblast; part added to Akmolinsk Oblast (1939) and Kokchetav Oblast (1944).

Taldy-Kurgan: Mar. 16, 1944–June 6, 1959; formed from part of Alma-Ata Oblast; became part of Alma-Ata Oblast; reformed Dec. 23, 1967.

Tselinograd: formed Apr. 24, 1961, as part of Tselinnyi Krai; a separate oblast since Oct. 19, 1965.

Turgai (Arkalyk): formed Nov. 23, 1970, from part of Kustanai and Tselinograd oblasts.

Ural’sk: name changed from Zapadnyi Kazakhstan Oblast May 3, 1962.

Vostochnyi Kazakhstan (Ust’-Kamenogorsk; until 1939, Semipalatinsk): formed Mar. 10, 1932; parts added to Pavlodar Oblast (1938) and Semipalatinsk Oblast (1939).

Kirghiz SSR

Issyk-Kul’ (Przheval’sk): Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 27, 1959; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction; re-formed Dec.

11, 1970.

Naryn: formed Dec. 11, 1970, from raions under republic jurisdiction (from 1939 to 1962, Tien-Shan Oblast).

Osh: formed Nov. 21, 1939; annexed Dzhalal-Abad Oblast in 1959.

Tadzhik SSR

Kuliab: Oct. 27, 1939–Aug. 24, 1955; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction; re-formed Dec. 29, 1973.

Leninabad: Oct. 27, 1939–Mar. 28, 1962; re-formed Dec. 23, 1970.

Turkmen SSR

Ashkhabad: Nov. 21, 1939–May 25, 1959; transformed into raions under republic jurisdiction; re-formed Dec. 27, 1973, from part of Mary Oblast and raions under republic jurisdiction.

Chardzhou: Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 10, 1963; re-formed Dec. 14, 1970.

Krasnovodsk: Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 23, 1947; became part of Ashkhabad Oblast; re-formed Apr. 4, 1952–Dec. 9, 1955; again became part of Ashkhabad Oblast; re-formed again Dec. 27, 1973, from raions under republic jurisdiction.

Mary: Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 10, 1963; re-formed Dec. 14, 1970.

Tashauz: Nov. 21, 1939–Jan. 10, 1963; re-formed Dec. 14, 1970.

Oblasts that are distinguished by a particular national composition and are founded on principles of administrative autonomy as part of a krai or under the jurisdiction of a Union republic are designated as autonomous oblasts. Such oblasts were created on the basis of article 11 of the Constitution of the RSFSR, adopted by the Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets on July 10, 1918. Several of the first autonomous oblasts were called labor communes at the time of their establishment. Between 1918 and 1934, 29 autonomous oblasts were formed, including 23 before 1926. With the economic, political, and cultural development of nationalities, several autonomous oblasts were transformed into autonomous soviet socialist republics. Between 1923 and 1936, 15 autonomous soviet socialist republics and the Kirghiz SSR were formed; between 1958 and 1961 two more autonomous oblasts were converted into autonomous soviet socialist republics.

Adygei (Cherkess) (Krasnodar): Aug. 24, 1922–Dec. 5, 1936; formerly Cherkess (Adygei); renamed Adygei Autonomous Oblast.

Buriat-Mongolian, Far East Republic (Chita): Apr. 27, 1921–May 30, 1923; formed from part of Transbaikalia Province; became part of the Buriat-Mongolian ASSR.

Chechen (Groznyi): Nov. 30, 1922–Jan. 15, 1934; formed from the Chechen National Okrug; became part of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast.

Chechen-Ingush (Groznyi): Jan. 15, 1934–Dec. 5, 1936; formed from the Chechen and Ingush autonomous oblasts transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Cherkess (Batalpashinsk; since 1939, Cherkessk): Apr. 30, 1928–Jan. 9, 1957; formed from the Cherkess National Okrug; re-formed as the Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast.

Cherkess (Adygei) (Krasnodar): July 27–Aug. 24, 1922; formed from part of Kuban’-Black Sea Oblast; renamed Adygei (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast.

Chuvash (Cheboksary): June 24, 1920–Apr. 21, 1925; formed from parts of Kazan and Simbirsk provinces; called a labor commune; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Ingush (Vladikavkaz): July 7, 1924–Jan. 15, 1934; formed from the Ingush National Okrug, Gortsy ASSR; became part of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast.

Kabarda (Nal’chik): Sept. 1, 1921–Jan. 16, 1922; formed from the Kabarda National Okrug of the Gortsy ASSR; transformed into the Kabarda-Balkar Autonomous Oblast.

