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a Slavic term meaning military commander or governor.

(1) Voevody as chiefs of the prince’s retainers or heads of the militia began to be mentioned in the Russian chronicles in the tenth century. In the 15th to 17th centuries every polk (large subdivision of the Russian army) and detachment of the Russian forces was headed by a voevoda. In the second half of the 17th century the polk voevody remained only in the razriad polki (polki of large military border districts of the Russian state). They were abolished by Peter I at the beginning of the 18th century.

(2) City voevody appeared in the middle of the 16th century. The voevoda headed the administration of a city and its district, the territory adjoining and administratively subordinate to the city. In the early 17th century city voevody were introduced in all Russian cities, replacing the namestniki (imperial lieutenants) and town prikazchiki (department chiefs). The voevoda concentrated all the power in his hands in the local areas. Province voevody were instituted in Russia in 1719. Their functions were analogous to those of the city voevody. Both province and city voevody were abolished in 1775.

(3) In Poland and Lithuania voevody (wojewody) were at first the king’s lieutenants in peacetime and military commanders in wartime. Beginning with 1139 every appanage had its own wojewoda. With the liquidation of the feudal fragmentation the appanages became województwa. The wojewoda became the chief of the military and civilian administration of the województwo and a member of the senate. The post of wojewoda was for life. There were wojewody in Poland until the late 18th century. Województwo as a traditional name for an administrative unit has been retained in the Polish People’s Republic.

(4) Voevody were also known in other Slavic countries and in Wallachia in the 15th and 16th centuries.


Andreevskii, I. E. O namestnikakh, voevodakh i gubernatorakh. St. Petersburg, 1864.
Gradovskii, A. D. “Istoriia mestnogo upravleniia v Rossii.” Sobr. soch., vol. 2. St. Petersburg, 1899.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the rebels' opinion, only the absence of the tsar from his throne could explain the various transgressions of the local voevoda T.
Con una longitud de hasta 37,25 metros, tres de diametro y un peso de hasta 211 toneladas, los Voevoda pueden transportar una carga explosiva equivalente a entre 18 y 25 toneladas de trinitrotolueno (dinamita).
KHUSNUTDINOVA, Elsa, FEDOROVA, Sardana, GOLUBENKO, Maria, STEPANOV, Vadim, GUBINA, Marina, ZHADANOV, Sergey, OSSIPOVA, Ludmila, DAMBA, Larisa, VOEVODA, Mikhail, DIPIERRI, Jose, VILLEMS, Richard y MALHI, Ripan.
In particular, the voevoda had to ensure that the taxed population fully collected and paid its direct taxes, and he was allowed to intervene in the finances of his district in emergency situations.
Russia's Alexander Zubkov and Alexey Voevoda won the gold in a dominant home-ice show, beating the Swiss team of Beat Hefti and Alex Baumann by 0.
Russia's Alexsandr Zubkov and Alexey Voevoda were second in 1:53.
The voevoda or guberniia system under the tsars as well as the previous Soviet practice of assigning a party "prefect" to the regions each entailed one individual--be it a voevoda, gubernator, or first secretary--ultimately in charge of, and answerable for, the affairs of the region.
A 1644 royal charter by Mikhail Fedorovich to the voevoda of Torzhok, Sila Iakovlevich Vel'iaminov, reveals that in 1637 the Semenov steward (stroitel') Arsenii Tarkhov petitioned the tsar to force the Borisoglebskii monks to manage the Semenov establishment as they had done in the past.
Chernov cited statistics from the cavalry regiment of the voevoda D.
Davies's primary aim is to reconstruct the relations of the state, both central authorities and the local voevoda (military governor), to the population of the town and its district, primarily consisting of odnodvortsy who were expected to perform military service as the town's garrison with the rank of deti boiarskie (the rank of lower- to upper-middle landholders serving in the cavalry, usually owning serfs).
Focusing on the nobility's relationship to and participation in local government throughout the 18th century, the authors cover a broad range of debated and debatable issues: corruption and the effectiveness of local government, the relationship between military and civil service, the consequences of the 1762 emancipation from obligatory service, the social profile of local officials, the powers of voevodas and governors, the local elective offices introduced by the reforms of Catherine II, and the nobility's attitude toward local elections and elective institutions.