Vocal Sacs


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Related to Vocal Sacs: Vocal Pouch

Vocal Sacs

 

hollow projections of the walls of the mouth cavity in males of ecaudate amphibians. The vocal sacs are filled with air and exhaled; they function as resonators of the vocal apparatus to increase voice power. Most frogs have paired vocal sacs extending from the angles of the mouth; tree toads and other toads have a single projection on the bottom of the mouth cavity.

References in periodicals archive ?
1) likewise lacks paired vocal sacs and seems remote from the species usually assigned to the genus.
2), ending at level of posterior edge of choanae; tongue wider than long, without posterior notch, posterior edge not free from floor of mouth; vocal slits short, just medial to posterior end of mandible; vocal sac median, subgular, single (or perhaps bifid).
The next day seven males called from water; these males moved around the pond with all legs extended and the black lateral vocal sacs inflated.
Cei (1980) reported that vocal sacs resemble white balloons on either side of the head.
For the diagnoses, the following numbered elements do not exhibit variation: (1) skin of venter areolate or granular; no dorsolateral folds; (4) upper eyelid broader than IOD, no cranial crests; (6) males with large subgular vocal sac, no nuptial pads; (7) first finger shorter than second; (9) no ulnar tubercles; (10) no tubercles or folds on heel or tarsus; (11) no supernumerary plantar tubercles; (12) fifth toe much longer than third.
Vocal sac pale brown; venter dirty white with brown marbling (or dark brown with white flecks); concealed surfaces of limbs brown (but ICN 45176 had an orange patch on the top of the thigh, continuing onto posterior surfaces of thighs).
Purgue took a different approach, checking vibration in the walls of vocal sacs and other tissues when he played a range of frequencies.
Dorsum, chest, and gula smooth; belly skin granular; vocal sac prominent tending to be bilobed when inflated; an incomplete chest fold, folds of skin at wrist, knee and heel; axillary membrane small.