Very similar industry based on flint and silicified limestone was also characteristic, at least, for Volosovo
culture sites in the Upper Volga region (Tarasov & Kostyleva 2015).
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Rather, it appears that the use of metals begins in the northern part of the Russian Plain only in the second half of the 4th millennium BC within Volosovo and Garino-Bor cultures.
Volosovo and Garino-Bor have their roots in the local Neolithic (Comb Ware) groups of the Volga-Kama region (Krajnov 1987, 25 ff.
The birth of Volosovo and Garino-Bor metallurgy has been attributed to external influences from the steppes, especially from Yamnaya culture, and in the later stages also from Fatyanovo and Balanovo cultures (Chernykh & Kuz'minykh 1977, 95; Kuz'minykh 1977, 31; Krajnov 1987, 20; Chernykh 1992, 186).
Metallurgy in the Volga-Kama area is, as already noted, of later date, and the occasional indications of metal use and processing in the central and northern Urals and the semi-arctic regions of northeastern European Russia are all contemporaneous to, or slightly later than the early metal use within Volosovo and Garino-Bor (Chalikov 1986, 44; Stokloss 1997, 237; Chairkina 2005, 209 ff.
This wave of influence, coming from the sphere of the Volosovo
Culture, is attested to by Middle and Late Neolithic asbestos wares--Kierikki, Polja and Jysma ceramics (Carpelan 1979; 1999; Carpelan & Parpola 2001, 83; Meinander 1984; Siiriainen 1984).
The authors assume that cemeteries with amber adornments in the region of Upper Volga were left by the male part of the population of Volosovo culture, who migrated from the south-western Baltic (Kostyleva & Utkin 2000).
Trapezoid pendants with concave base disappear from the cemeteries and settlements belonging to the third group, which is connected to the Porous and Asbestos Ware (Kierikki (Sifiainen 1967), Polja, late Volosovo ceramics, Choynovtinskaya).
Collections of settlements Sachtysh I, II, VII belonging to the Volosovo culture contain numerous bones of marten; in the settlement Strelka I bones of marten constitute 80% of the faunal collection.
Graves of the Volosovo culture at the Vashutino site in Central Russia.