Kabarda-Balkar (Nal’chik): Jan. 16, 1922–Dec. 5, 1936; formed from the Kabarda Autonomous Oblast and the Balkar National Okrug of the Gortsy ASSR; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Kalmyk (center, Astrakhan until Apr. 29, 1926; then Elista): Nov. 4, 1920–Oct. 20, 1935; formed from parts of Astrakhan and Stavropol’ provinces, as well as part of Don and Terek oblasts; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic; reformed as an oblast Jan. 9, 1957–July 29, 1958, from parts of Stavropol’ Krai and Astrakhan Oblast; transformed back into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Kara-Kalpak (Chimbai): Feb. 16, 1925–Mar. 20, 1932; formed from Amu Darya Oblast; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Kara-Kirghiz (Frunze): Oct. 14, 1924–May 25, 1925; formed from parts of Dzhetysu Province and Syr Darya and Fergana oblasts; renamed the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast.

Karachai (center until 1939, Batalpashinsk; then Mikoian-Shakhar): Apr. 26, 1926–Mar. 23, 1944; separated from the Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast; abolished.

Karelian (Petrozavodsk): June 8, 1920–July 25, 1923; formed from parts of Olonets and Arkhangel’sk provinces; called a labor commune; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Kirghiz (Frunze): May 5, 1925–Feb. 1, 1926; name changed from Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast; converted into an ASSR.

Komi (Zyrian) (Ust’-Sysol’sk): Aug. 22, 1921–Dec. 5, 1936; formed from parts of Arkhangel’sk and Severnaia Dvina provinces transformed into the Komi ASSR.

Mari (Krasnokokshaisk; since 1927, Ioshkar-Ola): Nov. 4, 1920–Dec. 5, 1936; formed from parts of Viatka and Nizhny Novgorod provinces; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Mongol-Buriat, RSFSR (Irkutsk): Jan. 9, 1922–May 30, 1923; formed from part of Irkutsk and Transbaikalia provinces; became part of the Buriat-Mongolian ASSR.

Mordovian (Saransk): Jan. 10, 1930–Dec. 20, 1934; formed from the Mordovian National Okrug of Middle Volga Krai; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Nakhichevan’: 1923–Feb. 9, 1924; formed from part of the former Erivan Province, called an autonomous krai; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Oirat (Ulala; from 1932, Oirot-Tura): June 1, 1922–1932; formed from part of Altai Province; renamed Oirot Autonomous Oblast.

Oirot (Oirot-Tura): 1932–Jan. 7, 1948; name changed from Oirat Autonomous Oblast; name changed to Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast.

Severnaia Osetiia (Vladikavkaz; from 1931, Ordzhonikidze): July 7, 1924–Dec. 5, 1936; formed from the Severnaia Osetiia National Okrug, Gortsy ASSR; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Tuva (Kyzyl): Oct. 11, 1944–Oct. 10, 1961; formed from the Tuva People’s Republic, which became part of the USSR; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Udmurt (Izhevsk): Jan. 1, 1932–Dec. 28, 1934; name changed from Votsk Autonomous Oblast; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Volga German (Marks-shtadt; from 1922, Pokrovsk): Oct. 19, 1918–Dec. 19, 1923; formed from parts of Samara and Saratov provinces; called a labor commune; transformed into an autonomous soviet socialist republic.

Votsk (Izhevsk): Nov. 4, 1920–Jan. 1, 1932; formed from part of Viatka Province; renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast.

As of Jan. 1, 1974, the USSR had eight autonomous oblasts, including five in the RSFSR, one in the Georgian SSR, one in the Azerbaijan SSR, and one in the Tadzhik SSR.

Administrative centers whose names differ from those of the autonomous oblasts are given in parentheses after the oblast’s name.

RSFSR

Adygei (center, Maikop): part of Krasnodar Krai; formed July 27, 1922; until Aug. 24, 1922, called the Cherkess (Adygei) Autonomous Oblast, and until Dec. 5, 1936, the Adygei (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast.

Gorno-Altai (Gorno-Altaisk): part of Altai Krai; formed June 1, 1922; until Mar. 2, 1932, called the Oirat Autonomous Oblast, and until Jan. 7, 1948, the Oirot Autonomous Oblast.

Jewish (Birobidzhan): part of Khabarovsk Krai; formed May 7, 1934.

Karachai-Cherkess (Cherkessk): part of Stavropol’ Krai; formed Jan. 12, 1922; divided into the Karachai Autonomous Oblast and the Cherkess National Okrug Apr. 26, 1926; reformed Jan. 9, 1957, from the Cherkess Autonomous Oblast and part of Stavropol’ Krai.

Khakass (Abakan): part of Krasnoiarsk Krai: formed Oct. 20, 1930.

Georgian SSR

luzhnaia Osetiia (Tskhinvali): formed Apr. 20, 1922.

Azerbaijan SSR

Nagorno-Karabakh (Stepanakert): formed July 7, 1923.

Tadzhik SSR

Gorno-Badakhshan (Khorog [a city since 1932]): formed Jan. 2, 1925.